The essay on Perception of flow in the operation and control of organisation describes about the flow theory based on Csikszentmihalyi. In initial step, it explores if there is any affiliation between achievement- orientation with flow or not. And at last, there will be the critical analysis regarding the pros on having knowledge on flow theory in regards for the experts of the modern organisation. In the time of digitization and technology, contemporary organization experience loads of challenges in every short duration and for achieving optimal performance while they are concerned about boosting the worth of working period of their employees, the administration should always move forward to develop positive psychological emotions and satisfaction. To note, Flow is the experience of the uninterrupted feeling which is effortless when one is into deep deliberation while indulged in something like playing piano, art, doing mathematics etc. Hence, this essay concludes theory on flow and its benefits towards the organizational achievement on its target.
Generally, Csikszentmihalyi developed the conception about the Flow during the exploration of activities that seek physical involvement and mind utilization like rock climbing, music composition, basketball, dance, playing piano, dance, poetry and painting (Csikszentmihalyi, 1975, p. 41). There are various meanings to the flow in the literature, Flow is composite multidimensional paradigms characterized by directed associations among a set of one-dimensional paradigm (Novak & Hoffman, 1997), whereas Csikszentmihalyi gave a form of it in 1997 as: “The holistic sensation that people feel when they act with total involvement” (Csikszentmihalyi 1997, p.36). Therefore, flow is a situation where there is much indulgent of people and his emotion into an activity, at the meantime, nothing seems important, he won’t be distracted by other thoughts and the person is so absorbed into an activity that nothing seems to be noticing at that time, and the encounter is very amusing that people will get involved in order to do it, fulfill it and achieve result no matter what comes in between and it occurs in continuous process like a loophole (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990). It is “a state that is characterized by enjoyable feelings, concentration, immersion, and intensive involvement” (Chen, 2006; p. 222). To state that, whenever there is an equilibrium among high intensity of confronts and high intensity of skills, there is always an occurrence of the flow (Csikszentmihalyi ; Csikszentmihalyi, 1998). In other words, “when both challenges and skills are high, the person is not only enjoying the moment, but is also stretching his or her capabilities with the likelihood of learning new skills and of increasing self?esteem and personal complexity” (Csikszentmihalyi ; LeFevre, 1989, p. 816).
It can be noted that Flow is more occurred in sport activities that demands physical movement. Whilst, the experience of flow in sports take over the flow literature, the original flow conception was grounded on artist under observance (Csikszentmihalyi, 1994,) and he noted that there occurs resistance during the shaping of the vision as if they are hold within mesmerizing abstraction. Also, when a person undergoes through the Flow , which is alluded likely to be rewarding intrinsically as it allow an individual to get involve entirely in a task then an individual can unfold the hidden abilities and techniques to the maximum level (Csikszentmihalyi ; Rathunde, 1993). Moreover, there is an assumption of Csikszentmihalyi (1999) that apart from extrinsically motivated actions, if there is an increment in intrinsically motivation or autotelic interest then the recurring flow experience in a mean time would have inescapable influence on positive attitude. Accordingly, when there is high spontaneous and constant involvement in hobbies, sport activity, job then there would have approach of controllable challenges that ultimately impact on positive psychology. The flow theory is then enclosed into the Positive Psychology methodology that refers to the systematic study of human potency and principle operation (Seligman ; Csikszentmihalyi, 2000). This method has been in use to enhance the traditional application of psychology on disease, damage, disorder, and disability. And so, nowadays there is the significant issues related to the research on flow that renders ambition to enhance the life in efficient way in diverse aspects including spare times, research, professions, activity and so on. Though maximum number of flow studies have found to be more focused in creative, sports performance and relaxation (Jackson ; Marsh, 1996), but it is notices that there is low number of evidence in regards with the flow of work. If the theory of flow is implemented in the profession, it clarifies in sense that workers should undergo in the involvement of flow in the time of their professional knowledge complements their job demands. Accordingly, there would be obvious challenges according to the skills and this is what level refers to. As the level is connected to the subject’s mean level, therefore flow experience is also understood as subjective experience (Massimini, Csikszentmihalyi, & Carli, 1987).
Apart from confronts and knowledge, any skills of the person is very enough to meet the situation’s demands, there is noticeable improvement in the quality of the experiences, unfolding moment to moment into subjective state that is grounded on the experiences. There are nine characteristics stated as intense concentration, assimilation of action and awareness, a loss of profound self- consciousness, a sense of potential control, an altered sense of time, experience of the activity as intrinsically recompensing also known as Autotelic experience, immediate feedback, feeling that you have the potential to succeed, less concern over other things (Csikszentmihalyi, 1975, 1988, 1990, 1997).
