ECO TOURISM IN TAMILNADU, 2015-2017

Thesis submitted to the
University of Madras, in partial fulfilment of the
requirements for the Degree of
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
IN
TOURISM & TRAVEL MANAGEMENT – HISTORY

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by
M.BHARGAVI
Full-Time Ph.D. Research Scholar Department of History Presidency College Chennai-600 005
Under the guidance of
Dr. L. SELVAMUTHU KUMARASAMI,
M.A. , M.Ed., M.Phil., Ph.D.,
Associate Professor of History and Head
Department of History,
Presidency College (Autonomous) Chennai – 600 005

PRESIDENCY COLLEGE (Autonomous)
CHENNAI – 600 005
TAMIL NADU, INDIA
AUGUST – 2018

CONTENTS

CHAPTER
TITLE PAGE NO
INTRODUCTION
1-50
I ECO TOURISM IN TAMIL NADU – A PROFILE
51-102
II OBSTACLES TO ECOTOURISM IN TAMIL NADU
103-154
III ROLE OF GOVERNMENT IN ECO TOURISM IN
TAMIL NADU

155-198
IV DATA ANALYSIS
199-236
CONCLUSION 237-249

1

INTRODUCTION
Tourism represents one of world’s largest industrie s, with nearly 700
million estimated international visitors’ arrivals in the year 2000. This
phenomenon today has become a very complex activity , encompassing a wide
range of relationships. As the global economy surge s, resulting in
improvements in standard of living and disposable i ncome, coupled with more
leisure time, the overall number of touristsis also expected to grow further.
Factors like availability of cheaper and convenient transport, fewer
restrictions on travel, availability of mass of inf ormation on various
destinations and newer marketing techniques and the contribution from tourism
to world economy, are expected to enhance the growt h of tourism.
Statistics from World Tourism Originations (WTO) in dicate that the
tourism industry will continue to expand over the y ears. According to the
WTO, international tourism arrivals worldwide, will reach 1.5 billion, by 2020.
These tourists spend trillions of dollars in the ho st countries, visited
during their travel, resulting in increasing econom ic activities. From the time a
decision is taken to visit a particular destination , for the purpose of tourism and
travel, till the time a tourist returns home, a wid e range of activities would have
taken place, involving many organizations and compo nents.

2

Involvement of millions of tourists, with a wide ra nge of activities, first
in their own country, prior to their departure and later on, in the host country,
has made tourism an increasingly important activity of great magnitude. Over
the years, the multiplicity of activities has chang ed. From a simple holiday,
enjoying good weather and scenery at the destinatio n, tourists have now greater
interest in learning and understanding more about t he host destination and the
people with whom they interact. Tourists are also p lacing increasing emphasis
on green issues, as also environmental quality of d estinations, better services
and both in their own country and in a host country , as value for the money.
1
Tourism has developed, from the quest of an advanta ged few to a mass
development of individuals, with the desire to find the obscure, to investigate
new and abnormal spots, to look for changes in cond ition and to experience
new encounters. Tourism is considered as a movement , basic to the life of
countries, in view of its immediate consequences fo r the social, cultural,
educational and economic sectors of national social orders and their global
relations. It is an essential hotspot, for boosting trade profit for the developing
nations of the world. Its monstrous business potent ial and high financial
multiplier and marvellous remote trade, greatly hel ps the formative needs of the
monetarily poor nations.
Tourism is not just a monetary movement of signific ance for a nation
but it is additionally an essential medium of socia l and cultural improvement. It
goes about as a method for social training and bett er comprehension, among
the general population of the distinctive locales o f the nation. Over the long

3

haul, the most essential commitment to tourism is c reating understanding
among strange ways of life among societies. Tourism includes the exercises of
people, making a trip to and remaining in places, o utside their typical
condition, for not more than one sequential year, f or relaxation, business and
different purposes.
McIntosh and Goeldner (1984) defined tourism as the sum of the
phenomena and relationships, arising from the inter actions of tourists,
businesses, host governments, and host communities, in the process of
attracting and hosting these tourists and other vis itors.
2
Mark Twain wrote, ‘India is one country, under the sun, that is endowed
with an imperishable interest for alien prince and alien peasant, for the lettered
and the ignorant, the wise and the fool, the rich a nd the poor, the bonded and
the freeone, land that all men desire to see, and h aving seen once, by even a
glimpse, would not give that glimpse for the shows of all the rest of the globe
combined’. The unity of India lies in its diversity – people bound together by
centuries of common traditions, faith and philosoph y.
3
Definition of Tourism and Tourist
The Nineteenth Century Dictionary defines ‘tourist’ as a “person who
travels or travelling, out of curiosity because he has nothing better to do”. The
term ‘tourist’, the Oxford Dictionary tells us, was used as early as the year
1800. According to the Dictionary Universal, the ‘t ourist’ is ‘a person who

4

makes a journey for the sake of curiosity, for the fun of travelling, or just to tell
others that he has travelled’.
The definition given by Swiss Professors, Hunziker and Krapf, in 1942,
is very simple. According to them, “Tourism is the sum of the phenomena and
relationships, arising from the travel and stay of non-residents, in so far as they
do not lead to permanent residence and are not conn ected with any earning
activity”.
4
The term ‘tourist’, in the sense of pleasure tour, is however of recent
origin. In the words of Jose Ignacio De Arrilliga, “tourism in its first period
was considered as a sport or rather as a synthesis of automobiles, touring,
cycling, camping, excursions and yachting. In the e arly nineteenth century, the
term ‘tourist’ assumed a meaning of ‘one who makes a tour or tours’,
especially one who does this for recreation or who travels for pleasure, object
of interest, scenery or the like.”
5
The word, “tourism”, is related to “tour”, which is derived from a
Latin word “Tornos”. “Tornos” means a tool for desc ribing a circle or
aTurner’s wheel. It is from this word that the conc ept of round tour or package
tour was evolved. It was as late as 1643 that this term was first used, in the
sense of traveling, from one place to another place .
Tour could be derived from the Hebrew term, ‘torah’ also, which means,
learning, studying and search. A tour represents an attempt by the traveller, to
discover something about a place he visits. Attempt s have been made in the

5

past to achieve a standard definition of tourism an d tourists among countries
throughout the world. The term ‘tourist’ denotes ma ny different types of
travellers.
In the year 1937, the Committee of Statistical Experts of the League
of Nations, defined international tourist as:
‘Any person visiting a country, other than that in which he usually
resides for a period of at least 24 hours’ (such as )
• Persons traveling for pleasure, for family reasons or for health;
• Persons traveling to meetings or in a representativ e capacity of any
kind.
• Persons traveling for business reasons;
• Persons arriving in the course of a sea cruise, eve n when they stay
less than 24 hours. The Committee specifically excl uded from the
definition;
• Persons arriving, with or without a contract of wor k, to take up an
occupation or engage in any business activity in th e country.
A number of definitions have been given by many aut hors. Some of the
definitions are:
“Tourism embraces all movement of people outside th eir community for
all purposes except migration or regular daily work . The most frequent reason
for this movement is for holidays, but it will also include, for example,

6

attendance at conferences and movement on sporadic or infrequent business
purposes”. – L. J. Lickorish
“Tourism is a sum total of all those activities whi ch give a traveller a
lifelong satisfaction on the basis of which his per ception towards future travel
depends”. The definition lays emphasis on the natur e of services, which are
important in creating the real sense of satisfactio n in the future traveling years.
“Tourism is the temporary movement of pe ople to destinations outside
their normal places of work and residence, the acti vities undertaken during
their stay in those destinations, and the facilitie s created to cater to their needs.”
– Mathieson and Wall
“Tourism is the sum of the phenomena and relationships arising from
the interaction of tourists, business suppliers, ho st governments and host
communities in the process of attracting and hostin g these tourists and other
visitors”. – Macintosh and Goeldner
The various other views, regarding touri sm, given by various experts
and institutions, are as under:
The US Study on Travel defined Tourism as “a pleasu re activity in
which money earned in one’s normal domicile is spen t in the place visited”
The Intercontinental Consultants and Technocrats Pr ivate limited
defined “Tourism as a composite industry. It consis ts of various segments
which can produce a wide range of products and serv ices”

7

Tourism can be defined, from a strictly economic st andpoint, as a
business or an industry. The most comprehensive und erstanding of tourism as a
business activity is found in Lundberg’s, “The Tour ist Business”, which
considers tourism as an ‘Umbrella Concept’. He pres ents a series of
economically related business, beginning from adver tising and promotion,
development of destination area, including developm ent of condominium parks
and shops, travel agency and tour operation, travel modes like air, road,
railway, and business catering to vacationers like photography, gasoline
stations, hospitality hotels, motels, restaurants, and a host of other economic
activities.
Mr.Jafri introduced the concept of Tourism Market a s a Basket of Goods
and Services. The market basket consists of both th e contents of the basket and
the basket itself. The former comprises of a variet y of goods and services,
demanded and consumed, by the tourists. The product s may be divided into
Tourist Oriented Products like ‘accommodation, food services, transportation,
recreation, and entertainment which are freely refe rred to as industries, and
Resident Oriented Products like hospitals and other infrastructural facilities,
primarily produced for the residents.
6
Tourism, as an instrument of financial advancement, will consistently
take a much more noteworthy significance later on. The second worldwide
summit of establishment for peace, through tourism, held in Geneva,
Switzerland, recognized that tourism has an expandi ng weight on
neighbourhood society, economy and condition.

8

Presently, tourism touches the monetary textures of the general public as
well as has profound and established impact on soci al standards. Each country
of the world has noticed the monetary and social no teworthiness of this
worldwide industry. Tourism has greater business vo lumes than iron and steel
or deadly implements and that around 500 million la borers and their families,
all through the world, are straightforwardly or in a roundabout way connected
to this industry. The financial impact of tourism i ndustry can acquire
quickening national economy and world exchange.
The tourism business, in India, has turned out to be a standout amongst
the most tried and true producer of valuable, outsi de trade income, for the
nation. The union as well as the State Governments too have started to put
resources into tourism framework and offices to exp loit this developing
industry. As an ever-increasing number of individua ls are gaining surplus
power, the interest for recreation exercises is dev eloping, parallel to the
improvement of street, rail and air systems. Moneta ry and social advantages of
tourism must be amplified in such a way that it wou ld be profitable for the
general public also.
The widespread awareness of potential benefits, from tourism and the
effects of tourism, on the economy of destination a rea, are uncontested. An
appraisal of tourism, as blessings or bane, eventua lly depends upon the
harnessing of its potential benefits such as correc tion of balance of payment,
acceleration and dispersion of economic development , generation of
employment and assimilation of social benefits.

9

It is the world’s biggest industry and maker of occ upations, crosswise,
over national and local economies. The World Travel and Tourism Council
reported that in 2000, travel and tourism will prod uce,11.7% of GDP and about
200 million occupations in the overall economy. Tou rism Industry utilizes a
vast number of women, minorities and youngsters in several medium
organizations and offers scope for their developmen t. Tourism can likewise be
a standout amongst the best drivers for the advance ment of territorial
economies.
Tourism has today accomplished the status of a tota l industry.
Governments, throughout the world, are competing wi th each other to offer
their tourism products. After the Second World War, the universal visitor
entries, has expanded. Throughout the following ten years, tourism items and
attractions should take into account, guests who ma ke additional demands.
There will be a move, in accentuation, from latent enjoyable to dynamic
learning, and the quality and validity of guest enc ounters, will be vital to future
achievement, in a focused market.
Tourism is a unique activity, because it involves i tself with many
different sectors of the economy. If properly manag ed, it confers benefits in
terms of social, psychological and more importantly , economic well-being.
Travel enhances the quality of human experience, in spiritual as well as
material way. The major source of income, for India , is mainly through foreign
exchange generated by tourism. Due to its multiplie r effects, tourism
contributes a large percentage to the national inco me of Indian economy. All

10

these definitions provide the essence and dimension , towards the nature of
visit, scope of activity, purpose and duration of v isit, sequence and outcome of
tour-based activities, participation of the stakeho lders and the relationship
among the various stakeholders. Over the years, tho ugh definitions take
different forms, these basic dimensions remain the same.
7
Tourism in India
The Subcontinent of India lies in the South Asia, b etween Pakistan,
China and Nepal. Toward the north, it is bounded by the world’s most
noteworthy mountain chain, where the foothill valle ys cover the northernmost
terrain of the nation. Further south, tropical rain woods and sandy deserts are
flanked by palm-bordered shorelines. The sanctuarie s of South India,
effectively identifiable by their resplendently des igned surface, are related to
some large number of specialties and performing art s of the region.
India, with diverse cultures, is a nation which has everything to offer to
everyone. India is an exciting and vital experience for every tourist. India is a
vacationer’s heaven. Travel and tourism in India is a vital piece of Indian
custom and culture. In the past, travel was princip ally for journey. Individuals
headed out to partake in fairs and celebrations in various parts of the nation. In
such a foundation, built up a social customs like, “Atithi Devo Bhava” (the
Guest is God) and “Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam” (the world is one family), by
which the Indian social conduct was perceived.

11

From old circumstances, the rulers in various parts of India constructed
extravagant castles, captivating greenery enclosure s, heavenly sanctuaries,
terrific strongholds, tombs and commemoration, offe ring articulation to the
profundity of one’s inclination and assumptions. Th ese remain today as
declaration to the rich social legacy of this land and as cases of wonderful
craftsmanship of the general population of the ages gone past.
The greatness of a significant number of them is ve ry amazing. India has
the world’s tallest pinnacles and snow-secured vall eys, wildernesses in the
Himalayan ranges, radiant shorelines, settled backw aters, with a coastline of
7000 km. India also has the best territories for tr ekking, mountaineering and so
forth. Waterways and oceans are those that give a c hance to getting a charge
out of the water-based games exercises. The magnifi cence of India’s social
legacy and the lavishness of nature’s blessings, ma ke India a vacationer’s
heaven.
Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu is a State where modern technology and v itality co-exist
with tradition, customs and old architecture. It is a year-round destination.
Tamil Nadu has phenomenal hill stations like Ooty, Yelagiri, Yercaud,
Kodaikanal, Parvathamalai Hills, Kolli Hills, Javva dhu Hill, Valparai,
Sirumalai Hills, Topslip and Pachamalai Hills. It h as great National Parks like
Guindy National Park and Anamalai National Park. It has natural life havens in
Mudumalai, Kodaikanal and Coimbatore. The tremendou s coastline of Tamil

12

Nadu has numerous brilliant shorelines like the Mar ina, Elliots, Thiruvanmiyur,
Tiruchendur, Rameswaram and Kanniyakumari.
Tamil Nadu constitutes the south-eastern limit of t he Indian landmass.
Chennai is the capital city of the State. Regardles s of being the capital of a
Tamil speaking State, it has risen as a cosmopolita n City assuming an
important part in the chronicled, social and schola rly history of India, speaking
even now to the unmistakable segments of the most a stounding type of
Dravidian progress. Furthermore, it holds out an in triguing spectacle of South
Indian engineering, music, show, form and different expressions and artworks.
Tamil Nadu has a history that goes back to a few th ousand years. It is
where customs and cultures mix and keep on living i n concordance. The State
possesses large number of landmarks and sanctuaries that are old and has its
own particular story of religious, imaginative and social achievement. The
shorelines and hill stations add charm to the antiq uated Dravidian culture, in
the far south of Peninsular India.
The southern territory of Tamil Nadu, the seat of D ravidian culture, has
for quite some time been viewed as a prime social c entre of India. Favoured
with a rich history and dynamic conventions, the St ate has sightseers
spellbound, with its legacy, mixing with present da y conveniences, in its urban
areas like Chennai and Coimbatore, with the permane nt appeal of the past.
Spots like Mamallapuram, Kanchipuram, Madurai and K anyakumari keep on
retaining the customs and social conventions of a p ast. This novel mix of the

13

old and new, coinciding consistently,lends Tamil Na du a particular charm. In
spite of the fact that religious tourism is the bac kbone of the State, with both
nearby and worldwide guests, thronging the State, t he State has also built up a
plenty of offerings for its eco-visitors.
8
Ecotourism
Eco Tourism is that tourism that operates in natura l protected areas. It is,
therefore, a highly specialized form of tourism, in which priority is given to
conservation, over any other variable. This kind of tourism attracts people, who
travel to unspoilt wilderness areas, for the specif ic purpose of learning about
and admiring the eco systems and their components a nd the culture features of
the region by observing and studying them. This is an aesthetic, scientific and
even philosophical rather than a merely recreationa l approach to tourism.
9
The International Eco Tourism Society defines eco-t ourism as
“responsible travel to nature areas, that conserves the environment and
improves the welfare of local people”. For example, a rafting trip is
eco-tourism, only if it raises awareness and funds to help protect the watershed.
The Australian Commission on National Eco Tourism M ethodology
calls it as “nature-based tourism that includes tra ining and translation of the
regular habitat and to figure out how to be biologi cally sustainable”. In Eco
Tourism there is need to save regular zones and hen ce eco-tourism must be
subordinated to progressive interests. In fact, it is considered as a method for
making the secured territory financially maintainab le and giving improvement

14

to nearby groups. The positive parts of eco-tourism are also followed by the
likelihood of producing negative impact, for exampl e, conveying guests to
virgin or amazingly delicate zones.
Evolution of Ecotourism
The origins of the term ‘ecotourism’ may be traced back to the four
pillars or principles of responsible tourism, by He tzer, in 1965, who conducted
the first eco-tours in the Yucatan, during the earl y 1970s. His study found the
intricate relationship between tourists and the env ironment and cultures in
which they interacted. Hector Ceballos-Lascurain fi rst coined the term
‘ecotourism’, in July 1983, when he was in the proc ess of developing the
PRONATURA, an NGO in Mexico. The PRONATURA worked f or creating
awareness about the conservation of American Flamin go, in the wetlands in
northern Yucatan, for sustaining their breeding and feeding habitats. Other
early references to ecotourism, may be found in the work of Miller (1978), on
national park planning, for eco-development in Lati n American countries.
Documentation was prepared by the Environment Canad a, to make road-based,
eco-tours, from the mid-1970s to the early 1980s. E ach tour was conducted in
an ecological zone, in the corridor of Trans-Canada Highways, with
information to help effective interpretation.
10
The need for conceiving ecotourism arose from the w orldwide
environment movement, in the 1970s and 1980s. For e xample, the International
Conference was held in Geneva, on Human Environment in 1972, followed by

15

the World Conservation Strategy by IUCN, in 1980, w hich outlined the
importance of sustainable development or eco-develo pment.
Further, growing concern for environmental polluti ons, loss of species,
coupled with the aversion towards mass tourism, led to a new class of tourists,
interested and motivated towards seeking nature-bas ed experiences.
At the same time, the Third-World Countries found t he form of nature-
based tourism, as a means for earning revenue, to s ustain the livelihood of
people as an additional occupation or a substitute for agriculture, logging,
fishing, hunting, etc. By the mid-1980s, many such less developed countries,
with huge potential for promoting nature-based tour ism, introduced
eco-tourism as a means of protecting environment an d ensuring development.
The Table-1 presents three different principles of ecotourism, studied
and contributed by Wight (1994), Lindberg and Hawki ns, (1993) and NEAP,
Australia.
Table -1
Ecotourism Principles
Wight (1994) The Ecotourism Society
(Lindberg and Hawkins, 1993) National Ecotourism
Accreditation Programme (NEAP) Australia
Eligibility Principles
It should not degrade the
resource and should be
developed in an
environmentally sound Prepare travellers to
minimize their negative
impact while visiting
sensitive environments and Focuses on personally
experiencing natural areas in
ways that lead to greater
understanding and

16

manner cultures, before departures appreciation
It should provide long-term
benefits to the resource, to
the local community and
industry Prepare travellers for each
encounter with local cultures
and with native animals and
plants Integrates opportunities to
understand natural areas into
each experience
It should provide first-hand,
participatory and
enlightening experiences
Minimize visitor impacts on
the environment by offering
literature, briefings, leading
by example, and taking
correcting actions Represents best practice for
ecologically sustainable
tourism
It should involve education
among all parties, local,
communities, government,
non-government
organizations, industry and
tourists, before, during and
after the trip. Minimize traveller’s impact
on cultures by offering
literature, briefings, leading
by example, and taking
corrective actions.
Positively contributes to the
ongoing conservation of
natural areas
It should encourage all-party
recognition of the intrinsic
values of the resource
Use adequate leadership and
maintain small enough
groups to ensure minimum
group impact on destinations.
Avoid areas that are under-
managed and over-visited. Provides constructive
ongoing contributions to
local communities.
It should involve acceptance
of the resource in its own
terms, and in recognition of
its limits, which involves
supply oriented management.
Ensure managers, staff and
contact employees know and
participate in all aspects of
company policy to prevent
impact on the environment
and local cultures. Is sensitive to, interprets and
involves different cultures
particularly indigenous
cultures.

17

It should promote
understanding and involve
partnerships between many
players, which could involve
government organizations,
industry, scientists and locals
(both before and during
operations) Give managers, staff and
contact employees access to
programs that will upgrade
their ability to communicate
with and manage clients in
sensitive natural and cultural
settings.
Consistently meets Clients’
expectations
It should promote moral and
ethical responsibilities and
behaviour towards the natural
and cultural environment by
all players
Be a contributor to the
conservation of the region
being visited
Marketing is accurate and
leads to realistic expectations
Provide competitive, local
employment in all aspects of
business operations
Off-site-sensitive
accommodations that are not
wasteful of local resources or
destructive to the
environment, which provide
ample opportunity for
learning about the
environment and sensitive
interchange with local
communities.
(
Source: David B.Weaver (ed.), The Encyclopedia of Ecotourism, CABI
Publishing, Wallingford).

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Characteristics of Eco- Tourism
Even though the concept of eco- tourism is hard to define, it does,
however, have some consistent features:
1. All nature- based forms of tourism, in which the ma in inspiration of the
tourists is the observation and appreciation of nat ure as well as the
traditional cultures, prevailing in natural areas.
2. It has educational and interpretation features
3. It is generally, but not entirely, organized for sm all groups, by
specialized and small, locally owned business. Fore ign operators of
varying sizes also organize, operate and /or market eco-tourism tours,
generally for small groups.
4. It minimizes negative impact upon the natural and s ocio- cultural
environment.
5. It supports the protection of natural areas, by gen erating economic
benefits, for host communities, organization and au thorities, managing
natural areas with conservation purposes.
6. Providing alternative employment and income opportu nities for local
communities.
7. Eco trips often include a learning experience.
8. Increasing awareness towards the conservation of na tural and cultural
assets, both among locals and tourists.

19

Over the years, it has also become clear that conce rns still need to be
wholly addressed in eco- tourism, such as : Land te nure and control of the eco-
tourism development process, by host communities. E fficiency and fairness of
the current concept of protected areas, for protect ion of biological and culture
diversity. The need for additional precautions and monitoring while operating
in sensitive areas. Indigenous and traditional righ ts in areas suitable for eco-
tourism development. The destination itself is usua lly an unpolluted natural
area. Its attractions are the flora and fauna and i ts entire bio- diversity.
Eco- tourism should support the local economy and i ts indigenous atmosphere.
It should contribute to the preservation of the env ironment and promote the
importance of conserving nature.
Eco tourism is the most interesting and as of late, the developed type of
nature tourism. It incorporates exercises, which ma ke a goal-oriented condition,
neighbourly, maintainable and helpful to guests and nearby occupants. Eco-
tourism is not nature-based tourism through which g uests go and appreciate
nature and its environment. Since it happens in nat ure’s isolation,
administrators, endeavour to visualize suitable tec hniques and measures, to
give immediate and circuitous advantages, both to h osts and visitors in a
commonly adequate way.
It furnishes groups, with important financial motiv ation, that will keep
down consumption and debasement of tourism assets a nd add to the
improvement of the natural habitat. Eco tourism is mindful of normal regions,
which preserve the earth and enhance the welfare of local inhabitants. Eco

20

tourism, at the end of the day, enjoins both a soli d responsibility, regarding
nature and a feeling of social duty. The awareness of eco-tourism has turned
into a developing power, for dependable tourism and preservation. Its primary
stress on neighbourhood assets makes it alluring, t o developing nations like
India. It is such a type of nature tourism, where s olace and extravagance do not
figure in bundle offering.
Eco tourism is not just the quickest way of develop ing business. It has
additionally been acknowledged as a confident, new way, of dealing with
delicate land and undermined wild territories and p roviding individuals, in the
host nations, with group-based improvement. The col ossal resource of India is
its profile of decent variety, which is perceived a s a characteristic resource and
it is organized for the advancement of tourism item s. National tourism
approach has put incredible emphasis on eco-tourism and arranged
methodologies, to build up the normal assets of the nation, as imperative
resources for the improvement of tourism industry. The State has gigantic
potential for nature and eco-tourism.
Blessed with a woodland front of 23.7%, twenty natu ral life asylums,
four national stops, the State has a wide range of vegetation and untamed life,
spread over the State. It is endowed with the longe st coastline in the nation, just
about a thousand kilometres, and has five noteworth y streams, contributing
15% of the water, accessible to the nation. These c haracteristic resources like
lakes, waterfalls, timberlands and untamed life, st ay unexplored and
undiscovered, from the tourism perspective. The tou rism space has been taken

21

up by ‘experience tourism’ and ‘eco-tourism’. The y ear 2002 was announced as
the Global Year of Eco-tourism.
Ecotourism is a type of tourism, including going to delicate, flawless,
and generally undisturbed normal zones, expected as a low-affect and
frequently on a little scale, contrasting to standa rd business (mass) tourism. It
implies respect for normal territories, moderating the earth and enhancing the
prosperity of the neighbourhood individuals. Its mo tivation might be to instruct
the tourists to allow to natural protection to asse ts, to specifically prevent the
monetary improvement and political strengthening of nearby groups. Since the
1980s, ecotourism has been viewed as a basic undert aking by people, to
venture into areas, generally untouched by human in terference. For the most
part, ecotourism manages connection with biotic seg ments of the common
habitats.
Ecotourism concentrates on socially dependable tr avel, self-awareness
and ecological manageability. Ecotourism regularly includes goals where
verdure, fauna, and social legacy are the essential attractions. Ecotourism is
expected to offer vacationers, an understanding int o the effect of individuals on
the earth and to encourage a more noteworthy valuat ion for our regular living
spaces.
Capable ecotourism programs incorporate those that limit the contrary
parts of traditional tourism on the earth and upgra de the social uprightness of
local individuals.
11 Accordingly, notwithstanding assessing natural and social

22

factors, a necessary piece of ecotourism is the adv ancement of re-using, vitality
effectiveness, water preservation, and production o f monetary open doors for
neighbourhood groups.
Hence ecotourism regularly offers to promoters of e cological and social
obligations. The term ‘ecotourism’, like ‘manageabl e tourism’, is considered by
many to be a confusing expression. Like most types of tourism, ecotourism, for
the most part, relies upon air transportation, whic h adds to worldwide
environmental change. The general impact of practic al tourism is negative. But
an ecotourist is not quite the same as a vacationer because he is aware of his
condition and much of the time, he adds to the main tainability of such
environment.
Terminology and History
Ecotourism is a late Twentieth Century neologism, d erived from eco and
tourism. As indicated by the Oxford English Diction ary, ecotour was first
recorded in 1973 and ecotourism, ‘presumably, after ecotour, in 1982 Ecotour –
A voyage through or visit to a territory of natural intrigue and as a rule, with an
instructive component. A comparative visit or visit intended to have limited
negative impact on the nature, as would be prudent or embraced with the
particular point of helping protection endeavours.
• Ecotourism – Tourism to regions of biological intri gue (commonly
fascinating and frequently debilitated indigenous h abitats), especially
to help preservation endeavours and watch untamed l ife; access to an

23

imperilled situation, planned to have the slightest conceivable
unfriendly impact.
One source asserts that the terms were in use much earlier. Claus-Dieter
(Nick) Hetzer, a scholarly and swashbuckler from Fo rum International in
Berkeley, CA, authored ecotourism in 1965 and ran t he principal ecotours in
the Yucatán, in the mid-1970s.
Efforts to Preserve Ecosystems at Risk
A portion of the world’s most extraordinary biodive rsity is situated in
the Galapagos Islands. These islands were assigned an UNESCO World
Heritage Site in 1979 and it was later added to UNE SCO’s List of World
Heritage in Danger in 2007. IGTOA is a non-profit o rganization, devoted to
protecting this, one of a kind living research faci lity, against obtrusive species,
human effect and tourism. Explorers need to be awar e of the earth and the
effect of tourism. They should use an administrator who is a trustworthy
member of ecotourism association.
12
Natural Resource Management
Natural resource, without the reasonable utilizatio n of specific assets,are
annihilated, and botanical and faunal species are g etting terminated.
Ecotourism projects can be presented for the preser vation of these assets. A
few designs and appropriate administration projects can be presented, with the
goal that these assets stay untouched. A few associ ations, NGOs, and
researchers are dealing with this field.

