Instructional Design (ID), which also known as Instructional Systems Design (ISD) is defined as “a systematic process that is employed to develop education and training programs consistently and reliably” (Reiser, Dempsey, 2007). It is There are two widely recognized instructional design models in use today by both educational institutions and corporate training functions. It also includes development instructional materials and activities; and tryout and evaluates of all instruction and learner activities.
Robert Gagne (1916– 2002) was an educational psychologist who established the science of instruction in the 1940s. He published his first book entitled “The Conditions of Learning, in 1965, which recognized the psychological conditions that are fundamental for successful learning. Gagne made a very detailed nine-step process for every component required for compelling learning. The model is beneficial for a wide range of education.
Gagne’s Nine Levels of Learning model gives trainers and educators an agenda to use before they take part in educating or preparing exercises. Each progression features a type of correspondence that guides the learning procedure. At the point when each progress is finished timely, students are substantially more liable to be engaged and to retain the skills and also information that they had been instructed.
To analyze whether there are elements of Gagne’s models in the application.
To determine whether the suggested purposes of the application can be achieved based on Gagne’s models
To examine whether the application is suitable for the learners or not, according to the nine event of Gagne’s models
II. THE APPLICATION – KHAN ACADEMY KIDS (BETA)
Khan Academy Kids is a fun and free educational program with activities and books that will inspire learning and discovery for young children. The application was created and developed in collaboration with experts at Stanford Graduate School of Education aligns with Head Start Early Learning Outcomes Framework and Common Core Standards. The application was target for kids ages two to six years old. This application stated that kids would love to learn because they provided the whimsical characters, which learning will stay fun as there are characters that guide them through the activities and stories; original content, where the interactive activities, books, animated videos, and creative lessons will capture the kids attention; diverse learning methods, where young learners engage with the topics through the open-ended creative tasks as well as assessed activities; and lastly the fun rewards as the children learn they will simultaneously collect accessories like bags, hats, and toys for their favorite characters.
III. THE ANALYSIS BASED ON THE NINE EVENTS OF GAGNE’S MODEL THAT ARE ADDRESSED IN THE GAME THAT IS AS FOLLOWS.
l. First event of Gagne’s model is by gaining the attention of students. This event is designed in such a way that the students should be motivated to learn the underlying concept. In order to achieve this, they are provided with fascinating introductory video for the application, which is at the very beginning, when the learners tap on the play button. They are also being introduced to all characters involved in the game, so that they know and could recognized each one of the characters.
Picture 1 The cute singing characters
Picture 2 The introduction of each characters to the learners
2. The second event is informing students of the objectives. In this event, the objectives of the game are specified each and before the game play. However, in Khan Academy Kids (BETA) game, there is no objectives provided for the learners. It is because we do believe that the developer thought that if the learners are all kids, so they would not pay the little tiny details of it, for example, this case — the objectives.
3. The third event is stimulating recall of prior learning. This event helps students in associating their prior knowledge with the new knowledge. In the game play with respect to this event, players are provided with some singing videos which are differ to each topics. The player then would have been asked with questions that is related to the video. The questions asked are very simple, for example in a video, the players are shown with some characters like giraffe, sheep and a girl. Then, they are asked to choose which one of the characters is the tallest, which recalls the prior knowledge about the characters as in the video played before. Besides, the players are then given with various choice of topics that they want to play. There is no test provided in this game. However, the players are provided with many fascinating activities, in order to recall their prior knowledge, as needed in Gagne’s model.
Picture 3 Players are asked to choose which one of the characters is the tallest
Picture 4 Various choices of topic to be chosen from
Picture 5 Example of activity included in the game
4. The fourth event is presenting the content. The game unfortunately, did not started with introduction about the content at each level, but the developer had included many interesting activities for the players. The relevant contents of the game are provided such as various activities regarding a topic, for example when the player chose to play the B alphabet, then they will be asked to choose which one of the alphabets given is B in the form of instruction: “Click on the objects that started with letter B”. If players chose the wrong one, then the chosen object will fall down.