It is worth noticing that flow and achievement are affiliated with each other. With the continuous involvement in an activity and experiencing the quality components of the flow experience step by step as mentioned above, will undeniably provide certain consequences. As mentioned above, the people in the flow will have immediate feedback, that aid in increment of the potential, more focused in the task results in very successful achievement. To support this, flow and achievement orientation are the utmost aspects of the motivational literature and as they are very significant in clarifying the reason behind the huge investment of time and energy of the people and the method they adopted for it (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990). There is a theory of Achievement Goal (Nichollas, 1984, 1989) that suggests there is the approach of people towards the diverse goals that relies on evaluation of the potentiality and capability. There is the assumption regarding the way defined for the accomplishment and competence. Individual goal perspective has huge influence on people emotions, thoughts and action in achievement condition to include education, sports, and professions.
Task Orientation and Ego orientation are the two prime perceptive foundation of achievement oriented goal which is suggested by Duda (1992). Basically, it is related to the athletes in the manner of the ability competence, their endeavors and evaluation of the performance. In regards to the Task orientation, assessment of the ability is carried out in self and evaluated with one’s own perceived mastery understanding and awareness. The important concern of the athlete includes the task of mastery improvement and task execution. To add, personal improvement, skill learning and effort demonstration is the base for the perception of success. Hence, task orientation resembles to adoptive awareness and positive accomplishment and success behaviour like sustainability in the athletic activity involvement, practice and ideal motivation that is irrespective of the level of the individual perceptive ability (Duda 1992, 2001). On the other side, regarding the Ego orientation, an athlete ability is calculated in terms of the others performance involving a huge dependency on social comparison for estimating the self-ability. In this kind of judgment, overtaking the least affording component indicates superior control (Nicholls, 1984, 1989; HYPERLINK “https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4598580/” l “B17” Duda, 1992). But, when an individual is ego oriented while doubting their competence in such confrontation, there is assumption that it results negative achievement behaviour like incapable performance, weak strategies, less effort, lack of determination and maladaptive rational reactions (White and Duda, 1994). Hypothetically, an ego oriented athlete display high motivation in the condition of high competence and overtaking the competition demands.
Furthermore, Task and Ego orientation are consistent orthogonal instead of bipolar (Nicholls 1989, Pensgaard and Roberts 2003, Roberts 2012). To conclude, there is interactive connection between the dimensions of flow and goal orientations orthogonal models rather than independent. Hence, for an athlete task orientation is more utmost than ego in order to estimate a competitive daring circumstances and rate oneself as enough skilled and accumulated. Thus, both psychological states are taken as important elements for one to undergo flow ( HYPERLINK “https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4598580/” l “B18” Duda, 2001; Wang and Biddle, 2001; Cumming et al., 2002; Jones et al., 2009). It is also interpreted that athlete who is high task oriented experience more expert in the comparison to the low task oriented to less expert that is irrespective of ego oriented.
In regards of the analysis of the advantages of flow theory in organisation that are up-to-date, if flow of work is applied business sectors with huge employees, a positive consequence can be seen, there will be job satisfaction and higher achievement when the employees are in touch with the flow experiences. In other sense, flow when is implemented in profession using the nine dimensions, then a worker must undergo flow experience in order to success higher in an organisation. It can be described as the employee having a fixed goal to achieve, for example, to prepare financial report. Then, he/she realises about the data and information being accurate, budget being correct enough to tally. Further, he/she receives immediate feedback on the process and perceives the operation as exciting daring then develops ideas to overcome it. During all the process, he/she is totally into the activity that there is ignorance of time tracking to do it effectively and constantly going on to finish the report and so for this performance is autotelic for him/her. Satisfaction of job, devotion towards the organisation and its target to meet and engagement in job are considerable relevant in order to benefit the existing organizational bodies with healthy jobs and workers. In any organization it is very important to set their goals or targets. Goals can be stated in a team or by individual, but when working in a firm the stated goal are placed which makes more than one people aware of the intention of the company. Thus, by applying Positive Psychology to work environments, the Positive Organizational Psychology (POP) arises which is defined as “the scientific study of optimal functioning of people and teams on organizations, besides their effective management”. So, the aim of POP is “to describe, explain and predict the optimal functioning in those contexts (work and organizations), thus, to optimize and boost the quality of working life” (Salanova, Martínez, & Llorens, 2005a, p. 353?354). As a consequence, in this context, the concept of flow or optimal experience is an utmost player.
In a nutshell, flow theory briefly explain on the state of mind that gets involvement in the enjoyment of performing any actions that is challengeable and require skills. This essay concludes by elaborating the flow conception, its relationship with goal oriented theory and the analysis on the benefits after the understanding of the theory towards the professionals in an organization. Moreover, the benefits of the flow theory to conceptualize goals, feedback, focus on the performance and potential results based on the nine components are advantageous for a contemporary organization. Hence, not only an individual is satisfied, the flow concept can satisfy the team and fulfill to achieve its goal then be a successful.
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