24

Natural resources of hill territories like Kurseong in West Bengal, are
endowed with different greenery tourism but, for bu siness reason, these assets
have been damaged. Specialists from Jadavpur Univer sity are directly working
around there, for the advancement of ecotourism, to be utilized as an apparatus
for regular asset administration.
In Southeast Asia, government and nongovernmental a ssociations are
cooperating with scholastics and industry administr ators, to spread the
monetary advantages of tourism into the Kampungs an d towns of the area.
Butof late, the South-East Asian Tourism Organizati on (SEATO), is uniting
these different players, to examine asset administr ation concerns.
13
A 2002 summit, held in Quebec, prompted the 2008 Gl obal Sustainable
Tourism Criteria, a community-oriented exertion, be tween the UN Foundation
and other support gatherings. The criteria, which a re intentional, include
“viable manageability, arranging the greatest socia l and financial advantages
for neighbourhood groups, causing the least negativ e effects on social legacy
and least negative effects on nature.
Principles of Eco-Tourism
• Ecotourism should be on small scale, privately cont rolled and
delicate visit of environmentally situated.
• Ecotourism should be grounded on environmental ethi cs, with the
notion of small being beautiful, doing more with le ss and treated
with fostering resource integrity.

25

• It is basic for ecotourism to be feasible, ecologic ally, socially,
economically and culturally.
• Ecotourism will be supplemented by supervised visit or encounter
and instructed by ideals.
• Ecotourism will be sensitive to the neighbourhood g roup investment.
• It is bio-driven as opposed to homocentric in theor y. Actually,
Ecotourism ought to acknowledge nature generally on its terms and
not endeavouring to alter or change nature for indi vidual comfort.
14
Positive Environmental Impacts
Ecotourism in Tamil Nadu, creates income for the pr eservation of vital,
common, living spaces of untamed life, including ri verine condition, and
advancement of parks, chronicled landmarks and timb erlands and parks, in
light the of the fact that these are significant at tractions for visitors.
Ecotourism, in Tamil Nadu, likewise enhances the na tural tenor of the
zone, as travellers get a kick out of the chance to visit places that are appealing,
clean and non-contaminated.
Ecotourism, in Tamil Nadu, improves territorial fou ndation, particularly
of water supply and sewage and strong waste transfe r and likewise add to
enhanced natural quality.
15 It is because of upgraded tourism that our
uncommon, masterful abundance of Tamil Nadu opens i tself to outside
business sectors.

26

Negative Environmental Impact
Ecotourism in Tamil Nadu, has additionally created a few negative
natural effects, when tourism development was very much arranged,
progressed and supervised.
Improvement of uneven traveller spots has advanced development and
improvement of roads and highways through woodland zones. This has
increased the vehicular movement alongside the pers on on foot. This
movement triggers ecologically unsettling influence , which will have adverse
effect on the encompassing vegetation and mountain environment. In spite of
the fact that streets in the slopes are not necessa ry, they should be built into the
landscape and topographical capacities with ecologi cal intelligence.
Improvement of tourism, by implication, affects the untamed life, which
is influenced because of vast scale chasing, by the intrusion of travellers, into
regular natural surroundings, for photography and s hooting and so on. The
effect on warm blooded creatures and flying creatur es, on an extensive scale, is
evident. In the event that tourism is to be dealt w ith on a supportable premise,
in Tamil Nadu, consideration for the upkeep of tour ism foundation and
insurance of the untamed life ought to be considere d.
16 Substantial scale
intrusion of visitors to national parks, untamed li fe havens and backwoods
negatively affect the reproducing environments of t he wild creatures.
The expansion in the number of ecotourists because of accessibility of
better facilities, has also expanded the auxiliary administration and requests for

27

the ecotourists for eco-related expansion in the re quest of souvenirs.17 Demand
for gifts like skins, adornments, horns, tails, key rings, produced by using
hooves, etc, has resulted in the butchering of wild creatures, alongside the
winged animals, for the above said purposes.
18
Water contamination has come about because of ill-a dvised
advancement of sewage and strong waste transfer fra meworks, for maintaining
tourist lodges and tourist offices. There has been extreme contamination of
stream, lake and shorelines, from sewage, and of gr ound water, by leakage of
waste material. Sewage transfer is additionally inf luenced, either through septic
tanks and ingestion pits or transfer of waste water , through biochemical
treatment plants, into the ocean which may affect t he sea fauna.
19
Air pollution has resulted from excessive use of in ternal combustion
vehicles like cars, taxis, buses, motorcycles, etc. , in tourism areas.
Noise pollution has been generated by the concentra tion of tourists and
tourist vehicles.
Visual pollution results from poorly designed hotel s and other tourist
facilities, badly planned layout of facilities, ina dequate landscaping of
facilities, use of garish advertising signs etc.
Biological interruption of common zones, by abuse b y travellers and
harm to archaeological and notable destinations, by abuse by eco travellers, has
also been observed.

28

Water supply, in numerous traveller lodges, is acqu ired from boreholes
in the ground. In the meantime, assimilation pits a re utilized, for permeation to
the ground, in regions flooded by treated water fro m biochemical framework.
This dirties the underground water and the ground w ater repositories are
rendered unsuitable for consumption, if such practi ce were to be strengthened.
Garbage disposal is, by all accounts, the most inte nse issue adding to
soil and natural contamination. The administration, to deal with this
contamination, is limited. Each hotelier takes care of the issue by covering the
trash in trenches. When daylight is somewhat poor, defilement of the trenches
could be observed.
Natural perils and land utilization issues come abo ut because of lack of
common sense.
Disposal of the trash and deformation of the landsc ape are evident in the
form of defensive dividers, raised along a few catc hment territories. In specific
cases, structures have been raised near the waterfr ont. Some disturbance of the
soil is additionally seen at the place where little lakes meet the waterways,
where amid the overabundance of the stream of water , results in flooding in
land.
20
The illicit extraction of sand and stones, though u nder control by the
specialists, may exist in remote territories, which has brought about
disintegration and deformation of the landscape.
21 It is additionally observed

29

that traveller movement into those territories due to lack of foresight, has been
counter beneficial to the vacationer business.
Though expansion in tourism is a boon for the finan cial advancement of
a country, it cannot be at the cost of ecology.
22Financial advancement through
tourism ought to go as a cooperative relationship b etween these three
perspectives. Tourism, when it is demonstrated as d egenerative for the site, it
would be less appealing for future prospects of tou rists. The balance between
these three angles is extremely sensitive and their relations ought to be stressed.
Eco tourism, seen as niche tourism, emerged during 1980’s, to meet this
situation.
23
Review of Literature
Biologically practical tourism promotes projects, t hat advance
ecological and social comprehension, appreciation a nd protection. Ecotourism
is focused on the standards of natural and social a dvancement, to enhance and
ensure protection programmes. It is a method for su stainable way to deal with
tourism improvement in India.
In any case, the effects of tourism are caused by g uest action and
associated effects. Research on the effects of tour ism and defenseless
components of nature in which the tourism is distin guished, will give a base to
administration activities. Preservation measures of management activity will at
last support the characteristic assets on which the ecotourism eventually
depends. The World Tourism Organization (WTO) maint ains that income,

30

through ecotourism, is justified, because nature-ba sed tourism represents 20%
of worldwide global travel (WTO, 1998).
The review has covered the current literature on ec o-tourism, its
promotion and tourist perception. Major sources suc h as articles, magazines,
and books, various other published and unpublished sources were reviewed in
these areas, to obtain clarity and good understandi ng of the ideas, related to the
proposed research problem. The review of literature enabled the Researcher, to
identify the research gaps, in the present knowledg e on eco-tourism.
Ecotourism is the method of tourism, linking visiti ng fragile, pristine,
and reasonably uninterrupted natural areas, planned as a low-impact and often
small-scale alternative, to regular profitable mass tourism. It means responsible
travel to the natural areas, preserving environment and refining the well-being
of the local people. Its determination may be to ed ucate the traveller, to provide
funds for ecological conservation, to directly bene fit the economic
development and political empowerment of local comm unities and to foster
respect for different cultures and for human rights . Since the 1980s, ecotourism
has been considered a critical endeavour by environ mentalists, so that future
generations may experience destinations, relatively untouched, by human
intervention.
24
In the scope of tourism, extending from traditional tourism to
ecotourism, there has been a considerable measure o f dispute as to which
biodiversity assurance, neighbourhood social-moneta ry welfare, and ecological

31

impact, can be estimated as ecotourism. For this re ason, naturalists, particular
vested parties and governments, characterize ecotou rism in an unexpected way.
Numerous terms are employed, under the rubric of ec otourism. Nature tourism,
green tourism, environmentally mindful tourism, bio -tourism, low effect
tourism, but the fact remains that they are not rea lly synonymous with
ecotourism.
Eco tourism draws individuals, who go to untainted wild territories, for
the particular reason of respecting eco framework a nd the segments. It can
serve as an important tool for environmental educat ion and creates ecological
awareness. Ecotourism covers a broad spectrum – pla nts, forest, animals, under
water life, corals, reefs and national parks. Globa lly, there is an increasing
demand for more eco conscious destinations. The Min istry of Environment and
Forest, the Government of India, have signed a Memo randum of
Understanding, for promoting exclusive Eco-Tourism beats. Maharashtra
planned Shilpagram as an environmental awareness ce ntre. It is an artist
village. It includes working areas for artisans to manufacture bamboo
handicrafts, pottery and rare leather craft known a s Pingule Art.
Eco Tourism is one of the fastest growing segments of the tourism
industry. But efforts are taken to minimize the neg ative impact on nature and
culture that can damage the destination. Eco touris m educates the traveller on
eco destination. Tourism that includes wandering to relatively undisturbed and
uncontaminated natural areas, with the precise obje ct of studying, admiring and
relishing the scenery, plants, animals and cultural areas, is eco-tourism

32

Eco Tourism is also known as Ecological Tourism. It is a form of
tourism which appeals to the ecologically and socia lly conscious. Eco Tourism
focuses on local culture and it is a travel to dest inations where flora, fauna and
cultural heritage are the primary attractions and w hich also creates economic
opportunities for the local communities.
25 EcoTourism creates great scope for
sustainable growth. Biological conversation of dive rsity and cultural diversity,
through eco system protection, promotion of sustain able use of biodiversity, by
providing various jobs to local population in and around, sharing of socio-
economics benefits with local communities and indig enous people, growth of
environmental and cultural knowledge, local culture , flora and fauna, form the
essence of eco-tourism.
26 Eco tourism is an important economic activity in
Costa Rica, Ecuador, Nepal, Kenya, Madagascar and A ntarctica, with its great
potential for environmental protection. The UN cele brated the International
Year of Eco Tourism, in 2002.
27
The State Government of Tamil Nadu has identified 2 5 sites to develop
them into ecotourism spots. The Forest Department w as involved in identifying
possible ecotourism destinations. Hill Stations, Fo rests, Waterfalls, Bird
Sanctuaries and Beaches are offered in plenty, for those who show interest in
nature. TTDC has set up a distinct Eco-Tourism Wing , with an officer from the
Forest Department. The need is to brand Tamil Nadu a world-renowned
destination, specializing in sustainable tourism, t hrough focused efforts on
creating synergy, among all stakeholders, encouragi ng capacity building and
public-private partnership, with revenue generating strategies. “Take the

33

memories from here – Leave only your foot print – n ot the litter” should be the
motto of every tourist.
28
Atul Bansal, in his book, “New Era of Sustainable Tourism in India”,
explains that recently Eco-Tourism has emerged as a development tool, which
aims at protecting the natural environment and cult ural diversity, by attracting
the eco tourists and at the same time, generating a source of revenue, for local
people, without harming the nature.
29
Vijay Kumar.A, in his, book, “Indian Tourism Industry in 21st Century,
Challenges and Responses” , states that the Eco-Tourism Society defined
ecotourism as “responsible travel to natural areas, which conserves the
environment and improves the welfare of the local p eople”. The United Nations
has designated 2002 as the International Year of Ec otourism.
30
Annamalai Murugan, in his book, “Ecotourism – its Potential and
Usefulness ” reports that The World Tourism Organization (WTO) defines eco-
tourism as “tourism that involves travelling to rel atively undisturbed, natural
areas, with the specified object of studying, admir ing and enjoying the scenery
and its wild plants and animals, as well as any exc iting cultural aspects (both of
the past or the present), found in these areas”.
31
K.K.Sharma, in his book, “Tourism and Development” discusses that in
the literature of the 1980’s and early 1990’s, ther e was a tendency to equate
ecotourism with ‘nature-based tourism’ and even ‘ad venture tourism’.
32

34

A.K.Bhattacharya, in his book, “Ecotourism and Livelihood Capacity
Building for Local Authorities”, explains that Ecotourism areas often include
existing communities, specially of traditional peop le and therefore, ecotourism
plan must be holistic in approach and consider ways to conserve local cultural
traditions and identities, while bringing benefits to these communities.
33
Definition of Eco- Tourism
The term Ecotourism was instituted by Hector Ceball os Lascurain in
1983. “The term was used to refer the nature-based travel, with emphasis on
education, management and development of sustainabl e tourism, both in the
context of products and activity”
Ecotourism has been considered a practical, even ha nded, group-based
undertaking, for enhancing the expectations of ever yday comforts of
indigenous host groups. It is advertised as a type of nature-based tourism. It
additionally fills in as a feasible improvement app aratus.
34
Ecotourism or nature tourism is distinguished from the mass tourism or
resort tourism, by demanding lesser infrastructure expansion and a low impact
on the environment” (Bhattacharya et al, 2003).
The World Tourism Organization characterizes Ecotou rism as ” tourism
that includes setting out to moderately undisturbed common territories, with the
purpose of examining, respecting and getting a char ge out of the landscape and
its wild plants and creatures, and additionally, an y current social angles, over a
wide span of time, found in these regions”.

35

The Ecotourism Society (TES) characterized Ecotouri sm as “dependable
visit to regular regions, that saves the earth and maintains the prosperity of the
nearby individuals”. Its primary points are biologi cal and socio-social
trustworthiness, duty and supportability (Cater, 19 94). Ecotourism was created
from the customary nature tourism and economic adva ncement ideas.
35
Statement of the Problem
Under these circumstances, this study proposes to i dentify the various
factors that are responsible for such a growth glob ally and also in our country.
While attempting to study the growth of tourism in India, the historical and its
commercial aspects were given proper perspective. T his study has been made,
to undertake an intensive analysis of the role of e co tourist destinations, in
making tourism vibrant in the State of Tamil Nadu. There is a prevalence of all
types of tourism in this State, which helped touris m to flourish. The
Government is also keen on promoting Ecotourism in Tamil Nadu, through the
Tourism Development Corporation (TTDC).
As a result of the growth of tourism in this State , the local community
also benefited a lot and they earn substantially, b y engaging themselves in the
tourism industry. In this study, an attempt has als o been made to study the
nature of motivating factors, for the religious tou rists to undertake tours to this
State, the participation of the host community and the role of the government,
in the promotion of these tourist destinations.

36

The study has also been made to analyse various fac tors that hinder the
development of Ecotourism in Tamil Nadu and various problems faced by the
tourists and the host community. Further, in this s tudy, an attempt has been
made to suggest different strategies, required for making the State, a better Eco
tourist destination.
Scope of the Study
This study attempts to explore the extent of Eco to urism development in
the State of Tamil Nadu. The tourism potential in t he State, especially
promotional measures, taken to make the best use of the existing infrastructure
and also further development, has been analysed in this study.
This study tries to examine the contribution of ec o-tourismto the
economic development of the host community of the v arious tourism
destinations in Tamil Nadu. Added to this, the anal ysis has been made on the
perception of tourists, both domestic as well as fo reign, visiting various eco-
tourist spots in the State towards the components o f tourism such as attractions,
transport, accommodation, refreshments, shopping ce ntres, entertainments,
festivals and infra-structure like banking and comm unication.
Methodology Both essential and auxiliary information were gathe red, through
different sources. Stratified irregular examining t echnique was adopted, after
the quantity of respondents was stratified into two groupings – Tourists and
Host Community. To gather essential data, two separ ate meeting plans were

37

arranged – one for selecting asample of visitors an d another for the constituents
of the host group. Sample from travellers and host group in the different
tourism destinations of Tamil Nadu, were pickedthro ugh convenient sampling
technique. 350 traveller respondents were approache d to gather essential
information, in which 250 were domestic vacationers and 100 were
International vacationers. In addition, 100 host gr oups were approachedfor on
the spot data. It was supplemented by data,gathered through casual dialogue
with the sample respondents and the authorities in the tourism advancement
offices.
The respondents were chosen simply through convenie nt sampling
technique, without thinking about their age, sex, c lass, nation, pay and other
aspects. The auxiliary data were assembled from the records and distributed
reports of the tourism organizations, standard book s and diaries and from the
significant sites. Percentage analysis was done to analyse the data and derive
meaningful deductions.
Objectives
The Study has the following objectives:
To identify and promote lesser known areas, having eco-tourism
potential, in addition to popular destinations.
To unwind stress through nature.
To secure involvement of the local communities and hosts and improve
their livelihood, without adversely affecting their cultural ethos.

38

To create awareness on education and conservation t echniques, among
tourists and local communities.
To underline the vital role of tourism activities, in the conservation and
sustainable management of natural resources.
To propagate conservation awareness, among the tour ists and expand
public support for conservation.
To help better understanding of forests and better participation in
conservation of forest biodiversity.
To examine the limitations that hinder the growth o f eco-tourism.
Guiding Principles
The development, management and promotion of eco-to urism, in the
State, are to be governed by following guiding prin ciples. They are:
Rules and guidelines, regarding technical procedure s for stakeholder
participation and impact mitigation, to be develope d and strictly adhered
to.
Adherence to standards, in terms of quality and saf ety in developing and
operating eco- tourism facilities and activities, t o be given the highest
priority.
Creation of environmental awareness, amongst all ag e groups, especially
the youth, to be incorporated as a major activity f or each eco-tourism
destination.

39

Only activities and facilities, having the least im pact on the natural
resources and the local culture, to be permitted.
Preference to the ‘quality of experience’ rather th an the number of
visitors, without compromising on financial viabili ty as far as possible.
Resources that are traditionally used by the local community, are to be
harnessed for eco-tourism, wherever required. Activ ities and facilities to
be developed, in consultation with the local commun ity and mechanisms
to ensure flow of benefits to the community.
Monitoring mechanisms to evaluate guidelines, code of conduct and
benefit sharing, among local communities, to be evo lved.
Marketing strategies to be based on market research and segmentation
analysis, making wide use of electronic, print and cyber media, for
promoting Tamil Nadu as a multi-faceted, eco- touri sm destination.
Promote group-oriented tourism, with focus on youth , trekkers and other
interested tourists.
Recognise and respect land and property rights and avoid transgression
into the cultural sovereignty of indigenous and loc al communities,
including their protected, sensitive and sacred sit es as well as their
traditional knowledge.
36
All activities to be carried out, in accordance wit h the provisions of
forests environment, labour and other relevant loca l laws of India.
Ensure the integrity, serenity and the natural valu es of the destination,
through appropriate travel choice, responsible beha viour and activities

40

of the visitors by communicating to them, qualities and sensitivities of
destinations.
Encourage public-private partnerships model, as far as possible, to
mobilize investment in infrastructure development.
There is need to provide comfortable stay and basic amenities to
travellers and the role in promoting eco-tourism wh ich would result in
making the destination a favoured one among tourist s. The major
players are to be a part of Eco club, which could d iscuss strategies in
order to sustain eco-tourism activities. The Govern ment could help the
sector, to set up hotels in potential eco-tourism s pots outside the
wilderness / protected areas.
Roles and responsibilities of stakeholders, in the promotion of the state’s
eco-tourism action plans, to be identified.
37
Strategies
The following are the strategies mentioned in the e co-tourism policy of
Tamil Nadu Tourism:
Priority is given to development of places, which a re closer to the
existing popular destinations and also to the lesse r known eco-tourist
spots. Suitable eco-tourism destinations will be id entified and tied up
with existing eco-tourism circuits.
There is need to ensure that activities are promote d, within the
framework of rules and regulations and to achieve t his, appropriate

41

prescriptions will have to be made to incorporate l ow impact
eco-tourism, as a tool for conservation management of forest.
The essential factors, that are considered unfavour able and counter to
good eco-tourism practices, are the huge crowds, th at throng any
wilderness destination and the casual approach the visitors might display
in their attitude to nature and wildlife, which wil l have many undesirable
consequences for the immediate environment, in the form of mounting
waste materials, unhygienic surrounding etc., thus violating the physical
and environmental aspects of the area. Substantial inflow of tourists
means development of facilities, compatible with th e requirement.
Wherever it is warranted to build up additional inf rastructure, efforts
will be taken to encourage the same in the lands ou tside protected areas,
which do not disturb the wildlife habitat. In the c ase of infrastructure
development within protected areas, temporary struc tures will be built in
tune with the surroundings.
Once the destination is finalized, the development and management of
the same will be preferably done by the Forest Depa rtment, involving
the local community. The individuals from the progr am area will be
organized into Eco-Tourism Management Committees.
38
Public Private Partnership, in professionally manag ing the camping
areas and eco-tourism destinations, will be attempt ed in a limited way,
especially in areas of infrastructure sharing, know ledge exchange in the
hospitality sector and other promotion efforts. The re is an urgent

42

necessity to enhance the skills and capacities of t he local community, in
the process of empowering them. Eco-tourism, at a g iven site, will call
for specific skills from the communities. Capacity building programs
will be organized to promote competence and infuse confidence among
the local people and the forest staff, so as to und ertake the ecotourism
related services.
39 The local community will be trained in managing
home stays, basic education and awareness, health a nd sanitation, code
of conduct, forest and wildlife.
Regarding the strategies in the involvement of loca l communities,
employment will be provided to the communities, by enlisting their services in
the manufacturing of boats, cooking, rescue operati ons and maintenance of the
premises. Apart from providing skills and formal ed ucation, the communities
can be given benefits, keeping in mind the future o f their children.
Opportunities can be provided to them for showcasin g their skills in handicrafts
and pottery. The development of and adherence to ru les and guidelines on
stakeholder participation, impact mitigation and te chnical procedures is one
among the governing principles.
40
The compliance with standards, in terms of quality and safety, in
developing and operating eco-tourism facilities and activities, will be given the
highest priority. Creation of environmental awarene ss among all sections and
age groups especially youth, will be a major activi ty for each eco-tourism
destination. A set of Ecotourism projects may be id entified by line
departments, especially the Forest Department. The Tourism Department will

43

act as the nodal agency, for clearing various proje cts, prepared by the line
departments and their funding. Priority will be giv en to development of places,
closer to existing popular destinations and lesser known eco- tourist spots and
suitable for eco-tourism destinations, will be iden tified and tied up with the
existing circuits. Eco-tourism is sustainable, site specific, people friendly
approach, where indigenous people’s participation i s ensured, both at planning
and implementation levels. In other words, eco-tour ism is tourism of the
people, for the people and by the people.
Hypotheses In this research Study, the following hypotheses we re posed to be tested
in the dissertation.
Eco tourism is an object by itself and it is differ ent from other
perceptions of tourism.
The tourists, at the destinations, have positive at titude towards all the
eco-tourism concepts.
Ecotourism will reduce deforestation, by providing economic
alternatives to the local people, by creating a national desire, to preserve
the region, for its natural and economic value
Environmental education will positively influence t he behaviour of local
communities, at the eco destinations.
Environmental awareness programs will provide an en couragement to
local communities, to protect the ecological corridors.