Picture 6 Players are instructed to choose objects that started with letter B
5. The fifth event is providing learning guidance. The player will be given proper guidance in the form of instruction support such as hints, prompts which can be detached after players understand the content. For example, the player will be asked to choose which one of the ball is marked with alphabet B, then bring it to the bat. The given balls are actually will produce sounds when they are clicked. So, it is very clear that players a provided the hint to help them to choose the correct ball, as the balls produced different sound for each alphabet. If players are slow in giving back the responds, they will repeat the instructions. Other than that, they will also repeat each and every time if you need assistance for the game by just clicking to the bear at the corner.
Picture 7 Players are instructed to choose ball with “B” mark and bring it to the bat. The bear at the corner will help if they need an assistance.
6. The sixth event is providing feedback – Feedbacks are provided at each stage for the right or wrong action. For example, if the players choose the correct alphabet, they will be appraised like “yeayy” “good job” “good work”. If they did wrong, then they will get responds like “try again” “sorry not that” “opsss”. The feedbacks are given in the form of sounds. So, the players will get so excited and would pay more attention for the upcoming activities in order to get compliment. Besides, each time the players answer or did the exercises correctly, they will be given stars as an appraisal of their achievement. Plus, by the end of the chapter, a truck which actually holds the collective stars are going to give multiple choices of surprise boxes that players can choose from.
Picture 8 Truck that carries the gifts which would appear at the end of every topic
Picture 9 The surprise box
Picture 10 Choices of gift the players choose from the surprise box
7. The seventh event is assessing the performance. In order to rate the performance of the players, a post-test should be conducted at end of the game. However, the developer gives the test in the form of activities, where players needed to answer them after some explanation regarding the topics.
Picture 11 Track and trace activity
Picture 12 Tap on the objects, and they will produce “B” sound
Picture 13 Choose the correct alphabet to form the word “BOX”
8. The eighth event is eliciting performance. This event shows the understanding of the players’ performance through the game play. As an example, in this game play, players are instructed to pick B and F alphabets, then bring it to the correct characters where B is for Reia and F is for Peck. The players who had actually been introduced to the characters, had already recognize them and they should bring them the correct alphabets, as instructed. The players co-relate their prior knowledge accordingly. This stage also estimates the success or failure of the players in the game.
Picture 14 Players should bring the alphabets to the correct characters
9. Lastly, enhancing retention and transfer – In this event, the player should be able to apply his knowledge to develop a new model or a situation with similar model, but this game did not include this stage. However, after completing the whole games, players should be able to apply their knowledge to the real world, for example when they do their alphabet exercise books and so forth. They should also be able to pronounce the correct sounds for each alphabet, and able to recognize and write them.
Gamification in technology improves learning which then enhances the instructional design and multimedia content in planning learning materials. It is a powerful instructing device that makes good and interesting learning and engaging process, prompting more prominent learning comprehension and acquisition. Game-based learning applications can draw us into virtual situations that seem acquainted with the topic; hence upgrading new entryways of advancement in innovation of an improved learning. This study demonstrates that utilizing an instructional learning plan strategy, for example, Gagne’s learning model causes the learners themselves to comprehend the idea and break down the amount they have learned by the score that they had obtained in the quiz. The game takes a gander at giving fundamental learning with respect to alphabets learning. It does give many explorations to the learners by providing various interesting activities for the learners, where there are many stages or activities for each one of the alphabets. Besides, learners are also being attracted with a singing cartoon, where all of us do realize that singing is a good method of learning.
From the conducted study, it is very obvious that people attracted and learned more through game-based methodology than by conventional methodology, demonstrating that game-based learning is more successful when contrasted with customary classroom setup. Additionally, look into here should be possible later on to test this outcome with more sophisticated games and more diversified populations.
Provide each and every stage of the games with the objectives and purposes before the learners starting off with their learning sessions. This will give the ideas to the parents on what their children might be learning even though the learners themselves are unable to understand it. Parents are able to distinguished whether the game on the particular stage are suitable for their kids since the application required the parents’ email address before starting the account.
An introduction must be also included in every stages before starting off the game to acknowledge the learners on what they are going to dive in through the whole topic.
A recap of what the players had learned from the game should also be included at the end of each topic, so they could revise and know exactly what they had learned.