44

Period of the Study
The research was attempted, to consider the Eco Tou rism in Tamil
Nadu, from 2015 to 2017.
Sources The Thesis was based on both primary and secondary sources. The
Tamil Nadu State Archives, Connemara Library, Libra ry of the University of
Madras and other libraries at Chennai,Bharathidasn University Library,
Tiruchirappalli, Meenakshi Sundaran Library, Madura i Kamaraj University,
Annamalainagar, Manonmaniam Sundaranar University L ibrary, Tirunelveli,
formedthe important primary sources, for gathering data. Annual Reports and
various policy notes of Tamil Nadu Tourism Developm ent Corporation
published by the Government, also yielded relevant information data were also
generated through questionnaires and interview meth od. A Comparative study
of the secondary data with the primary data, provid ed a complete account on
the subject.
Chapterisation The proposed Thesis, entitled, “ECO TOURISM IN TAMIL NADU,
2015-2017”, was framed into four chapters, besides an Introduct ion and a
Conclusion.
In the Introduction , the physical features of India and Tamil Nadu are
furnished and it is followed by definition, evoluti on, characteristics,
terminology and history, principles, positive and n egative impacts, vision of

45

Eco tourism wing, selection of the topic, area of t he study, period of the study,
statement of the problem, aims, hypotheses, review of the relevant literature,
objectives, guiding principles, strategies, period of study, scope, methodology,
sources, limitations, chapterisation and methodolog y.
The First Chapter is “Eco Tourism in Tamil Nadu – A Profile” , which
provides the information about the Eco Tourist dest inations of Tamil Nadu.
The various attractions of the 25 eco tourist spots were highlighted, from
15 districts of Tamil Nadu. namely; Vellore, Thiruv annamalai, Villupuram,
Cuddalore, Dharmapuri, Salem, Namakkal, Coimbatore, Nilgiris,
Nagapattinam, Dindigul, Theni, Virudhunagar, Kanyak umari and Tirunelveli.
The Second Chapter, “Obstacles To Ecotourism In Tamil Nadu”, deals
with an overview of ecotourism programming, concept s, process, linkages,
guidelines, formulation of Ecotourism policy, effec ts due to tourism
infrastructure, impact on socio-cultural environmen t, environmental impacts
due to new projects, impacts of ecotourism activiti es, prevention of problems,
environmental planning, ecotourism policy ; plannin g, concept of tourism
policy, policy objectives, policy formulation, link ages, policy guidelines,
ecotourism programming, programming strategies, pro gramming guidelines,
role of eco tour operators, conscientious tourism a nd environmental
management system through programming.
The Third Chapter entitled, “Role of Government in Eco Tourism in
Tamil Nadu” highlights important schemes and strategies for th e development
of ecotourism. Further, important aspects such as s chemes for the ecotourism

46

development spots, state level vision, mission, obj ectives, guiding principles of
Tamil Nadu, government strategies, ecotourism polic y, guidelines and legal
frame work, operation and responsibilities, establi shment of eco-tourism
promotion, awareness and marketing centres, develop ment and customization
of Ecotourism products, Ecotourism activities, stra tegies and promotional
methods by government and non-government organisati ons, conservation
measures, operational guidelines, the environmental pledge, strategies for
sustainable Ecotourism, short term strategy and lon g term strategy are
explained.
The Fourth Chapter and the Last Chapter is “Data Analysis”. In this
Chapter an attempt is made to examine the essential information regarding the
examination on Tourism Industry with special refere nce to Eco Tourism in
Tamil Nadu. Besides, the level of satisfaction of t ourists and perceptions of
host communities, the issues confronted by the visi tors, their dispositions and
responses, are provided. For the research study, th e statistical universe was
taken as the State of Tamil Nadu as a whole. Both p rimary and secondary data
formed the basic part of the study. Structured ques tionnaires were administered
to the respondents, who were the random sample of e cotourists. The primary
data, based on responses, were assembled, arranged and classified, for
scientific investigation. Socio-psycho profiles of the respondents were
analysed. Simple statistical tools were employed, t o interpret the data.
Financial profile of ecotourists influenced their p references as per their age,
sex, instruction and occupation.

47

In Conclusion, a summary of all the findings and analysis and som e
suggestions for implementation are provided.
Limitations
Constraints of time and scarcity of assets, were th e main limitations. The
study was confined to the ecotourist spots in Tamil Nadu alone. Since it was a
smaller scale investigation covering Eco Spots alon e, the findings may not
yield generalisations. Only 350 vacationer responde nts were reached to gather
essential information in which 250 were domestic si ghtseers and 100 were
outside visitors. Similarly, only 100 host groups w ere interviewed for the spot
data.

48

End Notes
1. Bhatia, A.K., International Tourism Management, Sterling Publishers,
New Delhi: 2006, pp.37-38.
2. Swain Sampath Kumar and Mishra Jitendra Mohan, Tourism Principles
and Practices, New Delhi:Oxford University Press, 2012, p.4
3. Girish, Revathy, Cultural Heritage of India, New Delhi: Wisdom Press,
2010, p.1.
4. Ghosh, Bishwanath, Tourism and Travel Management, Noida: Vikas
Publishing House Pvt Ltd, 2007, p.3.
5. Bhatia, A.K., International Tourism Management, op.cit., p.67.
6. Ohe, Y., ‘Characterizing Rural Tourism in Japan: Fe atures and
Challenges’ in Diaz, P and Schmitz, M.F, Tourism Today, Vol.I,
Cultural Tourism, Southampton: WIT Press, 2014, pp. 62-63.
7. Swain, Sampad Kumar and Mishra, Jitenda Mohan, op.cit., p.4.
8. Mill, R.C., and Morrison A.M., The Tourism System, New Delhi:
Prentice Hall, 1985, pp.110-111.
9. Sharpley, R. and Vass, Adrian., ‘Tourism, Farming and Diversification
– An Attitudinal Study’ in Tourism Management, Pergamon, Elsevier
Science Ltd, Vol 27, Issue 5, 2006, pp.1047-1048.
10. Sharma, K K., Tourism and Regional Development, New Delhi: Sarup
and Sons, 2004, p.79.
11. Page, Stephen J. and Connell, Joanne., Tourism: A Modern Synthesis,
London: Thomson Learning, Cengage Learning EMCA, 2 006, p.314.
12. Negi J.M.S., Tourism and Travel – Concept and Principles, New Delhi:
Gitanjali Publishing House, 1992, p.93.
13. Smith, Vincent, A., The Oxford History of India, New Delhi: Oxford
University Press, 1958, p.129.
14. Trease and Geoffrey, The Grand Tour, London: Heinemann, 1967, p.44.
15. Laws, E.C., Tourist Destination Management: Issues, Analysis a nd
Policies, London: Routledge, 1995, p.170.

49

16. Bezbaruah, M.P, Indian Tourism beyond the Millennium, New Delhi:
2000, p.71.
17. Law, C., Urban Tourism: Attracting Visitors to Large Cities, London:
Mansell, 1993, p.87.
18. Holloway, J.C., Marketing for Tourism, London: Pitman, 1988, p.56.
19. Reilly, R.T., Travel and Tourism Marketing Techniques, New York:
Delmar, 1988, p.117.
20. Kumar, K., Tourism Today – Indian Perspective, New Delhi: Kanishka
Publishers, 1992, p.134.
21. Kruja, Drita, and Gjyrezi, Albana, ‘The Special Int erest Tourism
Development and the Small Regions’ in Turizam, Vol.15, Issue.2, 2011,
p.79.
22. Torre, G. Millan Vazquez De La, and Gutierrez, E. A gudo, ‘The
Demand of Rural Tourism in a Natural Park in Southe rn Spain’ in
Burns, Peter M. and Novelli, Marina., (eds.), Tourism Development,
Growth, Myth and Inequalities, CABI, UK, 2008, p.113; Ali-Knight,
J M., The Role of Niche Tourism Products in Destination D evelopment,
Dissertation, Edinburgh: Edinburgh Napier Universit y, 2011, p.12.
23. Martha, Honey, Ecotourism and Sustainable Development, Washington
: Island Press, 2008, p.145.
24. Badruddin., ‘Eco –Tourism and Rural Development: A Case Study of
Beaches in Goa’ in Rais Ahmad, (ed.), Tourism and Rural Management,
New Delhi: Regal Publications, 2013, pp.16-17.
25. Torre, G. Millan Vazquez De La, and Gutierrez, E. A gudo, loc.cit.,
p.141.
26. Girish, Revathy, Indian Tourist Panorama, New Delhi: Wisdom Press,
2010, pp.34-35.
27. ’25 Eco-Tourism Spots identified across Tamil Nadu’ in The Hindu,
Madurai, 5
th September 2014.
28. Bansal, Atul, New Era of Sustainable Tourism in India, New Delhi:
Manglam Publishers, 2013, p.10.

50

29. Vijay Kumar. A., Indian Tourism Industry in 21st Century Challenges
and Responses, New Delhi: Sonali Publications, 2006, p.145.
30. Murugan, Annamalai, Ecotourism its Potential and Usefulness, New
Delhi: Abhijeet Publications, 2012, pp.213-214.
31. Sharma, K.K., Tourism and Development, New Delhi: Arup ; Sons
Publications, 2005, p.38.
32. Bhattacharya, A.K., Ecotourism and Livelihoods Capacity Building for
Local Authorities, New Delhi , 2005, p.118.
33. Arasaratnam, Sinnappah, Maritime India in the Seventeenth Century,
New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2004, p.65.
34. Sharply, Richard, and Telfer, David, J., (eds.), Aspects of Tourism –
Tourism and Development: Concepts and Issues, Clevedon, Channel
View Publications, 2002, p.146.
35. Bhatia, A.K, Tourism Development: Principles and Practices, New
Delhi: Sterling Publishers (P.) Ltd., 2002, p.79.
36. Lahri, Sudesh, Indian Tourism Destination for all Seasons, New Delhi,
2004, pp.58.
37. Singh, Rantandeep, Dynamics of Modern Tourism, New Delhi:
Kanishka Publishers, 1998, p.54.
38. Burkart and Medlik, Tourism – Past, Present and Future , London:
Heinemann, 1974, p.120.
39. Sigaux, G., History of Tourism, London: Leisure Arts, 1966, pp.41-42.

51

CHAPTER – I
ECOTOURISM IN TAMIL NADU – A PROFILE
Tamil Nadu is one of the 29 States of India. It lie s on the eastern shore
of the southern Indian Peninsula, bounded by Puduch erry (Pondicherry),
Kerala, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. Tamil Nadu is bounded by Eastern
Ghats in the north, the Anamalai Hills, the Nilgiri , and Palakkad on the west,
Bay of Bengal in the east, Gulf of Mannar, Palk Str ait in the south east and
Indian Ocean in the south. It is the eleventh bigge st State in India by territory
and the sixth most crowded State. It is a home to n umerous regular assets,
uncommon greenery, cool slope stations, stupendous Hindu sanctuaries of
Dravidian design, shoreline resorts, multi-religiou s journey locales and three
UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
1 It is one of the leadingStates, in the nation,
regarding general advancement.
The geology of Tamil Nadu is delightfully varied. M ore than 17.6%
percent of 1,30,058 sq.kms of land zone, is covered by woodland and favoured
with shorelines and slope stations and it is perfec t for ecotourism. The Cauvery
River is another common blessing that supports the land, with Palar, Pennar,
Vaigai, and Tamiraparani, being alternate waterways in the State. Dry terrains
are grown with dry-deciduous woodlands and thistle backwoods. The Western
Ghats and a couple of cooler areas are invested wit h sodden deciduous, wet
evergreen timberlands, and meadows.
2
Tamil Nadu is noted for its wonderful structural l egacy and its rich
vegetation and its rich bio-assorted variety, draw ecotourists. Tourism, in Tamil

52

Nadu, is a window toward the South India and it is a totally open chronicle of
old heritages, from the State Capital, Chennai, tow ards the southern tip of
Kanyakumari. Tamil Nadu has ecotourism destinations in Wildlife havens and
National parks, Biosphere treasures, Beaches, Hill station and Waterfalls.
3
This mix of the old and new, makes Tamil Nadu exude unmistakable
charm. Since tourism is the pillar of the State, wi th both neighbourhood and
global guests, thronging the State for its sanctuar y visits and otherworldly
circuits, the State has built up infrastructures fo r its eco-travellers.
4
Amirthi / Kottaru Water Falls and Zoological Park
Amirthi Falls is located in the Vellore District. I t is a fit place for
ecotourism. These Falls originates 25 kilometers fr om Vellore. AmirthiFalls is
located in the middle of the Amirthi woodlands, alo ng the Javathu Mountain.
Amirthi/KottaruWater falls and Zoological Park.
The source of the River Naganathi is from Mount Jav athu. Amirthi Falls
is set in the midst of deepvalleys and admirable sl opes. Fascinating, widely
varied vegetation, presents an enchanting place for ecotourists. The post
rainstorm periods of June to November are the best time to visit the Amirthi
Falls.In the year 1967, the park was opened and it is around 25 kilometers from
the Vellore City. The territory of the recreation c entre is 25 hectares and one
can discover delightful water falls. The major acti vity like trekking, Boating,
Nature walks, Bird watching and Forest stay takes p lace in this eco spot.

53

Swamimalai
Swamimalai Hills in Mangalam is located in Yelagiri , which is 4626 ft
over the ocean level. It’s in vellore district, Thirupattur division. The feeling of
climbing the highest hills and then watching the vi ew of the whole region, from
the top of the hills, is breathtaking.For the most part, the local population
would guidethe sightseers to the slopes, through th ick backwoods. The
Mangalam Village, which is at 3.5kms from Punganoor Lake is the starting
point of Swamimalai trek. This excursion takes five kms from the two sides. It
takes 2.5 hours to reach and descend from the slope s. The best time for
trekking, at Swamimalai Hills, is November to Janua ry.
5Trekking the nature
trial is adventurous in this destination.

Jalagamparai Falls
Jalagamparai Waterfalls is one of the essential vac ationer spots, in
Yelagiri Hills, to visit. The waterway, Attaru, whi ch is a regular stream, goes
through the Yelagiri Hills valley and falls vertica lly from a height of around 15
meters. Its located in Vellore district and Thirupa ttur division.
From November to January is thebest time to visit t he Jalagamparai
Waterfalls because the water from the North-East Mo nsoon downpours will
guarantee that there is water in the waterfalls. Th is waterfall is close to the
Jalagamparai Temple, which is a vital sanctuary, co mmitted to Lord Shiva.
Trekking and Boating is said to be the major eco ac tivity.

54

Javadhu Hills
Javadhu Hills is an extension of the Eastern Ghats, spread crossway over
parts of Vellore and Tiruvannamalai regions. They c omprise of pale blue, dark
rocks, with tops averaging 3,600– 3,800 feet. Vello re lies on the north-western
side and Tiruvannamalai lies on the south-eastern s ide of this range.
Around 50 miles wide and 20 miles long, it is divid ed into eastern and
western sections, by the Cheyyar and Agaram streams , tributaries of the Palar.
Trekking, camping and boating are important tourist activities.
Kariyalur Central Nursery Stream Kariyalur is 10 km from Kalrayan Hills and it is en dowed with beautiful
vacation spots like Megam Falls, and Periyar Falls, Gomukhi Dam at the
Kalrayan foot slopes. It’s in Kallakurichi division . This Hills has noteworthy
slopes situated in the Eastern Ghats of the souther n Indian territory of Tamil
Nadu.
Alongside the Pachaimalai, Javadi, and Shevaroy slo pes, they isolate the
Cauvery River bowl toward the south from the Palar River bowl toward the
north. The slopes are in the range from 2000 feet t o 3000 feet and stretch out to
a region of 1095 square kilometers. Kariyalur centr al Nursery stream is said to
be Jungle stream.

55

The Chinna Kalrayans is 2700 feet in stature, while the Periya
Kalrayansis 4000 feet. Clean, wild landscapes reach up to 400 meters in
elevation while deciduous woodlands can be found ov er 800 meters.
Sholas, a sort of tall, evergreen woods, can be dis covered developing on
secluded levels. Despite the fact that the woodland landscape is developing,
because of “territory uniqueness, human effects and social convention”,
protection endeavours are required.
6Coracle ride and Trekking is the tourist
activity.

Pichavaram Mangroves
Pichavaram is situated close to Chidambaram in Cudd alore District,
Villupuram division in Tamil Nadu. The Pichavaram M angrove Forest is the
world’s second biggest mangrove woods.
Pichavaram mangrove woods is situated between two n oticeable
estuaries, the Vellar estuary in the north and Cole roon estuary in the south. The
Vellar-Coleroon estuarine complex structures the Ki llai backwater and
Pichavaram mangroves. The backwaters are interconne cted by the Vellar and
Coleroon stream frameworks and offer plenteous exte nsion for water games,
like paddling, kayaking. There are more than 400 wa ter courses, accessible for
boating. The tourist is attracted by the beautiful features of Mangroves and
Back waters.

56

Pichavaram has a very large mangrove woods. Pichava ram comprises of
various islands, scattered over a huge stretch wate r, secured with green trees.
The zone is around 1100 hectare and it is isolated from the ocean by a sand bar.
The accessibility of varied living space, consists of channels, rivulets,
chasms, mud pads and sand pads and contiguous ocean shore and offers perfect
natural surroundings, for contrasting types of wing ed birds and animals. Boat
ride, Bird watching and Eco campus are the major to urist activities.
Hogenakkal Hogenakkal Falls is a waterfall in South India, on the Cauveri stream, in
the Dharmapuri region of Tamil Nadu. It is found 46 km from Dharmapuri.
Sometimes alluded to as the “Niagara Falls of India ,” it is known for restorative
showers and offers scope for a vacation spot. Carbo natite rocks in this site are
considered to be the oldest of its kind in South As ia and one of the oldest in the
world. The most beautiful features are said to be W ater falls, River, and
Riverine forest.
Coracles, locally known as parisals, are around 2.2 4 m and yet can take
a group of eight people, at any given moment. These coracles are made of
bamboo, and with all materials accessible, takes ab out a day to fabricate.
7 The
base of the boat is made waterproof. Use of plastic s in the Hogenakkal region
is banned.
8 Bathing, Coracle ride, Trekking and Eco awareness c amp are
important Eco tourist activity.

57

YERCAUD
Yercaud is a hill station in Salem District. It is situated in the
Shevaroyshills, in the Eastern Ghats. It is situate d, at a height of 1515 meters
(4970 ft) above ocean level and the most noteworthy point in Yercaud is the
ServarayanSanctuary, at 5,326 feet (1,623 m). The h ill station is named from
the abundance of timberland, close to the lake and the name means the Lake
Forest. Yercaud is also called the Jewel of the Sou th. Yercaud is connected
with the City of Salem, Tamil Nadu, through a Highw ay of 28 km.Yercaud is
as charming and pleasant as the hill stations on th e Eastern Ghats and trekking
will be adventurous and fun.
Yercaud, at a height of 1515 meters, is situated on the Shevaroy Hills of
Tamil Nadu. A peaceful little town, Yercaud is situ ated on the Eastern Ghats
and guarantees a special treat as a result of its g eography. In the midst of dry
climate of Tamil Nadu, Yercaud emerges a welcome st and out,with its cool
atmosphere and temperatures, that never go over 30º C. Its position of safety
makes it a more affordable goal than its prominent partners in South India like
Ooty and Kodaikkanal. It offers great trekking and great open-door
experience.
9There are many vacation spots in Yercaud. They are,
The garden, encompassing the lake,looks very enchan ting during the
period of May when the Summer Festival is organized . Tourists could
appreciate a ride in the lake, which is in the mids t of the most amazing
greenhouses and trees.

58

Lady’s Seat is the name, given to a bunch of rocks, on the south west
side of Yercaud. There is a precarious drop of arou nd 200 feet beneath and it is
clearly is a stunning perspective. The view is fabu lous, especially in the night,
with the twinkling lights of Salem Town, in the bac kdrop.
The Killiyur Waterfalls is located around three km from the Yercaud
Lake. The water comes by means of a stream from the Big Lake.
Bear’ s Cave is framed by two enormous rocks and it is located on transit
to Servaroyan Temple. The cave is around seven feet beneath the ground level
and it is said to reach out, past the Servaroyan Sa nctuary till Cauvery in the
territory of Karnataka, which is around 485 Km away .
The Shevaroyam Temple is situated at the most notew orthy point, in
Shevaroy slopes, the sanctuary is and delightfully designed. This sanctuary is
renowned for the celebration, by the neighborhood c lans, in the period of May.
The Sanctuary houses the shrine for the God Shevaro yan and the Goddess
Cauvery inside, representing the Shevaroy Hills and the Cauvery River.
Anna Park is located nearthe Lake and this Anna Par k is aesthetically
structured. Close-by, there are a few parks like La ke Park, Gandhi Park, and
Children Park. The most important tourist activitie s are trekking, wildlife
viewing, bird watching and nature camping.

59

Kolli Hills
Kolli Slopes is at a height of 1190 meters and loca ted in theNamakkal
District. Akasagangai Water falls is from Namakkal4 0 kms. Kolli slopes are
known for restorative herbs and plants. The mountai ns are around 1000 to 1300
meters in height and cover a region of roughly 280 kms. Arappaleeswarar
Sanctuary, Government Herbal Ranch, Aiyaru (stream) , AkasagangaiWater
falls, professional Flowerbed and Telescope House a re the essential attractions.
The mountains are moderately untouched by business tourism and still hold
their regular excellence. Viewpoint at Selur Nadu w as created to energize
tourism. Medical plants are sought after in this mo untain. The Government
holds the Tourism celebration, consistently in Augu st.
10
From a height of 300 feet Agaya Gangai Waterfalls f rom Kolli Hills,
beautifully flows into the River Aiyaru. The waterf all lies near the
Arappaleeshvarar Sanctuary and it is encompassed by mountains on all sides.
This site is suitable for trekking.
Arappaleeswar Temple is grandly situated on the hig hest point of the
slopes and it is decorated, with various Tamil engr avings, traceable to the
Chola period. The simple architectural style adds b eauty to the sanctity of the
temple. It is said to have a covered way, that reac hes at the Shiva Sanctuary in
Rasipuram, which was built by the ruler, Valvil Ori . This antiquated Sanctuary
is known to have been known in the Sangam age.

60

The Boat House, situated in Vasalurpatty on the Sol akkadu-
Thinnanurpatty Road, is a lookout spot, where saili ng is possible. There is a
little common island amidst the lake. The lake is a n extremely minor
counterfeit lake and it has a little garden. Pedal boats are available for boating.
Greenhouse is another lookout point, that has a rec reation center, rose
garden, eco-friendly bungalows, herbal park and a v iew point. There is a little
kids’ playground in the garden, that incorporates r ides like see-saw, wave slide,
statues of creatures and carousel. The garden is po pular for a patio, that is
utilized for rearing flowering plants
Kolli Hills has been developed into a place for tou rism. One of the spots
is at Selurnadu and another is at Seekuparai. The S tate Government has built a
recreation center and a street, leading to the Seek uparai View Point. A yearly
celebration is organized by the State Government in the month of August for
promoting tourism. The Selurnadu View Point is a tr anquil place in Kollimalai
from where delightful views of the encompassing zon es are clearly visible.
The Siddhar Caves, situated on the Kolli Hills, are thought to be the
habitation of sages, who perfected native pharmaceu tical hundreds of years
ago. These hollows are so small that only a single or two individuals can go
inside it at once. These hollows are additionally e ncompassed by little forests,
brimming with therapeutic herbs.
As the Kolli Hills are known fundamentally for the abundance of
restorative herbs, the Tampcol Medicinal Farm was s et up by the State

61

Government. Numerous therapeutic herbs, roots and p lants, utilized as a part of
Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha systems, are found in ab undance.
Ettukai Amman is the defender of Kolli slopes. She is the town god, for
every one of the general population, who live on Ko lli slopes. This sanctuary is
on the transit road to Agaya Gangai Falls.
The sanctuary is situated on a little mountain and one needs to stop and
walk for a kilometre to reach the sanctuary. Sanctu ary is encompassed by
delightful mountains, ranches and woods. Sanctuary has a major lake before it.
The strolling trail is loaded with picturesque marv els. The Eco tourist activities
at this destination are Boating, Bathing, Trekking, Cultural tourism and Nature
camping.
Pillur Dam
The Coimbatore urban wetlands harbors more than 125 types of resident
and transient fowls. August – October months form t he pinnacle of the season.
Pillur is an environmentally sensitive territory an d NTFP (Non-Timber Forest
Products) asset richzone. In spite of the proximity of a Hydel dam, horticulture
is rainfed for these tribal groups.
11
The Bolambatti Forest Range is rich with wonderful scene, with thick
vegetation structure and water falls. The green und ulating territory, with fog
covering the slopes, draws the travellers. To satis fy the tourism necessities of
the general population, the Kovai Courtalam Program was started in the
Bolampatti Forest Range, with the assistance of Tou rism Department of Tamil

62

Nadu. The tourists are permitted to bathe in the fa lls upto 4.00 PM. Recently,
trekking shed and tree top “machans” have been crea ted, for travelers for
remain in the Sadivayal.
Boating down the harsh element of water, watching e xcellent green
wood’s scenes, perpetual waterfalls, birdlife, crea tures, wild river crossing
programs, rope climbing, tree top houses, trekking shed, have rendered this
place fit for trekking. But earlier authorization f rom the Forest Department, is
necessary for trekking expeditions.
12
The skill of driving the coracles, is in demand in Baralikadu Boating
point. Hence the Government organized Eco Tourism in Karamadai Range, by
availing the resources of the local population unde r XII Finance Directive
Scheme, Thus continuous revenue has been generated for the tribal people and
also to basic amenities of these villages and educa tion, sanitation, health,
transportation, Communication etc., have been enhan ced due to ecotourism.
From morning 10.00 a.m to 4.00 p.m. 20 local men ar e selected to drive
the coracles. The coracle ride is being organized j ust on Saturdays and
Sundays. Ten coracles are available and four people for each coracle. There are
Two trips in a day. For the most part, this coracle ride begins by 10 Am and
finished with two hours ride in the Bhavani waterwa y. Visitors are excited by
the excellence of the woods and they can also commu nicate with the villagers,
arranged along the bank of the stream.
13

63

After the ride, tasty lunch, with conventional menu ., ragi balls
withcurry, vegetable plate of mixed greens, chappat hi-kuruma, assorted rice,
curd rice with mineral water and natural products a re presented with the most
extreme cleanliness. The nourishment is arranged an d served by the Women’s
Self Help Groupsof Baralikkadu Town, with warmth an d friendliness.
Sightseers value the quality and taste of the nouri shment. Travellers can
appreciate the delightful perspectives of woodland, Athikadavu dam, Kundha
waterway and parts of Kerala. After this short trek king/climbing, travellers can
wash up at the water falls. Here the Coracle ride, Bathing and Trekkingare said
to be the most important eco sports.
Anaikatty Forest
Anaikatty Forest is on the foothills of the Nilgiri Mountains. Anaikatti,
being close to Tamil Nadu and Kerala, has a charmin g atmosphere consistently
and it comes under Nilgris North. The monsoon starts from June and continues
until October.
14
The place is beautiful, remote and untouched. Anaik atti has the Nilgiris
Biosphere Nature Park, a 70-section of land plot of over-utilized land that was
changed into a lavish woodland. Be it in Silent Val ley or Nilgiri Biosphere
Nature Park, the territory in and around Anaikatti is overflowing with an
assortment of flying creatures and creepy crawlies. An early morning trek to
Anaikatti timberland, is something everybody should attempt. With a plenitude
of greenery and varied species, the peak additional ly offers an all-

64

encompassing perspective of the beautiful towns, on the slopesof the Western
Ghats.
15Trekking, wildlife viewing, forest stay and Nature camp are the tourist
activities.
Thengumarahada Kodanad and Kallampalayam
Thengumarahada is a town in Kotagiri Taluk in Coimb atore circle,
Nilgris District. It’s in Nilgris North Division. I t is the biggest among the seven
towns, found in the Moyar valley, in Nilgris Distri ct. The destination is covered
on three sides by beautiful mountains and one side, by the lovely Moyar River.
Thengumarahada Kodanad and Kallampalayam is said to be the Eco
destinations and
Kallampalayam Town is located in Kotagiri Tehsil of Nilgiris. It is
situated 108km from the headquarters of Kotagiri an d 148 km from
Udhagamandalam. According to 2009 report, Thengumar ahada is the Gram
Panchayat of Kallampalayam Town.
The aggregate land is spread over 3752.82 hectares. Kallampalayam has
an aggregate population of 1,691 people. There are around 564 houses in
Kallampalayam Town. Sathiya Mangalam is the closest town to
Kallampalayam.
Thengumarahada is alluded to as ‘the paddy bowl of Nilgris’ because of
large scale paddy fields. Moyar River runs through wilderness, vegetation and
the habitation of Irula clan. Outdoor trekking and bird viewing are the
significant traveller activities.

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The most widely recognized trekking trails run up t o Kodanad, a three
and a half hour trekking or the Sirur-Aanaikatti-Ma sinagudi course. From
Kodanadu perspective, the plunge begins from an ele vation of 2000 meters to
350 meters, extending crosswise over 16-17 kms.
16
Earlier consent from timberland authorities is requ ired, for a night safari
in the wilderness. Strolling down the dusty street to Halimoyar Town, home to
Irula clan, adds an alternate fascinating dimension to the trekking experience.
The major activities are Trekking, Coracle ride, Ec o awareness camp and
wildlife viewing
Avalanche
The Avalanche is a significant tourism destination and it is about 25 kms
away from Ooty Town and it falls in south division of Nilgris. Shola Forests,
temple and beautiful Landscape are said to be the i mportant features of the
destination. More than 2700 types of blossoming pla nts, 160 types of plant and
greenery, endless sorts of flowerless plants and gr eeneries are found in the
sholas of the Nilgiris. This zone lies in Kundah Re served Forests, including
two Forest Ranges, in particular Udhagai South and Korakundah Ranges.
Upper Bhavani is a drive through the verdant green woods and fills in as one of
the portals to the Mukurthi National park, around 2 5 kms from Avalanche and
10 kms from Korakundah. This area gets around 5000 mm of precipitation
every year.
17 Trekking, Vehicle ride, Eco camps and Cultural Tour ism are the
important activities.

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Penstock
Penstock is located in Coimbatore circle, Nilgris s outh division. Forests,
Landscape are said to be the beautiful Features of this destination. Penstock is a
sluice,to direct the stream of water and this word is traced to the mid
seventeenth Century words, Pen and StockPen refers to a small dam and stock
refers to water. Canada power station in Geddai, is found seven kilometers
from Manjur and at an elevation of 1,885 feet and t he place is a picture of calm.
Five principal channels wind down the slope, before exhausting the water at
extraordinary power into the Geddai control station . This comes within the
jurisdiction of Electricity Board. There is a view point, to some degree poorly
kept up, which gives an all-encompassing perspectiv e of the Nilgiris from the
solace of a solid seat, with chipping green paint.
18
A penstock is a floodgate or entryway or admission structure that
controls water stream, or an encased pipe that conv eys water to hydro turbines
and sewerage frameworks. The term is acquired from period before innovation
of watermills.
Penstocks, for hydroelectric establishments, are or dinarily furnished
with a door framework and a surge tank. Stream is c ontrolled by turbine
operation. Penstocks, especially where utilized as a part of dirtied water
frameworks, should be kept up by high temp water wa shing, manual cleaning,
antifouling coatings and drying up. The term is lik ewise utilized as a part of

67

water system dams, to allude to the channels pumpin g from high-weight
floodgate entryways.
Down beneath are sections of local shola woodlands, a mind-boggling
view. The winch station is just a five-minute drive . From here, an auto
advances down four organized courses, dropping spec ialists and laborers off to
check the funnels each day. The winch station is a sight worth witnessing. The
old hardware, that brings down the dark, oiled stee l loop, that holds the auto,
has been working constantly since 1956. An oil spec ked board, in metal,
reports the nation of its birthplace as England. Th e three-kilometre trip, by
winch, to Geddai, takes about 80 minutes. Once the winch at Penstock achieves
the following stop, the winch auto then assumes con trol. To go on board the
winch, the tourist should have authorization from t he Electricity Board.
From here, one can trek to Edakadu, Pandithopal Kun dah, Avalanche,
and Parson’s Valley. Consent from District Forest O fficer ought to be taken, to
remain in the trekking shed, at Nilgiris. The major tourist activities are
trekking, Nature camps and view points
Mukurthi National Park
Mukurthi National Park lies in Ootacamund slope in the northwest
corner of Western Ghats. It is home to a variety of untamed life, including
endangered Bengal tiger and Asian elephant, and the warm-blooded creature
fascination called the Nilgiri Tahr. The recreation center is known as Nilgiri
Tahr National Park. The recreation center is a piec e of Nilgiri Biosphere

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Reserve, India’s first International Biosphere Rese rve. As a component of the
Western Ghats, it is an UNESCO World Heritage Site, since 1st July 2012.
In 1882,the Inspector General of Forests, Dietrich Brandis prescribed
bringing the present 1,200 sections of land (4.9 sq uare kilometres) of ranch, up
to 5,000 sections of land (20 square kilometres), t o make huge woodland
squares, pronounced as a Reserve Timberland, in 188 6.
In 1920, it was recommended that 10– 15 sections of land plots, in the
Kundah Hills, including the present stop region, be planted up every year in
places where sholas have practically vanished, the most appropriate species
being Acacia dealbata (silver wattle).Thus, various endemic and stable
biological communities, were replaced by an outland ish monoculture. The
territory was proclaimed as an untamed life asylum, on 3 August 1982 and
moved up to a National Park on 15 October 1990, kee ping in mind the end goal
to secure the Nilgiri Tahr. Between February to May and September to
November is the best time to visit the place.
Mukurthi National Park is under the control of the Tamil Nadu
Department of Forestry and their principle goal is to monitor the jeopardized
shola-prairie environment and its endemic verdure.
19 The division works a
compelling year-round watch against poaching, with weapons and radio
equipped, foot watches, working from against poachi ng camps at Bangitappal,
Nadugani, Western Catchment and Mukurthi Fishing Hu t.

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Counteractive action and control of ruinous, rapidl y spreading fire is
accomplished, through formation of manufactured fir ebreaks, as hand-
burrowed fire lines along edges and cleared trek wa ys. Nearby watchers are
utilized for early discovery and control amid the p erilous December to April
fire season. Intrusive imported plant species, part icularly wattle, Scotch floor
brush and gorse are controlled and killed from the recreation centre, through a
staged, long haul program, concentrated on rebuildi ng of the earlier biota.
Tourism is an objective of the Forest Department. B ut occasionally, the
Department supports direct nature mindfulness and p reservation programs for
the general population.
20
The Forest Department tries to distinguish and secu re, undisturbed
natural territories, from future incorporation into the recreation centre.
Easy-going tourism and business visit are not allow ed. Visitor offices
are not available in the recreation center. Parties are sometimes allowed they
permit, regulated instructive projects like trekkin g. There are backwoods rest
houses at Bangitapal, Avalanche, Pykara and some em pty trekking sheds.
Wildlife viewing, landscape Trekking, forest stay a nd vehicle ride are the
famous eco tourist activities.
Starting in November 2007, the Forest Department pe rmit strekking
programs, inside the timberland regions of Mukurthi Park, with the objective of
acquainting people with the need for conservation. The spots, secured for treks,

70

are Mudimund, Mukurthi Peak, Western Catchment, Ban gitapal, Moyar,
Anaikatti, Morganbetta, Avalanchi, Kolleribetta, Si spara and Silent Valley.
Trek expeditions could cover 8 km to 60 km. Each gr oup consists of up
to 20 individuals. Aides, educators, cooks, tents a nd sustenance are given by
the division. Trekkers need to bring rucksacks and resting packs. Application
for trekking grants can be made to the Range Office r.
21
The Trekking Roots are
1. Bangitapal – Sispara – 16 Km
2. Bangitapal – Sispara-Poochiparai-Silent Valley – 52 Km
3. Devabetta – Mukkurthi Peak – 12Km. – Fishinghut (end) – 8 Km
4. Kolarikutta – Bangitapal – 20 Km (end)
5. Western Catchment – Bangitapal – 14 Km
6. Trekking Shed – Kangerkundi – Nadugani – 18 Km
Theppakkadu, Masinagudi, Moyar Singara,Vazahothotta m, Sigur
The Mudumalai National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary protects
endangered tigers and it lies on the northwestern side of the Nilgiris. The States
of Karnataka and Keralasharethe boundaries. The San ctuary is divided into five
territories – Thepakadu, Kargudi, Masinagudi, Mudum alai, and Nellakota.
The protected zone is home to a few imperiled and d efenseless species,
including Indian elephant, Bengal tiger, gaur and I ndian panther. There are no

71

less than 266 types of feathered creatures in the h aven, including theseriously
imperiled, Indian white-rumped vulture.
Mudumalai National Park is under the UNESCO World H eritage
Committee, since it is declared as a World Heritage Site. There are 48 tigers in
the Nilgiri Reserve over which tigers are allowed t o wander.Landscape,
Viewpoints, Trekking, Wildlife viewing, Nature camp s and vehicle ride are the
major tourist activities.
Those in the five km zone, around the recreation ce nter, were removed
and a few people in this zone will progress toward becoming trackers and
advisers and enhance their wage, through eco-touris m.
23
Exercises of Eco Tourism in Mudhumalai Tiger Reserv e
Their goals: • Maximize recreational experience of the general pop ulation, through
different exercises.
• Minimize the effect of tourism, on natural life and its critical
territory.
• Increase guests’ concern for nature protection.
• Create a feeling of belongingness and open help for the protection.
• Create open doors, for the local individuals, to wo rk for preservation.

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Offices accessible for Tourists:
• Vehicle rides in the tourism zone of the centre zon e
• Elephant safari
• Visit to Theppakadu
• Visit to Elephant camp at Theppakadu
Vehicle Safari is an interesting one
• Visitors would be given a45-minute ride, through th e tourism zone of
the Tiger Reserve, in transports run by the Tiger S ave
Administration. Guests should introduce themselves one hour before
their turn.
• Please take note that no private Vehicle is permitt edfor safari rides,
inside the core zone of the Tiger Reserve and only division-run
vehicles are permitted for safaris.
• For vehicle safari rides, guests are asked to appro ach the office at
Theppakadu, situated around 100 meters from the pri mary street and
buy tickets.
• Timings: Morning: 7.00 AM to 9.00 AM/Evening: 3.00 PM to 5.30
PM
Elephant Safari is also attractive feature.
• 30 minutes elephant safari in the tourism zone.
• Current booking at Theppakadu Reception Range
• Elephant rides are subject to dry and positive clim ate conditions.

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• Timings: Morning: 7.00 AM to 8.00 AM/Evening: 4.00 PM to 5.00
PM
Tourists are allowed to visit the well-known Elepha nt Camp, situated at
Theppakadu.
• Visitation is limited to morning and night.
• Visit to the Elephant Camp is instructive. One can find the sustaining
propensities for the elephants, particularly camp e lephants and their
schedule.
• This Theppakadu Elephant Camp, in Mudumalai Tiger R eserve, is
one of the best-established camps in the Country. I t was built in
1927. 24 Elephants are kept up in the Theppakadu El ephant Camp.
• Timings: Morning: 8.30 AM to 9.00 AM/Evening: 5.30 PM to 6.00
PM
• The camp elephants are maintained for watching the woods,
moonlight trip for travellers, and so forth.
In order to inspire dynamic co-operation, between the general
population, dwelling on the forests and the forest department, Eco
Development committees (EDCs)have been formed.
• Now there are 18 such EDCs, in the periphery towns, set up with the
financial help from Project Tiger.

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• Members of EDCs have been engaged in works, likeAnt i
Depredation Watch, Eco Sanitary Watch, Anti-Poachin gWatch,
Drivers for safari vehicles, Fire watchers and weed clearing works.
• Vocational Training Programs, through NGO, for busi ness
alternatives like fitting engine, vehicle support a nd cooking.
• Providing school transport to the tribal school kid s.
• Development of native medicine, profiting more than 1.5 lakh
individuals
The security of the reserve is guaranteed through a nti-poaching
operations. There are 21 such anti-poaching camps, built up in the sensitive
areas.
With the financial support from Central and State G overnments, these
camps have been encouraged with the supply of cooki ng vessels, rest materials,
uniform materials, gas connection, arms and ammo et c.
Natural Surroundings Management is a notable step. It includes weed
management, water management, and fire management
The predominant weeds are Eupatorium, Lantana camer a and
Parthenium. These weeds should be cleared, in order to re-establish the prairie,
for herbivores. Financial help from Central and Sta te Government Schemes,
has helped the clearance of weed and for the conser vation Tigers, which
depends upon herbivores.

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Water is the key part for natural life. There are c ommon water sources
like waterways and these existing water bodies guar antee a decent wellspring
of water for untamed life. During the dry period, w ater is filled in the water
troughs, for use by wild creatures.
Fire management is essential, especially during the fire season and quick
move is made up to relieve the forest flames. Thus, a substantial territory of the
Forest, is spared.
Theppakadu Elephant Camp is the most established el ephant camp in
Asia. This elephant camp was built 100 years ago. T his elephant camp has 24
elephants. In this elephant camp, elephants are ess entially utilized for watching,
eco-tourism, elephant ride etc. The Elephant Camp i s situated on the bank of
the waterway, called Moyar, opposite to the Recepti on Office. The nourishing
of the camp elephants can be witnessed by the guest s in the morning and
evening. The timings for this spectacle are 8:45 am to 9:15 am in the morning
and 5:45 pm to 6:15 pm in the evening. Guests are a dvised to secure the tickets,
at the Reception Office, well ahead of time.
The Mudumalai Tiger Conservation Foundation (MTCF), Tamil Nadu
Trust was created, under the Sec. 38X of the Wildli fe (Protection) Act, 1972
(as changed in 2006). The Foundation has been enlis ted as a Trust, on
25.03.2010, vide Registration No.64/2010, with the Deed of the Trust, as
affirmed by the Government of Tamil Nadu.

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The Head Office of the Foundation is situated in Ud hagamandalam. The
jurisdiction of operation of the Foundation covers the Tiger Reserve and its
abutting space and it is authorized to disperse wil d creatures from the Tiger
Reserve. The points of interest of the Deed of Trus t for MTCF, as endorsed by
the Government of Tamil Nadu:
The key objectives of the tiger preservation establ ishment are:
• To encourage and bolster the administration for p rotection of
Tiger and Bio-assorted variety and to initiate acti vities in eco-
advancement, through the association of individuals in such an
improvement process.
• To monitor the significant biodiversity and the n ormal assets of
Mudumalai Tiger Reserve.
• To ensure tiger and its co-predators,the developm ent of a prey
base, in the Mudumalai Tiger Reserve.
• To diminish natural obstruction and decreasing th e bio-
corruption, through Eco-advancement programs.
• To enhance occupation choices of the Forest wards and diminish
their timberland reliance, by giving option to busi ness openings.
• To advance awareness among individuals, in the pr eservation and
enlargement of untamed life, through bestowing natu re
instruction and environmental research.

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To realize these objectives, the Foundation works w ith supporting
establishments, organizations or people, to take up movement to meet these
targets. The work of the Foundation is to fundament ally help the tiger reserve
administration, in biodiversity preservation activi ties.
• Management of the Tiger Reserve and its security from every one
of the dangers, according to the Tiger Conservation Plan,
endorsed by the National Tiger Conservation Authori ty.
• Habitat improvement, for upgrading prey base, for tiger and other
carnivores, in the Reserve.
• Welfare measures, for staff of the Reserve, inclu ding staff
working on day to day basis.
• Awareness programs for assorted partners.
• Maintenance of foundation of the Reserve.
• Conducting wildlife population estimation program , according to
NTCA conventions.
• Income generation exercises, to upgrade the occup ation choices
of the periphery timberland tenants.
24
Sethumadai Top Slip
The Indira Gandhi Wildlife Sanctuary and National P ark is the biggest
and very much safe haven in Tamil Nadu. It lies on the Western Ghats, south of
the Palghat Gap and it is otherwise called Anamalai s (Mountain of Elephants).
With anarea of 958sq.km, it is rich in verdure. Thi s ensured zone constitutes
the most vital watershed for the horticultural econ omy and power supply. The

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Anamalais ascend from foothills at the height of 30 0m, to Top slip
Parambikulam Plateau at 800m and to the Valparai Pl ateau, in the vicinity of
1000 and 1250 m. The rise incorporates a variety of environments, going from
dry thistle woods in the low foothills to semi-ever green expanses to grass
slopes and evergreen stretches in Valparai.
25
The Sanctuary lies in the Coimbatore area. The zone lies between
10°13′- 10°33′ North and 76°.49′ – 77°21East. It wa s created as an asylum in
the year 1974. Around 108 sq.kms of its living spac es, – Karian Shola, Grass
slopes, Manjampatty were created as National Parks, in 1989. The Anamalai is
home to about 5000 tribal of six groups – Malasar, Malai Malasar, Kadar,
Muduvar, Ervallars and Pulayars. This virgin timber land is a naturalist’s
pleasure. There are many spots of beautiful scenes, such as coolKarain Shola,
Anaikunthi Shore, waterfalls, forests, teak woods, homes, dam and repositories.
The Park and the Sanctuary are under the control by UNESCO, as a part of the
Western Ghats World Heritage Site. The Sanctuary an d the Palni Hills in
Dindigul District surround the Anamalai Conservatio n Area.
The Kozhikamuthi Elephant Camp is a little settleme nt in the
Ulaandyarea of Anamalai Tiger Reserve, close to Top slip, that is solely
utilized for hostage elephants to be trained under the local Malasar clans, who
have the expertise knowledge to work with Asian ele phants. Trekking, wildlife
viewing, Wildlife interpretation centre and eco-cam p are said to be important
tourist activities.

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The elephants here at the camp have rich diet and t hey are takencare of
in the best way possible. These trained elephants d rive out dangerous wild
elephants from attacking. The Kumki elephants (Trai ned Elephants) are
normally male tuskers and the most striking one in the camp is Kaleem. Caught
from the Sathyamangalam backwoods in 1972 and conve yed to the recent
elephant camp at Varagaliyar, Kaleem has helped cat ch more than 25 wild
elephants in Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Kerala.
26
The area it covers
• Indira Gandhi (Anamalai) Wildlife Sanctuary – 841 .49 Km2
• Indira Gandhi (Anamalai) National Park – 117.10 K m2
• The height shifts from 340m to 2400 m
• The yearly precipitation shifts from 800 mm to 45 00 mm
• The temperature shifts from a high of 35°C in the lower heights,
in summer, to a low of 0°C, in the higher rises ami d winter.
The Forest Types are
• Tropical wet evergreen woodland.
• Southern tropical clammy deciduous woodland
• Southern Tropical Dry Deciduous Forest
• Southern Montane Wet Temperate Forest
• Southern tropical thistle Forest
• Dry Savannah Forest
• Southern Bamboo Forest

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Shekelmudi Manamboly Grass Hills National Park
Shekelmudi Manamboly Grass Hills National Park is a piece of the
Anamalai Tiger Reserve, bordering on the Eravikulam National Park, in
neighboring Kerala State. Forest, Dams, Rivers, Gra ss hills are said to be most
beautiful features of Shekelmudi Manamboly
Administrative ranges in this sanctuary:
• Pollachi: A southern rural town of Coimbatore, it h as Range
Headquarters at Anaimalai Farm: 109.72 square kilom eters
(42.36 sq mi)
• Valparai: Water Falls: 171.5 square kilometers (66. 2 sq mi),
• Ulandy Top Slip: 75.93 square kilometers (29.32 sq mi),
• Amaravathi: Amaravathi Nagar: 172.5 square kilomete rs
(66.6 sq mi) and
• Udumalpet: 290.18 square kilometers (112.04 sq mi).

There are a few crests, more than 2,000 meters (6,6 00 ft) high, in the
recreation center, including:

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Table:1-1
Crests
Local Name Height Location
AkkaMalai 2,483 metres (8,146 ft) 10°20 ?43 ?N 77°4 ?10 ?E
JambuMalai 1,395 metres (4,577 ft) 10°15 ?51 ?N 77°15 ?48 ?E
Kadavaari 2,112 metres (6,929 ft) 10°13 ?40 ?N 77°17 ?24 ?E
KalabhaathurMalai 2,066 metres (6,778 ft) 10°14 ?09 ?N 77°16 ?13 ?E
KallarMalai 2,270 metres (7,450 ft) 10°18 ?48 ?N 77°4 ?40 ?E
KazhuthasuthiMal 2,250 metres (7,380 ft) 10°19 ?38 ?N 77°5 ?21 ?E
PappalammanMalai 2,201 metres (7,221 ft) 10°17 ?29 ?N 77°21 ?04 ?E
Paratumba 2,370 metres (7,780 ft) 10°13 ?39 ?N 77°17 ?24 ?E
PoduMalai 2,230 metres (7,320 ft) 10°18 ?44 ?N 77°5 ?16 ?E
SadayandiMalai 2,240 metres (7,350 ft) 10°19 ?28 ?N 77°6 ?7 ?E
TangachiMalai 2,380 metres (7,810 ft) 10°20 ?46 ?N 77°3 ?38 ?E
ThanakkuMalai 2,170 metres (7,120 ft) 10°22 ?22 ?N 77°4 ?44 ?E
Kilanavayal 2,350 metres (7,710 ft) 10°14 ?55 ?N 77°21 ?22 ?E

Mean yearly precipitation is between 500 millimeter s (20 in) in the
south-western edges and 4,500 millimeters (180 in) on the north east. This
Sanctuary is an essential watershed, for the hortic ultural economy and power
supply, in different parts of Tamil Nadu. Significa nt repositories like
Amaravathi Dam Aliyar Reservoir, Upper Aliyar Reser voir, Parambikulam
Reservoir, Kadambarai, Thirumurthi Reservoir and Sh olayar Dam, are
supported by the streams, which originate from the Sanctuary.
27

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Point Callimere Sanctuary and Wetland Complex
Point Calimere Wildlife Sanctuary came into existen ce in 1967, for the
preservation of Blackbuck, anendangered and endemic type of India. The
sanctuary is situated in Tirchy circle, Nagapattina m District locale of Tamil
Nadu. This tremendous swampy tract of Point Calimer e is the scene of one of
India’s most noteworthy avian displays. Point Calim ere includes sandy drift,
bordered by saline marshes and prickly bushes, arou nd the backwaters. Point
Calimere Wildlife and Bird Sanctuary (PCWBS) is on a 21.47-square-
kilometer stretch, created in 1967.
It is appreciated for extensive gatherings of water winged creatures,
particularly more prominent Famingos. The 7-square- kilometer (2.7 sq mi)
center territory of this haven is a National Park. The haven gets its name from
Point Calimere because it is the point where the Ba y of Bengal meets the Palk
Strait. The drift takes a 90° turn at Point Calimer e.
Today it is home to the biggest populace of the Bla ckbuck in South
India. Privately called “Velimaan”, the Blackbuck i s endemic to India and is
the only type of Antilope in the nation. It is the quickest land creature in India
and it has been recorded running at a speed of more than 80 Kmph.Bathing
wildlife, Safari, Bird watching and Natural camp ar e said to be important eco
activities.
The Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncates) can be sighted, along the
shore where it seeks asylum in the morning and nigh t hours. Sightings are

83

regularly reported in winter. As the ocean in the P alk Strait is shallow and
sloppy, stranding of whales and sharks on the shore happens occasionally.
There are Star Tortoises in the area under study.
It is a havenfor Olive Ridley turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) and their
breeding season isfrom January to March. A simulate d incubation center, for
the Olive Ridley turtles, has been set up in the ha ven as the eggs are preserved
against creatures like, the Wild Boar, Jackal, Mong oose and stray puppies. It
was the late Prime Minister Smt. Indira Gandhi, who launched a program, for
ex-situ protection in 1982, for the endangered spec ies. The program is still in
operation in the haven,in a limited scale. An outst anding element of the haven
is the presence of non-domesticated horses.
Despite the fact that there is no dependable record of their birthplace in
the asylum, the accessible confirmation informs us that they are the off springs
of residential horses, that were left in the haven almost a century back.
• Ramar Padam (Rama’s Footprint) is situated in the haven. It is a
stone impressions of Lord Rama’s foot print.It has become a
place of religious pilgrimage of Rama enthusiasts, whogather
here in the month of April, to observe Ram Navami F estival.
• Navakodi Sitthar Aalayam is a sanctuary south of the Kodiakarai
Town. The historical backdrop of this sanctuary is that it
represents the wedding function of Lord Shiva and P arvathi
Ammaal and numerous Sitthars visit this area. Chola Emperor

84

and King Sarafoji have visited this sanctuary. A li ttle town called
“Kanakkar Madam”, close to this place of worship, w as destroyed
around 80 years back and the general population, wh o were living
there, had moved to Kodiakarai town and they are st ill called
Kanakkarmadathiaar’s family. A vast number of enthu siasts from
all over Tamil Nadu, visit this place on the day of
Amavasai/Pournami, to celebrate.
• Sanyasin Muniaswar Kovil is a place of worship,lo cated on the
eastern bank of Muniyappan Lake. On 20 March, an un common
Puja is performed here.
• Mattumunian Kovil is a little sanctuary on the so uth of the
asylum where individuals offer their love supplicat ions. A
noteworthy celebration takes place here on the thir d Friday of
September.
• Modi Mandapam is a hallowed place, situated close to Ramar
Padam where individuals of all ranks gather to wors hip. Hindu
legend says that Lord Vedaraneswarer went through t his place
one night here with his associates, between January – February.
In the seven day stretch of March, a noteworthy cel ebration is
held here.
• Avulaiganni Dargah is the grave of a Muslim holy person,
situated close to the street by Ramar Padam. His co mmemoration
is celebrated here toward the finish of November.

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• Shevrayan Kovil is a sanctum to the divinities, S hevrayan and
Soni and it is found somewhere down in the backwood s of the
northern piece of the haven. A little town, close t o this holy place,
was created outside the asylum, after the formation of Kodiakarai
Reserve Forest. Extensive assemblage of enthusiasts from
Arcothurai, conduct an extraordinary celebration he re, in
June/July.
• Adivasi Colony is a group of Ambalakars, living i n broken down
cottages of mud, coconut fronds and palmyrah leaves , on the
edge of Kodiakarai Town. Their conventional occupat ion was the
gathering of non-timber woodland items, in the zone s, that are
currently the haven. These practices are presently disallowed,
though not completely wiped out. A considerable num ber of
these individuals get fish and little prawns, just by grabbing them
in the water with their hands. Some work as daily w agers, in the
close-by salt skillet. They have little connection with different
groups on the island.
28
• Chola Lighthouse is the ruined parts of a physica l beacon, close
to Point Calimere and it is said to have been erect ed by the
Cholas, more than a thousand years ago. This struct ure was
seriously harmed by the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami.

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• British Lighthouse is a 13-meter (43 ft) tall,fun ctioning beacon,
erected by the British, at the tip of Point Calimer e, in 1890 and
can be seen 13 nautical miles (24 km; 15 mi) away.
29
• Kodiakarai Lighthouse is a 45-meter (148 ft) tall current guide to
sailors close to Kodiakarai Beach and it is not ope n to the general
population. This commands the asylum and might be s een by
sailors far away.
Gundar Falls
Gundar Waterfalls is located on the route toPoompar ai village, at a
distance of around 15 kms from Kodaikanal, Dindigul circle. More than the
waterfalls, the 400-m. walk through the forest is i nteresting. It is a secluded
little-known forest, with full of tall pine trees I t is advisable to go to this place
in groups, for safety reasons.
If one were to move through the wattle forest, Gund ar River and the
Gundar Falls can be reached. It starts on the Obser vatory road. From there,
walk on and look for a path leading downwards to th e right. Follow the path
down the valley. After a while, one will be crossin g a small stream. Then the
parallel path to the stream can be discovered, alon g the side of the hill, down to
where the stream joins the Gundar River. It is a ma gnificent valley, with silver
spread of water flow.
It has a slanting height and lies inside a forest r eserve, that is unhindered
by human encroachments. It is quiet, peaceful and a true haven for those who

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want to escape from concrete forest parks. A visit to this area will bring one up
close to many common and rare species of animals an d plants.
Tourist must carry a camera to capture when you vis it this stunning
Falls. The sight of waters disgorging from a height of several feet is always
spectacular. The surrounding forests add more exqui siteness to the setting.
This Falls is ideal to visit, during rainy season, to enjoy the beauty of the
falls in its extensiveness. The approach path to th is fall is a craggy hill path and
hence appropriate means of transport is essential t o reach the falls.
This is a high place for trekking and one has to cr oss a craggy track to
reach here. The forest, that surrounds this fall, i s home to numerous plants and
animals and it would be a great place to visit for the wildlife enthusiasts. The
volume of water will be great during the monsoons. Landscape, falls view and
Trekking are important tourist activities. The best time to visit the falls would
be between the months of September and May.
30
Suruli Falls SuruliFalls is found 56 km (35 mi) from Theni and 1 0 km (6.2 mi) from
Cumbum, in the Madurai circle, Theni District. It i s Cascading Waterfalls. The
Suruli River, which supplies water to the falls, st arts from the
Meghamalaimountain. The falls drops from a height o f 150 feet (46 m),
accumulates into a pool, streams for a short separa tion and again plunges an
extra 40 feet (12 m).

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Lying in transit to Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary, the Suruli Falls is an ideal
place for excursions. The magnificence of the Falls blends with its
environment. With the thick woods everywhere, the w ild blossoms and organic
products add appeal to the beauty of the Falls. Com ing here is adding life to the
trip. Suruli Falls is beautiful to the point that t hey have even been mentioned in
the Tamil Epic, Silappathikaram. Though Suruli Fall s is round the year
phenomenon, June to October is the best time to be here as there is growth of
greenery. This is the time when the water is full v olume of water, streaming in
the Falls.
31
Located in the midst of rich greenery, Suruli Falls fill in an immaculate
lookout spot. It is 123 km from Madurai. The Falls begins from the Megamalai
slopes and plummet from a height of 150 feet. The b est part of Suruli Falls is
that they are round-the-year falls. There are separ ate places for men and ladies,
to bathe in the falls, independently.
The Falls draws a huge crowd, at the setting of Sum mer Festival, each
year arranged by the Tamil Nadu Tourism Department. Despite the fact that
travellers visit the place continuously, the best t ime to come here is June to
October.
The Kailasanathar Temple Cave is an additional attr action of the place.
It is situated close to Suruli Falls, at a height o f 800 meters, over the falls and it
has a spring, which is believed to have healingpowe rs. The water from the falls,

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is said to cure a few infections. Festivals like Ad i Thai and Chitrai, draw a huge
number of devotees.
32
The magnificence of this Falls has been mentioned i n the ancient Tamil
epic, Silappathikaram, composed by Ilango Adigal. C lose Suruli Falls are Five
Caverns, which speak volumes about Indianengineerin g skills of the Eleventh
Century. The water from Suruli River is said to cur e illnesses.
It is one of the real vacation spots in the Theni r egion and draws
travellers from various parts of the State, especia lly during the southwest
rainstorm. June – October is the best season becaus e of rains. But there is some
stream throughout the year. This Falls is visitor a greeable, with showers and
bathing space close to the Falls. There are visit t ransport facilities from
Cumbum and Uthamapalayam, to reach this Fall, on th e way to Periyar
National Park. The Tamil Nadu Tourism Department or ganizes summer
celebration at Suruli Falls, each year. Development of a scaffold, over the
Suruli River at a cost of Rs.45 lakhs, has expanded visitor stream to the
Falls,with ease.
The Tamil Nadu Tourism Department organizes the lat e spring
celebration, in Suruli Falls, each year. “Saaral Fe stival” is conducted in the first
or second week of August. The tourist authorities p rovide the essential
conveniences like toilets, drinking water, and dres s changing space, for the
bathing visitors. New lovers enjoy this celebration with awesome energy. With
the specific aim to assist the travellers, the Tour ism Department has provided

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separate places for men and ladies, to take showers in the Falls.32Bathing,
Trekking and Bird watching are eco activities which takes place in a large
number.
Grizzled Squirrel Wildlife Sanctuary – Shebagathopp u
The Grizzled Squirrel Wildlife Sanctuary (GSWS), ot herwise called
Srivilliputtur Wildlife Sanctuary, was set up in 19 88, to protect the endangered
grizzled monster squirrel (Ratufamacrora). Spread o ver an area of 485.2 square
kilometres, it blends, on the southwest, with the P eriyar Tiger Reserve and it is
a standout amongst other reserve woodlands, south o f the Palghat Gap. The
haven covers 485 square kilometers (187 sq mi), in western Tamil Nadu, South
India, in the eastern water-shed of the Western Gha ts and comprises of high
slopes and valleys, with various pinnacles, coming up to 1,800 meters (5,900
ft). It’s in Virudhnunagar district.
The tributaries of the stream, Vaipaar and couple o f rivulets drain into
the waterway,Gundar River, which goes through the a sylum and provides water
for vegetation and natural life.
There are two dams, namely, Pilavakkal and Koilar, along the foothills
of the asylum, which are the best places to see fea thered, water creatures and
other untamed life. There is one rest house arrange d inside the haven in
Mudaliar Oothu and it is the best spot to see the N ilgiri Tahr.
Other than Grizzled Giant Squirrel, the asylum is a territory for
jeopardized animal varieties, for example, tiger, p anther, Nilgiri Tahr and Lion-

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tailed Macaque. There are no streets and the haven must be covered by walking
and aides are accessible on request from the Sanctu ary Office, to go with
travelers on treks. The atmosphere is for the most part hot and dry in the
foothills. Hot tropical atmosphere prevails in the upper heights. The normal
yearly precipitation ranges from 800-2300 mm.
33
The Rocky Mountains, the thick backwoods, the energ izing untamed
life, the chances to trek and escape into the lap o f nature, make Grizzled
Squirrel Wildlife Sanctuary an alluring goal. Bathi ng, Important tourist
activities are trekking, wildlife viewing and fores t stay.
Courtalam and Mekkarai Gundar Dam Courtalam, the Spa of South India, is a Panchayat T own, located at 60 m
(520 ft) above sea level, on the Western Ghats, in Tirunelveli District of Tamil
Nadu, India. Numerous occasional and couple of perp etual streams like the
Chittar River, the Manimuthar River, the Pachaiyar River and the
Tambaraparani River orginate in this area. The vari ous waterfalls, in the
territory, have earned it the title the Spa of Sout h India. Season starts from June
till September. The South West Monsoon brings the c hill breeze, with gentle
temperature. From October to December,the North Eas t Monsoon sets and
downpours are substantial. In some cases, the Falls overflows and individuals
are not permitted to bathe in the Falls.
In spite of the fact that the Falls is situated in Tamil Nadu, it shares the
boundary with Kollam region of Kerala State. The wa ter here is believed to

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have incredible healing properties, against various skin issues and even nervous
problems, as they go through a woodland of herbs. T he town is popular for its
charming atmosphere. There are nine spots at Courta llam where the River
Chittar falls more than 92 m., at different volumes . The Falls generates lot of
business activities from July to late August, when one can see substantial
stream in every one of the spots.
The nine waterfalls at Courtallam are – Main Falls (Peraruvi ), Small
Falls (Chittaruvi), Chembakadevi ( Shenbaga) Falls, Honey Falls ( Thenaruvi),
Five Falls (Aintharuvi), Tiger Falls ( Puliaruvi), Old Courtallam Falls ( Pazhaya
Courtallam) , New Falls (Puthu Aruvi), Fruit Garden Falls or Or chard Falls
( Pazhathotta Arvui ). Other than the water falls, the town is celebrat ed for its
two sanctuaries, Thirukuttralanathar, dedicated to Lord Shiva and another
devoted to Lord Muruga. It is energising to take ba th in the waters of the Falls
and there are spa rooms for oil massage. Courtallam is basically a place for rest
and unwinding. But during the season, the place cou ld get crowded and it could
cause stress.
Settled in the Western Ghats, Courtallam has a brea th-taking
environment. The hillocks, which command the view, vanish into the blue fog
of Agasthiarmalai, the mountain bearing the name of a sage, who made
tremendous commitments to Tamil writing and he is b elieved to have lived in
this place. The nearest towns to Courtallam are She ncottai and Tenkasi.
34

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As its name suggests, the Main Falls or Peraruvi is the most well-known
and the greatest among the nine falls. Tumbling fro m a height of 60 m, it is
found inside the Courtallam Town. Here one can disc over water in the season
as well as off the season (November to January). Du ring the peak season, this
area is packed with tourists and one may find it im possible to line up for a
shower.
Arranged simply over the Main Falls, is Chittaruvi or the Small Falls.
There are steps which give access to the Falls. Add itionally, there are reserved
areas for men and ladies, to bathe independently. A ticket is required to enter
the zone.
It is located on the way to Honey Falls and it take s around 60 minutes’
(3km) walk from the Main Falls to the Shembakadevi Falls. It got its name due
to its area close to the little sanctuary of Shenba gadevi. During full moon
days,tourists visit this sanctuary. Merchants sell the fragrant Shenbaga blooms,
for devotees to the sanctuary.
Thenaruviis located four kilometers from the Main F alls and it is named
after the apiaries which populate the stones,during the dry season. The
beautiful horseshoe formed waterfalls, which falls vertically from three sides to
join into a little lake, is worth seeing. The place is endowed with all-
encompassing rainforestsand hence it is a dangerous trek. The trek will take
right around two hours and individuals are not perm itted to bathe in the falls, as
it is exceptionally risky.

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Puliaruvi is located two kms from Courtallam transp ort stand. It is a
little waterfall, with a Sastha Temple and a shower ing Ghats for travelers. It is
safe place for youngsters to enjoy the showers. Adj acent is an old castle but
now it is a private property.
Aintharuvi is located four kilometers from Courtall am and it is the most
delightful waterfall at Courtallam. As the name sug gests, these falls pour into
five areas, near the Aravankadu Pass.
Among the five falls, three are available to men an d two for ladies. It is
associated with five heads of a hooded cobra. The h itch is that the place echoes
with loud speakers,causing noise pollution. There i s a Swami Ayyappa Temple
and also Vinayaka Temple close to the waterfall. Se veral organic products
likeeggfruit, mangos teen, are available in plenty.
Pazhaya Courtalam is located ten kilometers from th e town, along the
street to Tenkasi, and in the Old Falls, water rush es down from 200 feet. Here
the stones cushion the water’s free fall. It is les s crowded, particularly late
evening time. There are offices for oil bath and me n and ladies could bathe
separately.
The other falls at Courtalam are Fruit Garden or Or chard Falls
(Pazhathotta Aruvi) and New Falls (Puthu Aruvi), Si tuated in the midst of
backwoods,the view from them is amazing. At that po int, there is the
Agasthiyar Falls, and an hour away, the principal w aterfall. On the way to
Courtalam by street, one comes across the picturesq ue Papanasham or

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Tambiraparani stream dam, with its quiet lake and e ncompassing mountains
and it is 45km or one-hour drive from Courtalam. Th e three noteworthy
waterfalls, accessible by street, are the Main Fall s, Five Falls, and Old
Courtallam Falls. Different waterfalls like Shenbag a Devi Falls and Honey
Falls are reachable by trekking on the mountain.
Gundar Reservoir is situated, at the foot of the We stern Ghats, close to
Courtralam and Sengottai. It is a tourist spot in T hirunelveli District. Countless
visitors, on their way to Courtralam, visit this da m. Gundar Dam was
developed in the year 1983, to provide for the wate r needs of the Thirunelveli
Town. Gundar is an earthen dam, with a height and l ength of around 15 m and
389 m respectively. The water in the dam is spread over 454.50 ha of farming
area. Gundar Dam is classified as a Medium Irrigati on Project. The
development of the dam was started in 1979 and fini shed in four years.
This dam site is noted for its salubrious atmospher e and climate. Only
one km from Gundar Dam to Western Ghats, a lovely F alls is found. To
reachthis specific fall, four-wheel drive is approp riate. This waterfall offers
astounding spot for a family trip. A recreation cen ter, close to the dam, with
various blossoming plants and green trees, is perfe ct for the youngsters to enjoy
themselves.
36Bathing, Trekking and Herbal tourism are said to be important
tourist activities.

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Maruthuva Malai
Maruthuva Malai is located in Tirunelveli district, Kanyakumari district,
Tamil Nadu. The Marunthuva Malai, otherwise called the MarunthuVazhum
Malai (“the residence of restorative herbs”), forms the southernmost tip of the
Western Ghats. As per the tradition, the Maruthuva Malai is a part of the
Sanjeevi Mountain, a bit of which is believed to ha ve tumbled down here when
it was conveyed by Hanuman from Mahendragiri to Lan ka, for recuperating the
lethal injuries of Lakshmana, the sibling of Rama, the epic saint. It extends for
more than a km, achieving a height of 800 feet at t he highest point.
It is around one kilometer from Lekshmipuram, two k ilometers from
Swamithoppe and eleven kilometers from Nagercoil. T his slope is noted in
Ayyavazhi folklore, as the Parvatha Ucchi Malai. As ide from the mythology,
this slope is generally identified with the life of Vaikundar. Along these lines,
couple of scholars consider this slope as holy and think of it as one among the
Ayyavazhi heavenly destinations. A few statements, from Arul Nool and
Akilam, even contend that MarunthuvazhMalai is one among the Pathis.
It is believed that this is a Holy Land and Siddhas and holy people live
in this Mountain. The Department promotes eco-touri sm at Maruthuva Malai.
The Government has allocated Rs. 3 lakhs, in the pr imary stage, for laying a
pathway for the advantage of tourists. The Maruthuv a Malai, a place of
therapeutic plants, forms a part of the Western Gha ts. Countless tourists visit
little sanctuary, 300 feet over the slope during th e Karthikai Deepam in

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December. There is a belief that holy people, inclu ding the sage, Agasthiyar,
lived in this place.
There are nine ‘theerthams’ — Siva, Agasthiyar, Hanumar, Palar, Sita,
Rama, Devendaran, Brhama and Kalidhasan — in this s lope. From here, one
can see the waterfront zone, from Leepuram to Mutto m, in Kalkulam Taluk,
with huge stretches of paddy handle, the estuary of the Manakudi lake in the
mouth of the Pazhayar, the grandiose towers of sanc tuaries, coconut and palm
forests and the salt pans in the towns of Manakudi, Tamaikulam and
Varriyoor.
37
Herbal tourism, Nature camp and wildlife viewing ar e famous tourist
activities, which takes place in this destination.
Manimuthar Falls, Karayar Dam, Banatheeratham Falls and
Mundathurai
The Kalakad Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve was formed i n 1988, by
integrating Kalakad Wildlife Sanctuary (251 square km) and Mundanthurai
Wildlife Sanctuary (567 square km), both formed in 1962. Its located in
Tirunelveli district.
Manimuthar Falls is situated close to Manjolai Hill s, in the Tirunelveli
area of Tamil Nadu.This Falls is situated close to the Singampatty Zamindar’s
territory. Manimuthar Falls is a typical water fall s, streaming during the time
when water is released from the Manimuthar Dam. Dri ving there by bicycle
will an exhilarating experience. There is a lake, a djacent to the Falls and it has

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a depth of 90 feet (27 m). Kothaiyar is another pla ce of tourist interest, over the
falls.
Karaiyar Dam or Tambraparani Dam is situated, at ar ound 20 Km from
the Town of Papanasam. The dam is inside the Kalakk ad – Mundamthurai
Tiger Reserve. Papanasam Upper Dam is one of the gr eatest Dams in Tamil
Nadu. This dam is also called Karaiyar Dam or Upper Papanasam Dam. The
astonishing environment and the atmosphere of the p lace make it an ideal
visitor spot. The overwhelming downpours during rai ny days are days when
this place cannot be accessed.
38
Banatheertham Falls, situated inside the pleasant K araiyar Dam in
Tirunelveli area, is typical waterfalls, at Kalakad Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve
(KMTR). The therapeutic property of the water isapp reciated by many and it is
believed that sage Agasthiyar meandered here, looki ng for rich herbs in this
woodland. It is an incredible place to chill out in the recuperating waters of
Agasthiyamala Biosphere Reserve.
Visitor can appreciate the pontoon ride on the Dam , encompassed by
stunning mountains. Boat ride takes one from the da m over the lake. A 10 to
20-minute trek takes one to the glorious waterfalls .
Unlike Courtallam, which is season limited, the Ban atheertham Falls is
enduring, with December and January being the peak season. The boat ride
likewise offers a stunning perspective of the abutt ing slopes. This range is
known for its plant variety. The waters of Thamirab arani River are reported to

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have traces of copper and hence its name. The best season to visit these
perpetual Falls is from December-January, as the te mperature is wonderful.
Herbal tourism, Nature camp, wildlife viewing are t he important tourist
activities.

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End Notes
1. Gill, Pushpinder, S., Tourism Economic and Social Development, New
Delhi: Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd., 1997, p.92.
2. Bhatia, A.K., Tourism in India – History and Development, New Delhi:
Sterling Publishers (P.) Ltd., 1978, p.117.
3. Francis, W., et.al., Gazetteer of South India, Vol.I, New Delhi: 2002.
4. Mahesh Chandra Singh, Travel, Tourism and Eco-Tourism, New
Delhi:2010, pp.79-80.
5. Burkart, A.J., The Management of Tourism, London: Heinemann, 1995,
p.32.
6. Kulwant Singh Pathania and Arun Kumar, Eco-Tourism, New Delhi:
2008, p.94.
7. Ravi Bhushan Kumar, Coastal Tourism and Environment, New Delhi:
S.B.APH Publishing Corporations, 1995, pp.12-13.
8. Tamil Nadu Splendour of India, Department of Tourism, Government of
India, Madras, 1993, p.112.
9. Tamil Nadu Tourism, Enchanting Tamil Nadu, HADP-Tou rism, Ooty.
10. The Indian Forester (Oldest International Peer Reviewed Forestry
Journal), Vol. 137, No:10, Dehradun: 2011.
11. Calder, N., The Environment Game, London: Panther, 1969, p.100.
12. Mahesh Chandra Singh, op.cit., 2010, p.105
13. Sharma, Usha, Panorama of Tourism in India, Jaipur: Printwell
Publisher, 1996, p.46.
14. Cairn Hill Eco-Awareness Centre, Tamil Nadu Forest Department,
Nilgiris.
15. Gopalakrishnan, M., (ed.), Gazetteer of India, Tamil Nadu State, The
Nilgiris District, Madras, 1995.
16. Longwood Shola, Kotagiri, The District Forest Offic e, Nilgiris North
Division, Udhagamandalam.

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17. Sharma, K. C., Tourism, Policy, Planning and Strategy, Jaipur: Pointer
Publishers, 1996, p.147.
18. Forest History of the Nilgiris, Tamil Nadu Forest Department, Chennai,
2004, pp.2-6.
19. Mukurthi National Park, Mudumalai Tiger Reserve, Fo rest Department,
Udhagamandalam, The Nilgiris, 2015,pp.2-4.
20. Eco – Tourism Policy of Tamil Nadu, Tamil Nadu Tourism Development
Corporation, Chennai, 2014, p.19.
21. Newsletter, January- March 2013, Issue I, (Quarterly), Mudumal ai Tiger
Reserve Conservation Foundation Trust, Udhagamandal am.
22. Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary and National Park- The Nilgiris, Tamil
Nadu Forest Department, 2015,pp.2-4.
23. Singhal, G.D., et.al., Glimpses of Tourism in India, New Delhi, 2006,
p.75.
24. Sharma, J.K., Tourism Planning and Development – A New Perspectiv e,
New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers, 2000, p.64.
25. Forest History of the Annamalais, Tamil Nadu Forest Department,
Chennai, 2003,pp.4-8.
26. Vijay Kumar, A., Indian Tourism Industry in 21st Century Challenges
and Responses, New Delhi: Sonali Publications, 2006, p.121
27. Policy Note 2015-2016, Tourism and Culture Department, Tamil Nadu,
p.14.
28. Martha, Honey, op.cit., p.19
29. Sinha, P.C., Geography and Structure of Tourism and Travel, New
Delhi: Anmol Publications, 1998, p.68.
30. Alberto, Sessa, Tourism in Developing Countries, Manual on the
Conservation, Paris: UNESCO, 1970, p. 111.
31. Final Report on 20 years perspective Tourism Plan f or The State of
Tamil Nadu, Market Research Division, Ministry of T ourism and
Culture, Government of India, p.32.

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32. Singh, T.V., Tourism Transport and Travel Management, New Delhi:
Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd, 1998, pp.31-32
33. Thapar, Romila, Cultural Pasts- Essays on Early Indian History, New
Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2000, p.54.
34. Kulwant Singh Pathania and Arun Kumar, op.cit., 2008, p.109
35. Ranga, Mukesh, Tourism in India, New Delhi: Abhijeet Publications,
2003, p.60
36. Forest Management in Tamil Nadu, Past, Present and Future, Tamil
Nadu Forest Department, 2014, p.21.
37. Policy Note 2010-2011, Demand Note: 29, Tourism and Culture,
Department of Tourism, Tamil Nadu, 2010, p.29.
38. Singhal,, op.cit.,2006, p.141

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CHAPTER – II
OBSTACLES TO ECOTOURISM IN TAMIL NADU
Ecotourism has turned into a developing type of alt ernative tourism and
it gives true encounters to the nature lovers and e nthusiasts. It is a responsible
travel to study, enjoy and admire the natural beaut y, along with wild animals,
plants and indigenous culture.The essential goal of promoting ecotourism is to
save nature and enhance the social and financial co nditions of the local
population. Preservation of biodiversity and social assorted variety is one of the
essential standards of ecotourism.
It promotes the maintainable utilization of normal assets and gives
adequate chances to worktowards the ecotourism goal s.
1 Keeping up a harmony
between the natural protection, prosperity of neigh bourhood individuals and
guest fulfilment has created difficulties, to the o rganizers, policymakers and
tourism partners. It is true that ecotourism or nat ural tourism is a western idea,
that plans to discover pragmatic arrangements, towa rds the preservation of
biodiversity, in the protected zones.
2
Negative natural effects of tourism happenwhen the level of guest
satisfaction is more prominent than the earth’s cap acity to adapt to this
exploitation.Uncontrolled, customary tourism postur es potential dangers, to
numerous regions, around the globe.
It can put tremendous weight on a zone and prompt e ffects, for example,
soil disintegration, expanded contamination, releas es into the ocean, common

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environment misfortune, expanded weight on imperile d species and decimation
of defenseless animals to forest fires.
3 It regularly puts a strain on water assets,
and it can compel local population, to compete for the basic assets.
Depletion of Natural Resources The asset exhaustion issues are ordered into two so rts: inexhaustible and
non-sustainable assets. The cases of issues, with t he utilization of sustainable
assets, can be exhaustion of inexhaustible assets l ike backwoods, fisheries and
biodiversity.
The non-sustainable assets allude to exhaustion of assets like coal, oil
and minerals. The contamination takes place when as sets are squandered
through utilization exercises. The real asset, whic h suffers visible damage, is
the water asset particularly potable water. The tou rism business, for the most
part, abuses water assets for lodgings, swimming po ols and individual
utilization of water by tourists.
This can bring about water shortage and debasement of water supplies
and additionally producing a more prominent volume of waste water,
contaminating nearby assets. Tourism can make extra ordinary weight on
neighbourhood assets.
More extraction and transport of these assets compo unds the physical
effects related with their abuse. Another critical consumption is debasement
and of assets, like minerals, non-renewable energy sources, rich soil,
woodlands, wetland natural life. Expanded developme nt of tourism and

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recreational activities would exert pressure on the se assets and on picturesque
scenes.
4
Pollution
Tourism Industry can cause an indistinguishable typ e of contamination
like air outflows, strong waste, clamour, oil, litt ering, arrivals of sewage,
chemicals contamination. Air contamination, from vi sitor transportation, has
impact on the worldwide level, particularly from ca rbon dioxide (co2)
outflows, identified with transportation use. Pollu tion from vehicles, open air
bonfires by trekkers and mountain climbers, and uti lization of flame woods for
picnics, expands the risk of forest fires and in ad dition, air contamination.
5
Some effects are very particular to visitor exercis es. For instance,
particularly in extremely hot nations, tourists reg ularly leave their engines
running for quite a long time while they go out for a journey since they need to
come back, to an easily aerated and cooled transpor t. Clamour contamination
from planes, autos, and transports, and in addition recreational vehicles, is a
regularly developing issue of current life. This ca n prompt the termination of
woodland and natural life. The story is not differe nt at shoreline resorts.
6
Commotion, produced by centralization of visitors, vacationer vehicles or
helipads for traveller helicopters, can bring about hearing faculty harm and
mental worry to the tourists and local people.Even the shrieking noise of
traveller vehicles, inside an untamed life environ, can make behavioural
changes among the wild creatures.

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Certain problems result from uncontrolled and spont aneous tourism
improvement in the traveller areas. Felling of tree s to clear a path for visitor
offices, ski inclines and ski lifts make permanent damage to enduring
timberlands. In addition to causing inconvenience a nd problems hearing for the
people, it makes trouble for untamed life, particul arly in delicate regions.
Waste and littering is a noteworthy contamination, which is caused by the
tourists. Roadsides are harmed by exercises like tr ekking,wheretrekkers
produce a lot of waste. Sightseers abandon their ju nk, outdoor hardware and
numerous other cases of wastages.
Resorts are loaded with tobacco smoke. New laws bo ycott smoking in
all eateries, cinema halls, open transport and heal ing facilities. Be that as it may
be, uncontrolled development of ventures, shops and ghettos close to tourist
spots, make issues of natural contamination.
Sewage Disposal
Development of lodgings, entertainment and offices, frequently prompts
expanded sewage contamination. Wastewater has conta minated oceans and
lakes, encompassing vacation spots, harming the wid ely varied vegetation.
Sewage spill over makes genuine harm to coral reefs since it fortifies the
development of green growth, which covers the chann el sustaining corals,
ruining their capacity to survive. Changes, in salt iness and siltation, can have
far reaching impact on beach front conditions. Sewa ge contamination can
undermine the wellbeing of people and creatures.

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The sullying of ground water happens because of us e of substantial
amounts of pesticides and manures. In numerous wate rfront waters, the sources
of water contamination are inns and resorts, that d ump crude or deficiently
treated sewage. This increases the wellbeing risk t o tourists and local people
because of sewage entering into the waterfront area . Sullying of water because
of crude and untreated sewage, can have significant effect on sea-based life
too.
7
Effects Due to Tourism Infrastructure
The most noteworthy source of tourism-actuated effe cts on biological
communities is the spread of tourism and amusement foundation. It puts strain
on rare land as well as burrowing and expanded extr action of neighbourhood
building materials, makes irreversible harm to scen e. Making of tourism
framework requires a great deal of room, which freq uently led to the detriment
of biological communities.
Both assembled foundation and vacationer offices an d exercises
supplant the regular vegetation. Vast scale pulveri zation of an environment,
through vegetation expulsion, is caused to suit tou rist foundation. The
ecotourism has built an advantageous interaction be tween tourism and nearby
groups in towns. These ecotourism mediated resorts, have been built in the
uninhabited area, taking the trekker nearer to natu re.
These resorts deface the scene and destroy vegetati on and cause soil
disintegration. The introduction of mass tourism ha s been encouraged by the

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development of expanded streets that have the abili ty to bring a huge number
of tourists. A large area of the shorelines bears s ilent testimony to the
destruction, that has been brought about by uncontr olled advancement of
tourism. Goals, once noted for their specific chara cter, have degenerated into
ugly show-stoppers, as the nation tries to keep pac e with the guest inflow. In
spite of a measure of administrative control, the c onsiderable increment in
volume of guests to these tourist spots, brought ab out fast, spontaneous
development of lodgings and homes for tourists. The se extensions have caused
ecological dangers, both stylish and natural becaus e of the congestion. The
tranquility of the night is wrecked by the late-nig ht discos and bars, catering to
the needs of visitors. Boisterous speedboats exaspe rate the peacefulness of
individuals while flying machines, taking off and a rriving at air terminals,
seriously irritate the local population.
Effects Due to Tourists
The vegetation cover can be harmed because of tramp ling by walkers or
by vehicles of tourists. Explorers, trekkers and mo untain climbers approach the
study area, for rough terrain activity. They can en ter into the spots out of reach
to vehicles. The harm caused was of four sorts: soi l disintegration caused
because of trampling, deforestation caused because of exhaust fumes, danger to
natural life, and risk to local communities.
8 For instance, a normal trekking
group of 15 individuals creates around 15 kg of bio -non-degradable and non-
burnable waste, in around 10 trekking days. The iss ue of littering and strong
waste transfer, reaches emergency levels.

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Effects Due to Linkages
Linkages of the tourism business activities, additi onally intensify the
issue. With the improvement and projection of a tou rist places there is
significant increment, in development exercises. An action like development of
streets, houses and rise of independent venture exe rcises and crowds, irritates
the environmental framework. The tourism business i s a noteworthy
contributor of ecological contamination in many par ts of the world.
The contamination, caused by the business, is found in four areas: water,
air, noise contamination, and transfer of trash. Wa ter contamination happens
because of the release of untreated water, inorgani c and natural wastage and
sewage. One of the significant reasons, for water c ontamination, caused by
tourism industry, is dumping of inorganic and natur al trash, by lodging units
and release of oil in water transport.
Effects on Erosion
The most critical physical harm to soils is caused because of three
reasons. In the first place, the development of bui lding for tourists, may include
burrowing or cutting of earth, causing soil disinte gration. Disintegration of
sand, from well-known resort shorelines, has repres ented an issue in a few
areas. Different exercises like trekking and mounta ineering, undertaken by
trekkers, leads to trampling and soil disintegratio n in the process. Trampling by
human feet, steeds and vehicles causes soil disinte gration. It decreases the soil
dampness, which may lead to destruction of vegetati on.

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Impact on Socio-Cultural Environment
Tourism can confer benefits and it can also disturb the nearby society.
Although hard to gauge the ecological impact, the s ocial effects are real and
they are certainly the by-products of tourism. Thes e effects can end up
destroying the ecological balance in nations like I ndia.
The effect of tourism improvement, on social condit ion, can be
examined under two headings: impact on sightseers a nd impact on the host
populace. The real effect on sightseers is in the n ature of recreational
experience. In the matter of utilization of recreat ional assets, congestion may
constrain tourist to consider the experience no lon ger worth having and their
visits will fall gradually. The degree of crowding will not be the same for all
regions and recreational modes also will change.
The expansion in popularity of a place relies upon more individuals
visiting this place, requiring substantially bigger lodgings and other related
offices. At first, tourist may respond to it due to the expansion in framework
and offices and economies of scale stream in. But w ith the limit being
exceeded, the negative impact begins streaming in a nd the fulfilment level of
the guest falls.
Tourism advancements have both positive and negativ e ecological
outcomes. The administration has to assess the impa ct. It would then discover
that tourism cannot be adequate panacea for monetar y ills. The circumstance is
especially terrible for developing nations but with the need for such nations to

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produce revenue, the developing nations are incline d to tourism-related
programmes.
9Challenge is to accomplish harmony between the cont rary
demands of tourism and protection. Thus, tourism im provement ought to have
a sane valuation of the impact of tourism advanceme nt on environment.
Definition of ecologically maintainable arrangement s, before the advancement
of tourism, is necessary for the reconciliation bet ween tourism improvement
and nature preservation.
The tourism’s financial advantages, in Tamil Nadu, were gained at an
extensive immaterial cost. The tourism business has been forced into an
advancement mode in Tamil Nadu, that could aggravat e the conflict between
these two values-revenue generation and nature pres ervation.
To organize Sustainable Tourism, the ecotourism cod e has been
formulated in Tamil Nadu. These are:
It should not degrade the resource and should be de veloped in an
environmentally sound manner;
• It should provide first-hand participatory and enli ghtening experience;
• It should involve education among all parties: loca l communities,
government, non-governmental organizations, industr y and tourists;
• It should encourage all parties to recognise the in trinsic values of the
resource
• It should involve acceptance of the resource on its own term, and in
recognition of its limits, which involves supply-or iented management;

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• It should create understanding and involve partners hips between many
players:
• It should promote moral and ethical responsibilitie s and behaviour
towards natural and cultural environment, by all pl ayers;
• It should provide long term benefits to the resourc e, to the local
community, and to industry.
Ecotourism has been acknowledged, as an answer to d eal with the
preservation delicate land, of debilitated wild reg ions and to welcome
individuals with open doors, for group-based activi ties.
The ecotourism stresses reasonable utilization of a ssets as well as
underscores the group advancement to meet the finan cial and social needs of
the group. Ecotourism is one of the tools for maint aining sustainable tourism.
10
Negative Environmental Impact
Tourism may create a few negative ecological effect s, if tourism is not
arranged, to sustain nature and its resources.
• Development of rock climbers will advance improveme nt of roads and
highways, through the wooded terrain. This would pr obably facilitate
the vehicular activity, alongside the walkers in th is locale. But this
improvement may generate ecological unsettling infl uence, which will
have adverse effect on the encompassing vegetation and mountain
biology. It does not imply that streets in the slop es are not vital, but

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rather these roads, in the study area, should be bu ilt in tune with the
terrain, geographical capacities and so forth.
• Development of tourism indirectly affects the untam ed life, which is
probably due to the rush of trekkers into natural s urroundings, for
photography and shooting and so forth. The effect o n warm blooded
creatures and winged creatures is clear. In the eve nt that tourism is to be
taken care of on a reasonable premise, it must focu s on the upkeep of
tourism framework and its support and also of the p reservation of the
natural life. Extensive entry of tourists into nati onal parks, natural life
havens and reserve timberlands influences adversely the reproductive
living spaces of the wild creatures.
• Another real effect of expanded tourism is that ext ensive improvements,
for tourists, cause damage to the eco-framework. Th e inflow of huge
number of trekkers is likely to build heaps of litt er and junk. These will
attract rodents, which in turn, draw greater creatu res and winged
animals, which mar the natural surroundings.
• With the expansion in the volume of tourists becaus e of accessibility of
better tourist’s infrastructure, the requirements o f tourists also increase.
Along these lines, there is an expansion in the req uest for trophies like
skins, ivory decorations, horns, tails, key rings, produced fromhooves,
etc. This has resulted in unprecedented levels of b utchering of wild
creatures.

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• Water contamination results from lack of sewage and strong waste
transfer frameworks, for inns and offices. There ha s been extreme
contamination of waterway, lake and shorelines, fro m sewage effluent
lines, and leakage of waste material into ground wa ter. Sewage transfer
is carried out either through septic tanks and assi milation or transfer of
waste water, through biochemical treatment plants, into the ocean,
which may affect the sea fauna in zones of transfer .
• Air contamination results from utilization of vehic les (autos, taxis,
transports, cruisers, and so forth.), using petrol or diesel, in tourism
regions.
• Noise contamination is created by the centralizatio n of tourists and their
vehicles.
• Visual contamination results from ineffectively con structed inns and
other offices, commercially arranged format of buil dings, insufficient
finishing of offices, utilization of monstrouspromo tion sign boards and
so forth.
• Ecological disturbance of regions and noteworthy lo cales, by
archaeological tourists.
• Water supply is from bore-wells, dug into the groun d. Assimilation pits
are utilized for permeation to the ground, which is inundated by water
from biochemical framework.
• Garbage transfer is by all accounts the most intens e issue adding to soil
and natural contamination. There is scanty service for clearance of

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garbage exists and hence every hotelier tackles the issue by covering the
garbage in trenches. During the storm, sullying of the nearby region is
conceivable.
• Erosion of the shoreline and distortion of the drif t are seen in the light of
the fact that defensive dividers have been raised a long the shoreline. In
specific cases, structures have been raised near th e water-front.
• The extraction of sand, from the shorelines, makes matters worse. It can
be seen that with the surging flow of tourist movem ent into those
territories, where there is lack of common sense, t he tourist activity itself
turns out to be counter gainful to the visitor busi ness. Though it can be
seen through the expansion in tourism, resulting in monetary
improvement of a country, ecological balance is ser iously lost. Tourism
related monetary advancement and environment condit ion ought to be
integrated and harmonious relationship should exist between these
perspectives. Tourism ought not to adversely influe nce our eco-
framework, for whatever they are worth.
11 The harmony between these
perspectives is extremely fragile and their relatio ns ought not be stressed
further by including other new components.
Environmental Impacts Due to New Projects
The State administration of Tamil Nadu has made up satisfactory,
positive strides in accommodating a broad scope of vacation spots, that would
oblige vacationer request. A few new ventures and a ttractions have been

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identified. Each undertaking may represent a type o f danger to the earth. The
following are on the conceivable dangers to nature.
A. Pilgrimage Destinations
Social evaluation is especially vital in the evalua tion of tourism
ventures. Tourists to archaeological destinations m ay disturb neighbourhood
religious convictions. The arrival of a large numbe r of foreigners (vacationers
or transient specialists), into a nearby of archaeo logical site of religious
significance, is probably going to produce conflict between different ways of
life existing in the neighbourhood culture. Profess ional visit may create the
danger of abuse of indigenous culture, music and ol d stories. Exercises, related
to tourism advancement like inn development, may li kewise cause uprooting
and automatic resettlement of local population. Cir cuitous linkages between
tourism and neighbourhood societies and business, a re potential issues.
Unwillingness to acknowledge them can reduce ventur e benefits and also exact
unfavourable financial effects, on the neighbourhoo d populace. For example,
commercialization of traditional artisans, can lead to loss of authenticity for the
artisans and possibly for buyers as well.
B. Locations of Scenic Beauty and Adventure Tourism
Any promotion of new tourist framework,should consi der not only the
goals of town vacationer but also the urgency to co nserve nature and its
resources and also the interests of the local popul ation. Presentation of
recreational tourism exercises like tennis court an d other such exercises like

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water sports, trekking and climbing has an extraord inary capability of
corrupting the delicate biological community which houses a portion of the
endemic types of untamed life.
Controlled tourism ought to be advanced in these se nsitive territories
sensitive because too much of tourism might put pre ssure on water supply,
consequently producing abundance of wastewater, adv ersely influencing the
delicate biological system. The natural life may li kewise be affected by
substantial deluge of individuals at the time of mo vement and settling. But
eco-tourism undertakings ensure protection of socia l locales, with financial and
recreational advantages.
The success of any tourist development strategy rel y upon educated site
determination, sound outline and follow up of the w orking rules, which
consider the impact assessment of the assets. Thus, a noteworthy worry, in
arranging different kinds of improvement and assess ing their effects, is to
maintain a strategic distance between tourism advan cement choices and
corrupting effects on assets. Extensive utilization of land must weigh options
over the long-haul effects. The ecological impact o f tourist flows can be
especially huge on the stream locales, from its sea -going life perspective.
C. Other Tourist Destinations
The destinations have potential for social tourism, wellbeing and revival
and so forth. This can be achieved from tourism per spective. But while
promoting tourism movement, impact assessment is es sential to abstain from

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corrupting assets. The visual and also the physical effect of the development of
structures ought to be considered. Development and planning of the structures
ought to be in agreement with the encompassing, ind igenous habitat and social
setting. The effect of tourism framework, on asset preservation, ought to be
taken into account. Tax for water, sewerage and for different services for the
tourists, ought to be confined to the tourists and they ought not to trouble the
local community.
Impact of Ecotourism Activities
Ecotourism is a product of nature-based tourism, wi th the avowed goals
of supportable advancement. Obviously, the advantag e of ecotourism is that it
is the best method, for dealing with the tourist re lated assets, for the present and
in the future age. In the wake of looking at all ad vantages and disadvantages of
general tourism’s effect in the common habitat, the world leaders collectively
settled upon the usage of ecotourism targets and st andards, to manage tourist
operations. Every one of those ecotourism exercises has positive effects for
which more ecotourism destinations are being made, to mitigate the effects on
the neighbourhood group. Ecotourism has more positi ve effects than the
negative effects from the viewpoint of local commun ity, government and
tourism operators. Ecotourism exercises are designe d and directed with due
care and regard for the social settings.
12 There are a few positive effects of
ecotourism, that one can obviously comprehend, subs equent to perusing the
accompanying positive effects.

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A. Eco-Tourists Largely Get
Free natural environment, to spend quality time
A peaceful and quiet environment, for mental rejuve nation and physical
invigoration
An opportunity to heal the pains, from the humdrum of life, in the
crowded city
An open interaction with nature, to understand the complex
interrelationships
An authentic and novel experience of tasting local food and drinks to
remember forever
Ample scope for interaction with community members, to learn their
socio-cultural system and practices
A sense of pride, in sharing knowledge and experien ce, in preserving
biodiversity
An opportunity to feel privileged, in helping the i ndigenous people

B. Eco-Tour Operators Get
An opportunity to operate the tour for environmenta lly conscious
visitors
Like-minded clients to provide services without any conflicts
Focused clients for conducting the eco-tour activit ies
A sense of pride in injecting the tourism revenue i nto the local economy
A sense of social commitment to the host community

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A sense of responsibility towards the preservation of ecology and
environment
A greater responsibility in extending cooperation i n sustainable
development

C. Government Gets
An opportunity to bring in sustainable socio-econom ic changes of local
community, in the backward areas
An alternative livelihood, to discourage the local people from cutting
down the trees, clearing forest for cultivation, ki lling animals for
domestic and commercial purpose and indulging in th e ethnic violence
or rival clash
An opportunity to create sustained income for skill ed, semi-skilled and
unskilled workers, thus alleviating poverty.
Maximum impetus, to promote the local handicrafts, for persevering the
indigenous art and artisans’ occupation.
D. Community Members Get
Maximum benefits in terms of income and employment
Adequate opportunities to know the tourists culture
Privilege of using facilities like road, primary he alth, education, etc,
developed for ecotourism projects
Empowerment, in terms of participating, in the deci sion-making process
Sense of pride in serving the guests, in the role o f a host

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In addition to the positive benefits of ecotourism, there is some negative
impact, due to the promotion of ecotourism activiti es. The impact may include
trampling of soil due to trekking, hiking and walki ng, disturbance to the animal
breeding, disturbance to the aquatic species and co ntamination of water in the
river and lakes, clearance of forest for road, buil ding public amenities, rise in
price of essential commodity, commoditization of cu lture, demonstration
effect, etc. Similarly, community members, in the c ourse of promotion of
ecotourism, express their irritation towards the vi sitors. All these negative
impacts are expected to occur at the ecotourism sit es when the stakeholders do
not sincerely behave as responsible partners. Howev er, these negative impacts
can be minimized when all these stakeholders strict ly follow the principles of
ecotourism.
13 The UNWTO, the Pacific Asia Travel Association (PA TA), the
UNEP and other international and national apex bodi es, have produced soft and
hard publicity materials for the visitors, service providers, community
members, government and NGOs.
Prevention of Problems
Tourism, as an approach, ought to be created bit by bit, after some
adjustment with the local community and convincing them to appreciate the
change. Local individuals ought to be made to parta ke in the advancement of
tourism, so that they can bring new thoughts, suppo rt tourist ventures and be
stake holders. Following are a portion of the measu res, for control of financial
effects:

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• Conserve the art and culture of the local community , including dance,
music, drama, craft, and dress. These should not be allowed to
deteriorate, by way of commercialization.
• Preserving the existing distinctive local architect ural styles,while
simultaneously encouraging the development of moder n tourist facilities
and infrastructure.
• Ensure a convenient access to local inhabitants to places of tourist
attractions, amenities and facilities, without bias .
• Provide inexpensive or subsidized facilities, for l ocal residents, to use.
Residents may be allowed to pay lower admission fee s than those levied
for foreign tourists.
• Public awareness programmes, about tourism, may be organized,
utilizing radio, television, newspapers, magazines and public meetings,
to combat agitation by NGOs against tourism.
• Inform tourists about the local society – its custo ms, dress codes, and
acceptable behaviour in religious and other places, courtesies to observe
in taking photographs, tipping policies, and any lo cal problems.
• Train employees to work in tourism effectively, inc luding language and
social sensitivity training, where needed.
• Apply strict control on drugs, crime and prostituti on.
14
Environmental Planning of National Parks and Sanctu aries
There is growing anxiety in India about preservatio n of our rich legacy
of untamed life and to safeguard nature from predat ory tourism. Sadly, this

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mindfulness has not yet percolated to the grassroot s level. There is a pressing
need for the ecological values and administration o f national parks and
asylums. There are diverse investors like governmen ts, non-government
associations and neighbourhood groups Private playe rs have a part to play, in
facilitating the advancement and State Governments have to adopt approaches
for more extensive care of nature.
15 There can be different measures, that
legislatures at national and local levels, can cons ider, to incorporate a blend of
tourism and ecology. These must be, as per the foll owing:
• The Government must establish protected areas throu gh legislation
• Implementation of land use planning measures such a s carrying capacity
analysis, limits of acceptable range.
• Mandatory use of Environmental Impact Analysis
• Entering into dialogue, with the local people, to e ncourage the adoption
of environmental policies
• Introduction of environmental audit and the develop ment of
environmental management system
Ecotourism Policy and Planning
Tourism policy gives a detailed outline of various schemes, for the
investors, along with terms and conditions. The lar ger objective of the policy is
to create investment – friendly atmosphere. The obj ective of ecotourism policy
is to encourage inclusive development, in the desti nation region. Planning helps
the organization achieve the objectives in an effec tive manner and it is the

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ecotourism policy, which extends support to the gov ernment, for the
formulation and successful implementation of the pl an objectives.
Planning provides a broad roadmap, for future cours e of action.
Planning is a tool, for ensuring equitable distribu tion and responsible practices,
with due adherence to the ecological fragility of t he destination region. The
objective of ecotourism plan is to guide the govern ment, in executing the plan
for balanced development. Tourism planning intends to achieve specific or
well-defined goals, in a definite time period. Tour ism planning is drawn on the
basis of the assessment of the availability of reso urces and readiness of the
country’s political system, to develop the resource s.
16Tourism planning focuses
on the demand of the tourism industry.
Need for Ecotourism Policy
Unlike the common tourism policy, Ecotourism Policy is significantly
different in its approach and implementation. In ec o-tourism planning, there is
bias towards the preservation of ecology and enviro nment. The formulation
and implementation of ecotourism policy is carried out, after comprehensive
analysis of socio-economic, cultural, demographic a nd ecological aspects of the
tourist spot. Ecotourism is a conservation approach , for wildlife and plants, to
be used for learning and experiencing purposes. Gov ernment promotes
ecotourism for the preservation of indigenous cultu ral heritage and
improvement of economic well-being.

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The ecotourism activities are largely based on the natural system and
participation of local people, in varied ecotourism activities.
17 The natural
ecosystem in which ecotourism is linked, offers edu cative and interactive
learning experience. In addition, ecosystem is so v ulnerable that even a small
disturbance may cause harmful and hazardous effects on the biodiversity. It is
necessary to have a careful and responsible travel to protect the fragility of
ecosystem and processes. Even the small impact woul d be sufficient, to make
permanent loss, to the animal and plant diversities .
Thus, conflicts are very much expected in ecotouris m and eco-friendly
tourism and nature-based tourism could provide holi stic development, by
involving all the key stakeholders. Keeping this fr agility and sensitiveness of
ecosystem in mind, a well-defined ecotourism planni ng and policy document is
required to be designed, to make ecotourism project s free from conflicts.
18
Thus, both planning and policy are guided by the vi sion, mission, objectives
and principles of ecotourism projects.
Concept of Tourism Policy
Tourism Policy is a set of guidelines or a framewor k, within which
tourism development is undertaken, through collecti ve and individual
decisions. A tourism policy broadly explains the pr ocedures, stipulations, and
eligibility criteria, needed for the development of tourism, in a particular
period. The policy clarifies procedures of land acq uisition, types of taxation,
sources and terms of finance, safety and security, communication facilities,

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environmental practices, and relationship with the local community. Any
policy is required to be flexible in nature, but no t compromising with the basic
philosophies and objectives. It is a social process , linking wider sections of
people, in a variety of different activities.
It sets a basic framework and course of action for systematic
implementation of the guidelines of the policy. The se linkages are established
through continuous discussions. The duration of imp lementation of policy and
plan approaches could be short, medium, and long- term in nature. Ecotourism
policy considers issues like high mobility, cutting -edge information
technologies, ageing population, and sustainability of the destination, during
the formulation of the policy.
At the same time, tourism contributes the much-need ed income, to the
local population and acts as a continuous link, bet ween the environment and
the future economic sustainability of the local are a. Maintaining the
environment requires the tourism service providers, to responsibly follow the
policy guidelines, to maintain ecological resources . It is essential for tourism
operators and the community, to coexist, for mutual benefits and interest.
Ecotourism can be beneficial if it is developed as per the policy guides.
Ecotourism Policy proposes:
To generate direct employment for local people
To earn foreign exchange, from foreign tourists, th rough entry fees and
sightseeing charges.

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To generate revenue to the local economy, through s ales tax.
To facilitate the entrepreneurs, to build eco-hotel , resort, restaurants, etc
To promote local arts and handicraft
To provide direct employment to eco-guides
To indirectly induce the demand for products of agr iculture, animal
husbandry, horticulture, forest, and dairy
To improve the quality of life of the host communit y
To create recreational facilities, for local commun ity members
To preserve archaeological sites, historic, and her itage buildings
To promote waste management and recycling of garbag e and solid waste
To promote a sensitization programme, for the prese rvation of the
environment
The flip side of ecotourism is that it can also cre ate inflation of essential
commodities, during the tourist peak season and inc rease property values. It
may also affect the quality of amenity services, du e to overuse by day visitors.
It can create litter, vandalism, overcrowding and t raffic congestion and crime in
the host community. Finally, there will be a big ch ange in the demographic
structure of the local population. There is every p ossibility of damage being
caused to the protected monuments, due to large-sca le footfalls, thus marring
the aesthetic beauty of the tourism sites. Itcauses litter, erosion, over taxation,
sewage and waste management problems.

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Ecotourism Policy Objectives
A policy also contains strategic steps and action p rogrammes to attain
the desired results. It emphasizes on a planned and logical course of action. The
expected outcomes of tourism depend on the governme nt’s priorities, on
ecological and environmental concerns, poverty alle viation and generation of
foreign exchange.
It also prescribes operational guidelines, for the key players such as the
government, the tourism industry, NGOs, and local c ommunity members, to
operate the tourism business. It has some basic pri nciples such as resolving
conflicts, ensuring carrying capacity and fostering the need for responsible
behaviour by tourism operators. All these principle s can be properly put into
practice, with the involvement of local community m embers.
The policy intends to proclaim how integrated devel opment of the area
can be undertaken. It explains the principles, unin terrupted monitoring and
enforcement of codes of conduct, for visitors. It i s to bring the guidelines into
action, by including institutional support, monitor ing mechanism, incentives,
and regulations. Tourism is a sector, with impact o n the socio-ecological
condition. It is fundamentally necessary to make us e of policy guidelines, to
ensure equity, fair trade and ethical tourism pract ices. Formulation of policy
needs continuous dialogue and consensus, through a bottom-up approach,
decentralized governance and redressal mechanism.
19These initiates are
undertaken by the planners and policymakers.

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These are the following objectives of Ecotourism Po licy:
To make ecotourism destinations, more community and ecological
friendly
To empower local population, with facilities, for p rimary education
To create a conducive environment, to motivate priv ate investors, to
ecotourism sites
To encourage young population, to contribute more, towards ecotourism
To look into the human development in the local are a
To prevent leakages and reduce regional disparity
To preserve the historical and cultural heritage, i n its original form and
style
To create minimum facilities, with less impact on e cosystem
To offer incentives to local residents, for setting up business ventures
To give priority and encouragement to the tradition al handicraft sector
and the interests of artisans
To prepare a legislative framework, to regulate tou rism trade and
industry
To establish effective linkages, with the Departmen t of Forest, Wildlife
and Environment
Process of Ecotourism Policy Formulation
The process consists of a series of policy decision s and actions, in a
methodical manner, to make the government expenditu res,more fruitful. It

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plays an important role in making plans and policie s, to become realistic, in
practice. The process of implementation is certainl y associated with planning,
organizing, coordinating, communicating, and contro lling the goals.
20 These
processes may start as per the order, given below, in order to obtain a
progressive, pro-ecotourism and pro-poor tourism po licy.
Adopting both bottom-up approach and top-down appro ach
Interests of stakeholders like tourists, community, tourism organizations,
and NGOs
Use of local resources sincerely
Employment for local people as top priority
Conservation of culture and ecology and environment
Study of feasibility of approaches
Constitution of task force and collection of report s
Participation in the decision-making process and ex pression of
grievances
Monitoring, review and announcement of policy
Expert group review
Field visit for feasibility study
The process of tourism policy includes inter and in tradepartmental and
public-private sector interactions and interface, a t different levels, for the
consolidation of ideas and thoughts, for developing a robust ecotourism policy.
Implementing agencies are generally responsible, fo r setting and
executing plans, by establishing relationship with conflicting groups, through

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negotiations. Planners and executing bodies underta ke various tactics and
strategies, to implement the policy and programmes, in a systematic and time
bound manner.
21
Linkage between Ecotourism Policy and Planning
A linkage is essential, between planning and policy , to achieve the pre-
determined objective, for ensuring sustainable deve lopment. Regulating
ecotourism activities is beneficial, for sustaining tourism development and for
successful development and management of tourism re sources. Thus, tourism
planning is designed to promote pro-poor tourism an d pro-people tourism.
Planning can effectively be drafted by a team of ex perts. The tourism policy is
a set of guidelines, offering a practical structure , which helps tourism
development through collective and individual decis ions.
The tourism policy broadly explains the guidelines, eligibility criteria,
and procedures to develop tourism. The policy clari fiesprocedures of land
acquisition, development types and modes of taxatio n, sources and terms of
funding, law and order establishments, communicatio n facilities, environmental
practices, and relationship with the local communit y. For example, the National
Tourism Policy-2002 was an important indicator, for the Tenth and Eleventh
Five-Year Plans, in India.
The plan outlays have significantly been increased, in both plan periods,
to execute the target set in the policy document. T he tourism policy enlarges
the scope for tourism development and it sets a cod e of conduct, for investors

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and operators, to conveniently enter into the busin ess. The, allocation of funds
depends on the nature and scope of the tourism poli cy. In short, policy and
planning are complementary to each other, in laying a solid foundation for
tourism development, in any country.
Ecotourism planning is intended to achieve the goal s in a systematic
manner and in a specified time period. The objectiv e is to prevent the loss of
natural resources and maximize the benefits, at the least environmental cost. It
is essential to formulate planning, for ecotourism projects to usher in socio-
economic changes. Governments, at the regional leve l, draw long-term plan,in
alignment with the vision and mission of ecotourism projects, a well-defined
and methodical planning, for ecotourism projects, c an remove many negative
impacts and increase more positive effects. One of the positive impacts is
economic development. Thus, the process of planning is taken at various
stages.
Ecotourism Policy Guidelines
It is important to involve all stakeholders when ec otourism guidelines
are fully implemented. It is essential to generates ynergy and collaboration,
among the tourism and allied organizations, for the successful implementation
of ecotourism policy guidelines.
Wilderness conservation, in ecologically sensitive landscapes
Local community participation and benefit-sharing

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Sound environmental design and use of locally produ ced and sustainable
materials
Conservation education and training
Adequate monitoring and evaluation of the impact of ecotourism
activities
Capacity building of local communities, in planning , providing and
managing ecotourism facilities
The ecotourism guidelines suggest that adequate pro visions must be
made to provide purely inclusive tourism, with the direct help of local
communities, in compliance with the Wildlife (Prote ction) Act, 1972. It is for
the State Governments, to evolve the ways of genera ting the revenue, from the
entry fees for visitors into the tiger reserve or s anctuary and spending the same
on local area development. The State Forest Departm ent should be the Arbiter,
for resolving the disputes.
22 As suggested, the Chief Wildlife Warden must
ensure that each protected area must prepare an eco tourism plan, in accordance
with the annual plan of tiger conservation project. A site-specific, Ecotourism
Plan, for each protected area, must be prepared and approved. The Warden
shall develop a monitoring mechanism, for checking the carrying capacity and,
designated tourism zones by evolving scientific cri teria.
Functioning of Ecotourism Sites in Protected Area o f State (PAS)
A State Level Steering Committee has been constitut ed, to review and
suggest, ecotourism strategy. A Local Advisory Comm ittee (LAC) has been

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constituted, for each protected area, with the foll owing mandate. The
Committee is to review the strategy, formulated by the State Government, for
promoting ecotourism. It is to ensure that the corr idor value of PAS (Protected
Area of State) must be protected, through imposing certain stringent
restrictions on buildings and infrastructure, in pr ivate areas.
It offers periodical advice to the government and local bodies, to be
careful about ecotourism, in the ecologically sensi tive places and advises
ecotourism in non-forest areas. It is essentially t o enforce rules and regulations,
for monitoring facilities, within five km from a pr otected area.
The Committee can look into the mitigation-related measures of
environmental clearance, area of coverage, ownershi p, type of construction,
number of employees etc. For example, the Tiger Tas k Force Report, in 2005,
recommended that hotels, within a radius of five km from the boundary of the
tiger reserve must contribute 30 per cent of turnov er, to meeting the cost of
conservation of tiger reserve. At the same time, ho tels can be allowed to claim
100 percent income tax benefit for the same. The na tional ecotourism policy in
India has also suggested the formation of tradition al Village Councils,
equivalent to Panchayats.
The Tiger Conservation Foundation is the overseeing authority and
could include members who are not represented in th e Tiger Conservation
Foundation. The ecotourism policy helps in achievin g a projected growth rate
and formulates new strategies, to increase the part icipation of responsible

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partners. It develops infrastructure, at the destin ation areas, through the Public-
Private Partnership (PPP). Regional disparity can b e eliminated with the
development. The ecotourism policy provides clear- cut description of who is
responsible for the ecosystem and its processes bec ause tourism is an important
element of an ecosystem in a destination place.
23
The policy documents enforce rules and regulations, for eco-resorts and
tourism operators who are accountable to the enviro nment. Thus, management
of ecotourism policy contributes to the mitigation of ecological and
environmental impact, by reducing solid wastage and promoting sustainability,
after giving due regard to resource management.
Tourism policy gives the detailed outline of variou s schemes, to attract
more investment, for inclusive development in the d estination region. The
ecotourism policy helps in achieving a projected gr owth rate and formulates
new strategies, to increase the participation of re sponsible partners. It develops
infrastructure, with the help of the Public-Private P
artnership (PPP), in an
effective manner. Thus, the ecotourism policy
simplifies the processes of
investment and development. Planning gives a
holistic and integrated
roadmap, for future course of action and for equita ble
distribution and
responsible practices.
24In short, the objectives of ecotourism plan is to
achieve balanced development.

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Ecotourism Programming
Programming is a logical way of organizing the acti vities, to help
participants to maximize the value for their time a nd money. The use of
programming in ecotourism adds lots of value, to me et the expectations of
visitors. Eco tourism encourages local business ent erprises, to be careful
enough towards the quality of services, that largel y determines the experience
of visitors at ecotourism sites.
Eco-tour operators conduct the outdoor tourism acti vities like nature
walk, wildlife viewing, bird watching, trekking, hi king, horse riding, etc., in
systematic ways whiling taking interest, motivation , physical fitness, time,
distance, weather, group size, parking space, traff ic, availability of instructors,
porters and guides and code of conducts into consid eration. Importance is given
to developing elaborate programmes, to minimize neg ative impacts and
maximize positive impacts. Adequate scope is given for learning and
experiencing eco-tour, as time is proportionately d istributed across places of
interest. Photography, wildlife and bird watching, participation in local
festivals, tasting local cuisine and home stay are programmed in such a manner
that visitors can maximize their enjoyment and lear ning.
Meaning and Concept of Programming Programming is a planned way of implementing princi ples and
satisfying eco-tourists. This approach provides gui dance to tour operators or
eco-resorts, to contribute to sustainable developme nt. It further regulates the

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operation of organized tours and evaluates the stat e of accountability, towards
the use of resources, capital, and effective use of time and behaviour of
employees or clients.
At the same time, programming is the process of or ganizing resources
and opportunities, for visitors, to satisfy leisure needs. There can be
educational, cognitive, affective and social needs that can enable individuals to
become healthier and happier, after undertaking the nature travel or responsible
travel, to ecotourism destinations.
A systematic programming approach has been used, t o satisfy
recreation for many years. However, it has altered significantly, over time, due
to the change in disposable income, leading to a di fferent lifestyle.
25 The
interest, for outdoor recreational activities, has undergone significant changes.
Camping, sports and games, arts and crafts, swimmin g and nature studies are
some of the traditional recreational activities, th at people used to be engaged,
during the vacation. It is now presented in a more innovative way that includes
special interests, personality development and livi ng skills, health and fitness,
family and gender-related concerns, travel and tour ism, adventure and ‘risk’
activities, performing arts, and special services, for those with physical, mental
and social disabilities. Above all, all this activi ty-based eco tourism engages
modern day participants.

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Recreation Programming
People involve themselves in leisure pursuits spont aneously as an urge
to participate when they get bored with humdrum lif e. Recreational
programmes are relatively unstructured due to less time to plan. It requires a
great deal of structured or planning. Planning make s programs to happen, in a
more organized and systematic way. Organized travel includes the arrangement
of a swim class, a dance class, a scuba-diving cour se, a rock climbing training,
etc. When an individual visitor does not have resou rces or ability to organize
structured recreational programmes, the onus for ge nerating recreational
satisfaction obviously switches from the individual to the responsibility of tour
operators, for presenting the programmes while taki ng time, cost and interest of
participants into consideration.
Individual is the most central part of ecotourism a ctivities. It requires the
recreational programming approach, to enhance the q uality of activities. People
involved in delivering services, must be trained an d groomed to take care of
participants. As a consequence, eco-tour operators and resorts devote much of
their time to improve the service quality, by givin g continuous training to the
personnel. As it is a part of their responsibility, service providers, at ecotourism
destinations, must look into the interests and dema nd of visitors. Hence service
providers must take all possible efforts, to organi ze and plan nature-based
tourism activities, for the purpose of maximizing p articipants’ enjoyment and
experiences. This becomes possible with the help of recreational programming
approach. Ecotourism programmes can be better struc tured, with the well-

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defined policy and programmes, that help guide dest ination promoters. At the
same time, the approach of ecotourism must be under taken in four different
stages such as philosophy, planning, implementation and evaluation.
26
The integration of programme planning may be presen ted in five major
phases of an outdoor recreation experience, as deve loped by Clawson and
Knetsch (1978). Tourists have different perception s, during the anticipation,
travel to site, on-site, travel home from site and reflection stages of the trip.
Anticipation or expectation is one of the phases du ring which an individual
develops belongingness on the basis of his/her cogn itive image for which
information related to people, nature, culture, cli mate, etc is gathered from
various sources.
After going through other three stages like underta king travel to site,
staying and moving into the site and return home, a person reflects upon the
activities that he/she undertakes during the trip. The reflection of tour to the
nature-based sites, can demonstrate the level of sa tisfaction and enjoyment.
Recreational programming is organized in four stage s such as need assessment,
planning, implementation and evaluation.
27 The systematic nature of this
procedure provides the needed clarity, in addressin g many critical steps, which
must be satisfied to develop successful programmes.
Programme Objectives for Ecotourism To increase awareness of the endangered species, wi thin the
community

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To allow a ten per cent increase, in the number of participants, in the
Programme
To encourage participants, to identify animals list , as the most
threatened species
To organize more outdoor components of the field tr ip and
interactions
To make service providers aware of certain types of performance
objectives
Travelling and seeking enjoyment, through ecotouris m activities, could
be explained by the Social Exchange Theory of Searl e and Brayley (1993).
According to this theory, people enter into recreat ion and tourism programmes,
through social relationships. It leads to creation of situations, that influence the
amount of experience of visitors, at ecotourism sit es. These relationships can
be sustained when rewards are valued and costs do n ot exceed benefits. It may
be explained that when participants do not receive value for their money, they
tend to discontinue relationship with service provi ders. The success of
ecotourism philosophy or approach, depends on the p rovision of ensuring
quality service and accreditation and certification from many national and
international agencies. The collaboration is essent ially required to provide
guide training, environmental education and facilit ation to local community
members, to participate whole-heartedly.
28

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Programming for Motivation
The principles of ecotourism are meant for service providers,
community and tourists, to pursue responsible touri sm, at ecotourism sites.
These principles are framed, after examining the pl ace of ecotourism, with
reference to the environment, the nature of human a ctivity, and the nature of
human relationships. Ecotourism activities must sat isfy travel motivations.
According to Kahle (1983), ecotourism sites need to be preserved with the help
of stakeholders and all of them are connected with certain fundamental values,
such as fun and enjoyment in life and excitement, s elf-respect, warm
relationships with others, sense of accomplishment, self-fulfilment, security,
sense of belonging and being well respected. These are universally accepted
and respected. The first six motivational aspects a re internally motivated
values. However, the first two motivations are rela ted to hedonistic type of
tourist. while the last three are externally motiva ted ones.
29 These may include
reducing/ reusing/recycling, harmony, exploration a nd multiculturalism,
preservation of landscapes, biodiversity conservati on, integrity, learning,
service and knowledge.
30
Optimal arousal is defined as a psychological const ruct, explaining the
level of mental stimulation, at which physical perf ormance, learning or
temporary feelings of well-being, are maximized. Ph ysical performance is
linked with levels of arousal and it increases perf ormance. However, too much
arousal (stress) leads to decreasing performance, j ust as too little arousal stifles

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performance (boredom). People seek an optimal state of arousal, in their
participation, in order to maintain a state of home ostasis.
According to Ewert (1985), experienced mountain cli mbers are
motivated by intrinsic factors such as exhilaration , challenge, personal testing,
decision making and locus of control whereas inexpe rienced climbers
participate in the same activities, due to extrinsi c reasons, including
recognition, escape and social motives.
Programming for Meeting Personality Needs
Personality is the sum of the unique psychological qualities of an
individual, that influence a variety of characteris tic behaviour patterns, in
relatively consistent ways, across different situat ions and over time. Behaviour
is the result of the psychological qualities of a p erson, which remain fairly
consistent over time. There are five main personali ty factors such as
extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neu roticism and openness to
experience.
The first and fifth factors seem to have the most a pplicability to
ecotourism and tourism in general. Plog(1972) found that allocentric tourists
are those travellers who seek novel, adventurous an d unstructured experiences
and they can be compared to extroversion. According to Zuckerman (1979),
sensation-seeking tourists may be compared to alloc entric tourists. This
identifies a personality trait, matching for novel, varied, complex and risky
experiences.
31

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Programming Strategies
Trickle-down Effect: It is a strategy, at the highe st-level, trickling down
to the consumer.
Hedonist/Individualistic Nature: It is a type of pr ogramming, that gives
stress on the pursuit of pleasure and promotion of individual forms of
creative expression rather than stereotyped activit ies
Programming by Objectives: It defines obj ectives for
implementation and evaluation.
Programming by Desires of Participants: It is an a pproach connecting
the actual expressed desires of participants to act ual services
Programming by Perceived Needs of Participants: It is an approach to
understand anticipated needs of participants, witho ut seeking inputs
from participants.
Programming by Cafeteria Style: It presents and cre ates provision of
several different activities/services, for customer s, to choose from.
Programming by External Requirements: It is develo ped to evaluate
programmes.
Programming by objectives and Programming by extern alrequirements
are some of the approaches,which appeal to tourism service providers, at
ecotourism sites.

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Guidelines for Good Ecotourism Programming
Placing Needs of Participant: It is committed effor ts of tourism service
providers, to go by the goals.
Commitment to the Ideals of Ecotourism: Tourism ent repreneurs should
be consistent with the values and ethics of ecotour ism.
Protection of Participant’s Rights: The relationshi p is based on trust,
respect and confidence, to sustain the mutual benef its.
Acquisition of Adequate and Appropriate Knowledge: Tourism service
providers should provide enough scope, to their pro fessionals or
employees, to acquire sufficient education or work experience, to take
responsibilities of the job.
Practice Highest Standards of Professional Service: Service providers
should be consistent, in delivering uncompromising services, day in and
day out.
Continuously Upgrading Professional Knowledge, Skil l and Ability:
The programmer must be motivated, to pursue learnin g and
advancement, to keep abreast of current trends and concerns.
Ethically and Equitably Operating Tourism Establish ments: There must
be transparency and honesty, with the client, in or der to avoid being
coerced and bribed.
Maintaining a Collaborative Relationship : It is es sential to maintain a
two-way dialogue, between the provider and particip ant rather than
subordinate relationship

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Self-regulation: It is the responsibility to establ ish performance
guidelines/standards. Operators must regulate thei r behaviour
accordingly.
Contributing to development of profession: Professi onal ecotourism
operators must make all attempts, unselfishly, to s hare knowledge, skills
and abilities for the welfare of community in parti cular and other
stakeholders in general.
Role of Ecotour Operators
According to the Saskatchewan Tourism Education Cou ncil (1997), a
small tourism operator is an individual who is:
Accountable for planning, decision making and manag ement of day-
to-day and long-term operations
Operates a business in one or more of eight identif ied sectors of the
tourism industry.
According to Weaver and Oppermann (1999), the prima ry role of a tour
operator is to provide a package of services such a s room, food, transport,
guide, reading room, etc. Tour operators combine th ese services, from several
service providers, either directly or indirectly.
According to Mitchell, (1992), responsibilities of tour operators is
circulating informative brochures, confirmation of services, issuing tour
vouchers, paying commissions, handling financial tr ansactions, coordinating all

146

passenger manifests as well as advertising, sales, promotions and other
operations.
Ecotourism service providers may operate a business , in one or more of
the sectors, depending on the focus of the business enterprise.
32
Benefits of Ecopackage Tour
From the perspective of consumers, the benefits of eco-package tour to
ecotourism places may include:
Elimination of a great deal of involvement and tran sactions
Minimization of costs, time, costs and risks from t he point of view of
operator. Benefits of eco-package tour include:
Expansion opportunity, to expand the market base an d region
Enhancement of ability, to maintain a consistent qu ality on each trip
Reduction of risk, through the development of stabl e and structured
systems
For example, in a specialized tourism and travel m arket, ecotourism
operators target a niche market, to entice potentia l buyers of package tour, for
wildlife viewing, bird watching, trekking, etc. As such, specialized tour
operations have many more advantages over the opera tions of common interest
package tours. The specialized eco-tour operators g enerally book smaller
hotels, adjacent to protected areas. Arrangements a round transportation,
accommodation, and food services can be made in sit uations, which warrant
such changes.
33

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According to Swarbrooke (1999), the smaller tour o perators can survive
by adopting the following strategies:
Selling holidays, at prices, that generate a higher profit margin per
customer than mass-market vacations
Relying heavily, on repeat purchases, by loyal cust omers
Offering high levels of personal service
Providing niche market, specialized products that a re not offered by the
mass-market operator.
34
Step by Step Progamming for Reception upon Arrivals
Greet visitors, with traditional reception, upon ar rival (Namaskar)
Smile and be friendly with visitors
Get to know the names of group members
Introduce you and your company and greet everyone, spread your
attention around
Size up the group and ensure meeting the needs of g uests
Make sure that formalities are done along with sett lement of payments
Introduce guide or tour manager
Introduce the objectives and principles of ecotouri sm
Arouse interest and enthusiasm, towards ecotourism activities, by giving
brochures.etc
Make announcement of itinerary

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Make repeat announcement of information about the d egree of difficulty
of using equipment, clothes on tour
Make time for a last-minute restroom break
Incorporate an ice-breaking activity or other activ ities/discussion, to
establish rapport with the guests.
Orient audience to theme by distributing informatio n packets or
describing routes
Ensure the return of each member to the coach
Give people something to look for or think about, b etween stops
Look for or capitalize on teachable moments at ever y opportunity
For example, the Professional Guide Institute (PGI) providestraining in
the areas of wild lands, heritage, backcountry lead ership, interpretation and
outfitter operation, with the mission to identify, enhance and disseminate the
natural, interpretive and educational resource of t he outfitting industry, so that
outfitters and guides can offer the highest quality of experience to the public.
Ecotourism operators would include elements of pos itive effect, in their
programmes. They may include:
Some freedom to make choices about activities
Time spent in these activities
Some control over the amount of free time, instead of being
continuously directed from one facility or attracti on to another.
Programming the service is concerned with generatin g positive

149

experiences, for participants, through an array of services. The operator
makes all endeavours, to increase the chances of su ccess of eco-package
tour
Tapping into the anticipation stage, through effect ive advertising
Ensuring comfortable and enjoyable stay, during tra vel to the site
Exceeding the eco-tourist’s expectations, on site, through a variety of
educationally based experiences
Ensuring safe and enjoyable stay
Providing follow-up literature, on the attractions of the trip, for
reflection
Continue travelling, as an Ecotourist, to other sit es
Conscientious Tourism
Conscientious tourism, entails traveling with one’s conscience and
connecting with others, in a particular place. This form of eco-travel provides
opportunities, to the visitors, to have a deeper un derstanding about people,
place, culture and nature.
Eco-tourists take much pain, for the preservation of ecosystem and
culture. Social and environmental footprint is a co re value of the conscientious
traveller, as their visits must not lead to loss of biodiversity and erosion of
cultural values.
35 Thus, ecotourism programming can inculcate the foll owing
principles for promoting conscientious tourism.
Environmental conservation

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Community participation
Profitability
Environmental Management System through Programming
Programming refers to the setting of a formal agend a for action. This includes:
Assessing current environmental management
Establishing and implementing a programme for envir onmental
management system;
Prioritizing significant impacts
Setting environmental targets
Establishing a programme to achieve environmental t argets
Programming fine tunes the activities, for particip ants, to feel and
experience more gains than what they bargained for. Planning and
programming are two important dimensions of ecotour ism. The value of
visiting ecotourism sites can be better promoted, w ith systematic planning.
Recreational or outdoor experiences can be programm ed in such a manner that
eco-tourists can learn, admire and enjoy the beauty of nature and its important
elements, that can spread from the stage of anticip ation to the reflections of site
visit, on return home.
This is the way tour operators are engaged, in desi gning packages, for
larger benefits of visitors and community. Programm ing can minimize negative
impacts and maximize positive impacts at particular ecotourism sites, as
visitors would be guided by the step-by-step conduc t of tour. Thus, each

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ecotourism site aims to attract visitors, by offeri ng learning experience, that can
be possible with the help of programming.
36
The point of Environmental Audit, in connection wi th insurance of
national parks and sanctuaries must be to encourage administration of control
of ecological practices. Natural review developers can upgrade the ecological
execution, successfully and productively, in Tamil Nadu.

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End Notes
1. Javaid, Akhtar, Tourism Management in India, New Delhi: Ashish
Publishing House, 1980, p.71.
2. Robert, Cleverdon, The Economic and Social Impact of International
Tourism on Developing Countries, London: The Economic Intelligence
Unit Ltd., 1969, p.68.
3. Bhattacharya, A.K., Ecotourism and Livelihoods Capacity Building for
Local Authorities, New Delhi: 2005, p.53.
4. Punia, B. K., Tourism Management – Problems and Prospects, New
Delhi: Ashish Publishing House, 1994, pp.112-113.
5. Archer, B.H., The Impact of Domestic Tourism, Cardiff: University of
Wales Press, 1973, p.224.
6. Bryden John, M., Tourism and Development , Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 1973, pp.41-42.
7. Salah, Wahab, Tourism Management, London: Tourism International
Press, 1975, p.96.
8. Suddhendu Narayan Misra and Sapan Kumar Sadual, Tourism
Management, New Delhi: Excel Books, 2008, pp.65-66.
9. Sharma, K. K., op.cit., 2004, p.95.
10. Revathy, Girish, op.cit., 2010, p.67.
11. Gill, Pushpinder, S., Gill, Tourism Economic and Social Development,
New Delhi: Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd., 1997, p.18 4.
12. Singh, T.V., Tourism Impact Assessment, New Delhi: Anmol
Publications Pvt. Ltd., 1998, pp.156.
13. Ravi Bhushan Kumar, Coastal Tourism and Environment, New Delhi:
S.B.APH Publishing Corporations, 1995, p.49.
14. Seth, P.N., Successful Tourism Management, New Delhi: Sterling
Publishing House, 1985, pp.31-32.
15. Annual Report of Ministry of Tourism, Government of India, Tamil
Nadu, 2014-2015, Chennai, 2015, pp.2-5.

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16. Davis, H.D., Potentials for Tourism of Developing Countries , London:
Finance and Development, 1968, pp.132-133.
17. Dubois, Abbe, J.A., and Henry K. Beauchamp, Demand Forecasting in
Tourism, Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 1974, p.184.
18. Gill, Pushpinder , S., Tourism and Hotel Management, New Delhi:
Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd., 1999, p.242.
19. Chopra, Sunita, Tourism and Development in India, New Delhi: Ashish
Publishing House, 1991, p.89.
20. Singh, Percy, K., Fifty Years of Indian Tourism, New Delhi: Kanishka
Publishers and Distributors, 1998, p.24.
21. Negi, J.M.S, Tourism and Hoteliering – A Worldwide Industry, New
Delhi: Gitanjali Publishing House, 1982, p.201.
22. Statistical Report of World Travel and Tourism Cou ncil, 2015, pp.2-6.
23. Report of National Committee on Tourism, Government of India,
Planning Commission, New Delhi, 1988, pp.1-7.
24. Salah, Wahab, op.cit., 1975, p.94.
25. Ranga, Mukesh, Tourism in India, New Delhi: Abhijeet Publications,
2003,pp. 69-70.
26. Annual Statistical Hand Book of the Ministry of Tou rism, Government
of India, New Delhi, 2013,pp.6-10.
27. Chopra, Suhita, Tourism and Development in India, New Delhi: Ashish
Publishing house, 1971, p.241.
28. Singh, Manjit, Management of State Tourism Development
Corporations, New Delhi: Deep and Deep Publications Pvt Ltd., 20 04,
p.95.
29. Annual Report of Indian Institute of Tourism and T ravel Management,
New Delhi.
30. Gill, Pushpinder, S., op.cit., 1997, p.108.
31. Alen Jefferson and Lickerish Leonard, Marketing Tourism, U.K:
Longman Group, 1991, pp.54-55.
32. Martha, Honey, op.cit., 2008, pp.73.

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33. Bisht, S.S., Tourism Marketing, Market Practices in Tourism Ind ustry,
New Delhi: Sarupb Publishers Ltd., 2010, p.23.
34. Tourism Statistics at a Glance, Ministry of Tourism, Government of
India, New Delhi, 2016, p.32.
35. Kruja, Drita, and Gjyrezi, Albana, loc.cit., 2011, p.18.
36. Singh, Rantandeep , Tourist India – Hospitality Services, New Delhi:
Kanishka Publishers, 1999, p.108.

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CHAPTER-III
ROLE OF GOVERNMENT IN ECOTOURISM – TAMIL NADU The Government of India wanted to build up the ecot ourism and the
result was the Ecotourism Society of India (ESOI). It consists of
Environmentalists under the Ministry of Tourism and it was launched as an
association, for profit, to advance ecologically ca pable and feasible practices,
in the tourism business, in the year 2008. The Ecot ourism Society of India
works intimately with Central and State Governments and it is in charge of
Sustainable Tourism.
The Society organized workshop on, “Natural Law and Tourism”, in
September 2008, in Delhi and another workshop on, ‘ Rehearsing Responsible
Tourism’, for Tamil Nadu and Puducherry, on 26 and 27 November, 2010 in
Mahabalipuram.
The Society organises workshops, over different Sta tes, in consultation
with the Centre for Environmental Law of WWF-India. The Ministry of
Tourism, Government of India, has authorised ESOI, to work as the partner of
Government of India to work out strategies and grou nd rules for Sustainable
Tourism, to position India as the global leader of eco-tourism. The goal of the
ESOI is to advance economic improvement in tourism and to enforce accepted
procedures among the tourism crew.
The significant targets are to guarantee long haul (unending) sustenance
of the earth, to create strategies and set of princ iples for advancement of
maintainable tourism, to help investigate in touris m related territories, support

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negligible utilization and forestall extreme utiliz ation of tourism resources,
water reaping and utilization of sun powered source s.
1 Further, ESOI proposes
to recognize new ecotourism goals, reinforce ecotou rism and make India a
favoured ecotourism destination.
Tamil Nadu has huge potential for ecotourism. The v egetation ranges
from dry-deciduous backwoods, thistle backwoods to mangroves, damp
deciduous and wet evergreen timberlands. Tamil Nadu is the home of more
than 3000 plants species. Kurinji, an uncommon blos som that blooms once in
twelve years, develops in the hill station of Kodai kanal. Udhagamandalam is
another place, with a wide range of vegetation and draws both local and outside
vacationers. Waterfalls are additional ecotourism a ttraction. The Courtallam
Falls is known as the “Spa of the South India”, as the water is said to have
incredible herbal properties. The Tourism Departmen t is quick to have an eco-
circuit, to cover the mangrove backwoods and havens of Pitchavarm, Point
Calimere and Muthupet. Numerous eco vacationers are intrigued by the
tropical timberlands and wilderness.
2
Schemes for the Ecotourism Development Spots
In 2006-2009, the Government of Tamil Nadu had auth orized many
plans for the eco-tourism sports. The Government of India and the State
Government offered assets, to build up the ecotouri sm goal, in 2006-2009. As a
result, Kodaikanal Suruli Falls and China Suruli Fa lls, biodiversity at Udayagiri
Post, beautification of Marina Beach, improvement o f Kovai Courtallam,
Nagapattam, and Thiruvakkarai, Mamallapuram, advanc ement of

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Kanniyakumari, Udhagamandalam and Tranquebar receiv ed financial support
to improve the infrastructure.
The Tamil Nadu Ecotourism arranges specific destina tions, enforces
standards, and procedure for evaluation of ecotouri sm wonders. Tamil Nadu
Tourism Development Corporation has launched the Vi rtual Tours, in their
Website, covering the significant ecotourist spots of Tamil Nadu. Just by
tapping the Website of TTDC, one can browse through the possible eco tourist
destinations of Tamil Nadu.
Policies are dynamic in nature, mirroring changing situations in the
strategy of improvement. Eco tourism is a huge busi ness space, with scope for
economic returns but it must be carried out within the framework, defined by
national, provincial and nearby eco-tourism approac hes and advancement
systems that are predictable with the general targe ts of feasible improvement.
3
The key players in the planning for ecotourism, are government,
developers administrators and providers, guests, NG Os and research
institutions. The strategy of Tamil Nadu Government endorses operational
rules, for these key players. The approach characte rizes eco-tourism with an
unmistakable bias for preservation. It lays out car dinal standards,
recommending the significance of neighbourhood grou ps, limiting the demand
for tourism, to natural and social carrying capacit y. It additionally sees that
eco-tourism ought to be a means of improvement of a territory. It discusses
principles, persistent checking and activity design s, fusing the missing
segments, institutional help, observing criteria, m otivations and controls.
4

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Vision
The vision of the Tamil Nadu is the widely acclaime d goal of having
some expertise in feasible tourism, through concent rated endeavours in making
cooperative energy among all partners, empowering l imit building and open
private organizations with income producing methodo logies and utilize
ecotourism as an apparatus to animate and support n ormal and social
preservation, with exceptional financial developmen t and project Tamil Nadu’s
uniqueness, all through the world.
5
Mission
The Mission of Tamil Nadu is:
1. To select eco-tourism spots in the State and conduc t activities such as
rock-climbing, forest visits and trekking for youth .
2. To evolve an action plan, to promote awareness, on preserving the
unique aspects of a place
3. To take steps to prevent the usage of plastic and o ther non-
biodegradable products, around water bodies, parks, zoos and reserves.
6
Objectives The State shall endeavour to promote eco-tourism an d its activities by
pursuing the following:
1. Identification and promotion of lesser known sites, with eco-tourism
potential, in addition to popular destination.

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2. To unwind stress through nature.
3. Securing involvement of the local communities, livi ng in and dependent
on peripheral and other areas, for their livelihood , without adversely
affecting their cultural ethos.
4. Create awareness on education and conservation tech niques, among
tourists and local communities.
5. To underline the vital role of tourism activities, in the conservation and
sustainable management of natural resources.
6. Propagate conservation awareness, among the tourist s and expand
public support for conservation.
7. To lead to better understanding of forest and bette r participation in
conservation of forest and bio diversity.
Guiding Principles The development, management and promotion of eco-to urism, in the
State, shall be governed by following these guiding principles:
1. Rules and guidelines regarding technical procedures , stakeholder
participation and impact mitigation to be developed and strictly
adhered to.
2. Adherence to standards in terms of quality and safe ty in developing and
operating eco-tourism facilities and activities to be given highest
priority.

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3. Creation of environmental awareness amongst all sec tions and age
groups, especially the youth, to be incorporated as a major activity for
each eco-tourism destination.
4. Only activities and facilities, with least impact o n the natural resources
and local culture, to be permitted.
5. Preference to the ‘quality of experience’ rather th an the numbers of
visitors, without compromising on financial viabili ty as far as possible.
6. Resources that are traditionally used by the local community, are to be
harnessed for eco-tourism, wherever required.
7. Activities and facilities to be developed, in consu ltation with the local
community and mechanism to ensure flow of benefits to the community.
8. Monitoring mechanisms to evaluate guidelines, codes of conducts and
benefit sharing, among local communities, to be evo lved.
9. Marketing strategies to be based on sound market re search and
segmentation analysis, making wide use of electroni c print and cyber
media, for promoting Tamil Nadu as a multi-faceted, eco-tourism
destination.
10. Promote group-oriented tourism, with focus on youth , trekkers and other
interested tourists.
7
11. Recognize and respect land and property rights and avoid transgression
into the cultural sovereignty of indigenous and loc al communities,
including their protected, sensitive, and sacred si tes as well as their
traditional knowledge.

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12. All activities to be carried out in accordance with the provisions of
forest, environment, labour and other relevant loca l laws of India.
13. Ensure the integrity, serenity and the natural valu es of the destination
through appropriate travel choice, responsible beha viour and activities
of the visitors by communicating to them the qualit ies and sensitives of
destinations.
14. Encourage public-private partnerships model as far as possible, to
mobilize investment infrastructure development on s ite.
15. There is need to provide comfortable stay and basic amenities to
travellers and the role of hospitality sector in th is realm is vital. Hotels
play a major role in promoting ecotourism which wou ld result in making
the destination a favoured one among tourists.
8The major players are to
be a part of an Eco Club, where they could discuss strategies in order to
sustain eco-tourism activities. The Government will help the sector, to
set up hotels, in potential eco-tourism spots, outs ide the
wilderness/protected areas.
16. Roles and responsibilities of stakeholders, in prom oting of the State’s
eco-tourism action plans, to be identified.
In Tamil Nadu, the eco-tourism stakeholders are Loc al Communities,
Tourism Departments, Forest Departments, Agricultur al Departments,
Department of Foreign Affairs, Police Department, D epartment of Public
Health, Transport Department, Environment Departmen t, Pollution control
board, Rural Development Department, Education Depa rtment, Information

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and Public Relations Department, Small Scale Indust ries, Energy Department,
Private Sector and Non-Government Organizations.
Strategies
1. Identification of Destination to SYNC with Exist ing Circuits
Priority is given to advancement of spots, which ar e in the current
mainstream. Identification and improvements must be kept at absolute
minimum. Reasonable eco-tourism goals will be recog nized and synchronised
with existing eco-tourism circuits.
2. Conformity to Statutory Provisions
There is a need to guarantee that exercise is advan ced within the
framework of principles and directions, laid down b y the Government. In short,
low effect eco-tourism must be evolved, as an instr ument for preservation of
woodland and protection of endangered animals like tigers.
3.Tourism Activities and Incidents to be Within the Levels of Carrying
Capacity
The most essential parameter that is viewed as thre atening and counter
to eco-tourism, is the group, that through any wild and easy-going
methodology, might leave numerous unwanted effects like mounting waste
materials and so on. The physical, and social carry ing capacity of each eco
tourist destination, must be registered ahead of ti me, with reference to certain
standards.

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4. Infrastructure Development
Generous inflow of tourists implies advancement of infrastructure,
related to the necessities. Wherever it is justifie d to develop extra framework, it
must be executed outside secured regions. Current e xercises will be allowed if
they do not aggravate the living space of untamed l ife. In the event of
framework advancement inside reserve territories, i mpermanent structures may
be permitted, to blend into the environment. This m ust be foreseen through site
examinations, with reference to its extension, qual ity and constraints.
5. Destinations Management Once the goal is settled, the improvement and admin istration will be
done by the timberland division, including the neig hbourhood group. The
people, from the program zone, will be included int o the Eco Tourism
Management Committees (ETMC) and the operation of v arious tourism items
will be executed, by the ETMC, through a Memorandum of Understanding
(MOU). The MOU will explain the obligation of each stakeholder in the
program.
9
6. Public Private Partnership
Private associations could professionally deal with the eco-tourism
goals. Non-Governmental Organizations could also wo rk in condition of
untamed life and engaged in eco training and eco mi ndfulness among the
visitors.

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7.Capacity Building Among the Stakeholders
There is a pressing need to improve the abilities o f neighbourhood
group, to deal with eco issues. Eco tourism exercis es, at a given site, will call
for particular aptitudes from the tourists. Essenti ally, woodland staff with
expertise knowledge, should be granted information of the undertaking, to deal
with a score of exercises in a professional way.
Limit-building projects would create capability an d imbue certainty,
among the neighbourhood individuals and the woods s taff, to embrace the
ecotourism related administration. The neighbouring group should be prepared
to deal with home stays, given essential training a nd mindfulness, wellbeing
and sanitation, set of accepted rules, timberland a nd natural life preservation,
litter control and creating abilities in making kee psakes. They could prepare
sight seers to feel at home at eco sites.
8.Monitoring Mechanisms
A compelling assessment paradigm must be put in pla ce, to find out that
the exercises are organized, as per the rules and a rrangements recommended.
Effect of these exercises must be evaluated, on a n onstop basis, by the assigned
faculty and assessment system. This will guarantee positive biological effect on
the earth and improvement on a supported basis. Aff irmation and accreditation
could be conferred on associations, that conform to the laid out, approved
standards and directions.

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9. Responsibilities of Stakeholders
1. It is the duty of the neighbourhood groups to share information about
the region’s biodiversity and culture and go about as eco-tourism
diplomats. They thus take advantage of expansion in pay, better
work and positive effect on their way of life.
2. The Tourism Division must make rules and work with the branches
of the Government, for gaining appropriations. The Division must go
about as an accreditation body, for the affirmation procedure and
decide the expense structure, for eco visit bundles . It must furnish
specialized viewpoints, for participatory arranging and back
ventureoutings.
10
3. The timberland and agribusiness Division must guara ntee that the
eco-tourism approaches are compliant with the stand ards and
directions and offer help on the destinations. The Division must
uphold ecological laws and screen the effect of the undertaking, after
usage.
4. The Division may distribute financial help and eval uate their
demands and the tourist assets. The offices must su rvey the level of
revenue generated from eco-tourism exercises and fu rther, encourage
credit for struggling business ventures.
5. It is the duty of the Tamil Nadu Police, to guarant ee the safety and
welfare of vacationers. This would give them a feel ing of
accomplishment and national pride.

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6. The Division must also investigate the procedures, including visitor
visas.
7. The Division must ensure quality stay for traveller s.
8. The Transport Division must oversee the transport f acilities to eco-
tourism locales.
9. It is an obligation of the Contamination Control Di vision to
facilitatethe enforcement of ecological laws, contr ol contamination
in eco-tourism territories and help in making appro priate Eco rules.
10. The Provincial Improvement Office must utilize eco- tourism as a
successful instrument for economic advancement and help in making
appropriate rules for the same.
11. The Training Division must organize training progra mmes, through
eco-tourism experts and give specialized guidance, at whatever point
found necessary.
12. The Data and Advertising Division must work on mobi lising support
for eco-tourism.
13. The Division must also provide protection technique s, for economic
improvement.
14. Small scale enterprises must work towards the advan cement of the
local business.
15. The private players bring in an assortment of busin ess whereupon the
tourism business depends. It must provide essential ventures, to give
quality information sources, bolster preservation a nd group

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improvement and underwrite eco-tourism, as a piece of Corporate
Social Responsibility (CSR).
16. Non-Governmental Organizations may bring about a co nnection
between people in general and private segment and g ive skill to the
eco-tourism segment. The NGOs be familiar with the local group
and go about as a peacemaker between the sightseers and the local
group. The NGOs must build up a decent affinity wit h the local
group to such an extent that the group may put thei r total trust on
them. The NGOs must ingrain trust in the local grou pand help them
to render a warm welcome to the visitors. In the me antime, they
should instruct the visitors on the local group’s w ays of life, with the
objective that their way of life is notdisturbed. N GOs may co-
ordinate with different Divisions, to guarantee adv ancement of the
local group. NGOs can help set up Self Help Groups (SHGs) inside
the local group, to enable them to take care of iss ues, render common
help, create little investment funds and thus enabl e the local
population. Self-improvement gatherings will enable the local group
to gain additional wages and enhance their way of l ife.
11 The SHGs
can effectively help them make and offer pots, jute items, flavours,
nourishment for tourists and so forth.

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10. Involvement of Local Community
1. Empower localgroups and enhance their abilities.
2. Provide work by including the local group in making of pontoons,
overseeing home stays, cooking, fill in as aides, b eing part of rescue
operations.
3. Support investment by giving advantages like cash, training,
enabling their youngsters’ future.
4. Provision of technical help to manufacture crafted works, ceramics
and so forth., which would empower them by earning additional
income.
5. Popularization of neighbourhood horticultural items .
11.Projects 1. A rack of eco-tourism ventures might be distinguish ed by the Line
office, particularly by Tamil Nadu Forest office, f or the wild zone.
2. This task may help the general advancement of a spe cific region and
also train the local population in pleasantries tha t will benefit the eco
travellers.
3. The Tamil Nadu Tourism Department can go about as a nodal
organization, for clearing different activities, ar ranged by the line
offices and their financing.
4. The “SemmozhiSirpaPoonga”, at Beach Resort Complex,
Mamallapuram, was initiated by the Hon’ble Deputy C hief Minister
of Tamil Nadu.

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12. Promotion of Activities
1. Promotion of eco-tourism, through publicizing and a dvertising
exercises, for example, production of literary work s including maps,
handouts, flyers. online internet search, showcasin g their works,
must be encouraged.
2. Create and oversee eco-tourism sites, give data and answer enquiries.
3. Publicize controls, by introducing sufficient signa ge, closed circuit
Television (CCTV) at trekking places, campgrounds a nd reserve
territories.
4. Inform the specialists, Panchayat, local groups, ba ckwoods experts
and neighbourhood NGOs, about these directions.
5. Constitute Eco Tourism Award, to appreciate good pr actice,by
corporates, panchayats, lodgings, administrators an d different
partners.
6. Design input,through web empowered framework, for h elping
trekkers with,correct trekking knowledge.
7. Instruct trekkers about limits of the campgrounds a nd provide
courtesies like running water, clean toilets, kitch en etc.
8. Ensure appropriate media coverage for exercises, to make eco-
tourism popular.
9. ‘Mountain Biking’ has been popularised at Boat Hous e, Ooty, with
help from M/s.TI Cycles. The activity has drawn a v ast number of
vacationers because of the excitement it offers.

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10. Awareness Campaigns on Conservationmust be launched in
neighbourhood groups, among government staff and gu ests, with a
specific goal to create eco-clubs at schools and un iversities, through
hoardings etc.
12
11. Create offices for assistance, at particular places , manned by
educated faculty.
12. TTDC has introduced the Gold Card and Platinum Card in 2008, to
promote ecotourism.
13.Strategies to Educate Tourists and Local Communi ties on Eco Tourism
1. Training projects for natural life and trekking aid es, visitors and
controllers
2. Training projects for local groups, on behavioural modifications.
Additionally, prepare and instruct them on cleanlin ess and tidiness.
3. Literature like handouts, pamphlets, flyers, public ations, and so
forth, for disclosing eco-accommodating exercises, to instruct
visitors and local groups. A presentation focus mig ht be set up, at the
passage of the eco goal, to instruct travellers and different guests.
This can fill in as learning on eco-tourism. In env ironmentally
delicate territories, tourists must be instructed o n the imperative of
conservations of our eco-frameworks.
13
4. Demonstration of utilization of life coats, trekkin g and outdoor
hardware and other security gears.
5. Films and documentaries, displaying preservation an d its advantages.

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6. Provision for sound headset for trekkers, to abstai n from yelling and
clean, noise-free dispersal of data
7. General instructions sessions, before the start of any eco-tourism
program
8. Do and Don’ts signage, for better comprehension of nature.
14.Communication of Penalties and Other Regulations with Consequences
1. Tour aides must be completely mindful of the tenets and directions
2. Tourists must be educated about the nasty consequen ces of
infringement of standards.
3. Signage, expressing punishments, at assigned places .
14.Safety Measures 1. Movement of guests and care staff should not be all owed outside the
assigned nature trails and assigned campgrounds.
2. Lighting of flame, cooking etc, should not be allow ed on day treks.
3. Eco Advancement Committees (EDC), Joint Forest Mana gement
Committees (JFMC), Enrolled Non-Governmental Organi zation
(NGO) and the trekking specialists should inform wo odland/untamed
life authorities about any case of encroachment, ob served by them.
4. Provision for in-house doctors and accessibility of medical aid packs
anytime.
5. Training of work force to protect trekkers from loc al community.
6. Circumstance under which punishments could be autho rized.

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7. Possession of firearms, swords, blades and other we apon, that would
hurt people, creatures and the earth, must be preve nted.
8. Any man discovered, littering, including water bodi es, animal
habitats, must be identified and checked.
9. Any man discovered, etching on trees or some other surface, causing
mischief to harm nature, should be similarly identi fied and punished.
10. Any man discovered, spitting or urinating inside th e non-allowed
premises, must also be checked.
15. Code of Conduct
Conserve Tamil Nadu’s natural and cultural heritage .
1. Do not trample on high vegetation and do not pick a ny blossom or
therapeutic plants.
2. Do not exasperate untamed life or its environment.
3. Do not enable customers to buy endangered animal pa rts or antique
cultural artifacts.
4. Support any protection endeavours and health exerci ses.
5. Avoid utilization of fuel wood.
6. Use lamp oil, L.P.G. or other non-wood fuel for coo king, warming,
lighting, only in the allowed zones.
7. Do not set pit fire for camp fun.
8. Securely manage while conveying, putting away or ut ilizing lamp oil
and gas.
14

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16. Leave All Camps and Trails Clean
1. Separate and discard litter, cover biodegradable, a nd consign non-
biodegradable materials, at assigned junk site or f or reusing.
2. Use designated campgrounds and kitchen locales and abstain from
trenching around tents.
17. Practise Conservation 1. Avoid fuel-wasteful menu.
2. Re-bundle leftover of food into non-plastic compart ments, to avoid
waste.
Advisory Committee at State Level A State Level Advisory Committee(SLAC) has been for med to advise
on the approach, to screen the program execution an d appointment of different
partner organizations.
The Panel will have a term of three years. The exec utive of the advisory
group is the Chief Secretary to Government and memb ers are Secretary to
Government, Environment and Backwoods Department, S ecretary to
Government, Tourism and Culture Office, Chief Conse rvator of Woods and
head of Timberland Drive, Chief Conservator of Wood land and
Superintendent, Director, Tourism Department and Ma naging Director, Tamil
Nadu Tourism Development Corporation, Director, Env ironment Department
and the Member Secretary, General Manager (Ecotouri sm).
15

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Important Aspects in Eco-Tourism
A) Policy, Guidelines and Legal Frame Work
1. National Tourism Approach and Rule (1998) The policy acknowledges the significance of untamed life zones as
components of eco-tourism. It also acknowledges the part of indigenous and
neighbourhood groups in eco-tourism.
2. National Tourism Policy 2002
1. Significance of eco-tourism.
2. Inform change of tourist offices.
3. Include Tiger and Elephant as part of untamed life tourism.
3. Eco-Tourism Policy of Tamil Nadu Eco-Tourism Policy provides for a strategy to mobil ise local groups,
trekkers backwoods authorities, Government and diff erent partners,to
undertake eco-tourism exercises in the State, witho ut compromising on
protection and safeguarding of assets. The Eco-Tour ism Policy identifies
particular destinations andadministers standards, a nd an efficient procedure for
evaluation. Eco-tourism goals, in Tamil Nadu, have been designed for
improvement in an eco-accommodating way.
16
4. National Wildlife Action Plan (2002 – 2016)
Controlled and low effect is fundamental as it help s to realisewildlife
conservation.

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Preparation of Tourism Management
1. Plan for each Protected Area.
2. Eco-Tourism to involve and benefit local communitie s.
5. Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972 License is issued license for tourism in Protected Areas, which ought to
be in a site, fixed by the Management Plan and rati fied by the Principal Chief
Conservator of Forests and Chief Wildlife Warden.
6. Forest (Conservation) Act 1980
This Act prohibits conversion of forest land, for n on-forestry reason,
except with the endorsement of Government of India and Honourable Supreme
Court appointed Central Empowered Committee.
Eco-tourism is promoted in forest regions since it bolsters preservation.
However, eco-tourism exercises ought to be undertak en only in accordance
with the affirmed working arrangement.
7. Supreme Court of India on Eco-Tourism in Tiger Rese rves
Hon’ble Supreme Court of India, on sixteenth Octobe r 2012, lifted ban on
tourism exercises in the Core Tiger Reserve Zone. T he Apex Court said that the
tourism exercises in the Tiger Reserve Zone ought t o be entirely, as per the
directions, issued by National Tiger Conservation A uthority, on fifteenth
October 2012.
17 The Court additionally guided the particular State

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Government, to set up the Tiger Conservation Plan,i nside half a year and
present the same to the National Tiger Conservation Authority.
8. Normative standard for Tourism activities and Pr oject Tiger
Guidelines 2012 1. State Government ought to co-ordinate with the Stat e Level Tourism
and Eco-tourism system.
2. State level controlling board of trustees should au dit its usage.
3. Revenue from eco-tourism in Tiger Reserve should no t go to the
State Exchequer.
Involvement of the Local People. Local Advisory Committee (LAC) should be constitute d, by the State
Government.
Each Tiger Reserve should prepare site specific, to urism plan and
should be approved by LAC.
B) Well Defined Area of Operation and Responsibilit ies.
1) Protected Zones and Reserve Forest Group based eco-tourism locales should be identifie d for eco-tourism, in
reserve territories and reserve the forest, under t he Forest Department, in Tamil
Nadu, for ecotourism.
2) Opening up of certain Forest zones
Certain backwoods territories, which were re-affore sted from
relinquished, mining location and debased woodland zones ought to be
converted into sites for world class ecotourism and nature training places.

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These places ought to be created, close to urban te rritories like in
Chennai, Coimbatore, Trichy and Madurai. Ranger Ser vice Extension Centres
can likewise be moved up to these places for eco ed ucation. These places ought
to give an experience of unwinding to the vacatione r and guests to stretch
themselves, enhance their psychological well-being, and respect nature, for
example, Nanmangalam RF (Kanchipuram Division) is a bottomless mining
site but it is an amazing area for the general popu lation of Chennai.
18
3) Opening of specific territories outside Forest
Abandoned or unutilized god own, nursery locales an d forest rest house,
outside backwoods zones, ought to be reinvented as eco-campground, or nature
understanding and instruction place, resting place, settlement offices, and so
forth for example, Alikulli Rest House (Tiruvallur Division) is situated outside
the woodland territory and remains unutilized. This ought to be created as
tourist office or camping area for trekkers. The si te borderson Poondi
repository, Alikulli RF, fruitful red sanders estat e (40 years of age) and
Paleolithic Age Giudium hollow, situated in Pulikun drum R F. It is a brilliant
area, for the general population of Chennai, to app reciate and respect nature.
Comparable zones are accessible in all the Forest D ivisions in Tamil Nadu.
4) Opening of certain areas in forest regions There are three timberland organizations in Tami Na du:
1. Arasu Rubber Corporation (ARC)
2. Tamil Nadu Tea Plantation Corporation (TANTEA)
3. Tamil Nadu Forest Plantation Corporation (TAFCORN)

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These enterprises are situated close to ecotourism sites. It is worth
noting that potential and empty timberland territor ies, under their control, can
be converted into eco-tourism destinations. Tea gar dens, Rubber estates,
processing plants and their rest houses are fit for vacation destinations.
C. Establishment of Eco-Tourism promotion, awarenes s and marketing
centres
1) Many individuals feel that they would like to ap preciate nature and
untamed life, for excitement. Numerous travellers, with no introduction to eco-
mindfulness and nature understanding, with little e nthusiasm for nature, sill
visit woods for diversion and excitement. These out ings result in visitors, loud
and shouting, wearing bright dresses wandering in t he timberland,disturbing
wild creature, irritating creatures,coming about on ce in a while andresulting
inman-animal conflicts and harming of the biologica l system. In order to
upgrade awareness about eco-tourism, nature instruc tion and eco-elucidation
ought to be built up in Chennai, Coimbatore,Trichy and Madurai.
The reason is that a vast number of travellers, bot h global and national,
goes through these wild territories of Tamil Nadu. Enlightening them on eco
values, would help who are keen on nature, untamed life and woodland and
discourage easy going vacationer can be discouraged .
19
2) These places can prepare partners on specialized issueslike eco-
tourism, biodiversity, widely varied vegetation, ec ological and backwoods law
and rules.

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3) Educative and awareness program on ecological an d forest law,
Untamed Life Protection Act, eco-tourism approach, guidelines and waste
administration, should be made known to authorities of line offices, travellers,
neighbourhood groups and school children.
20
D. Development and Customization of Eco -Tourism Produ cts.
1) Development of eco-tourism activities according to different target
groups
a) School and College students
b) Family and Senior Citizens
c) Young Professionals
d) Nature Researchers
e) Foreign Tourists
f) Natural and Wildlife Photographers
2) Ecotourism activities that can be promoted:
a. Activities in Forest
• Trekking and Cycling
• Wildlife and Nature Photography
• A stroll, to feel the beauty of nature and scene
• Bird watching and Butterfly
• Nature and Biodiversity instruction

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• Exploring learning home grown and therapeutic pla nts
• Exploring slopes and rock climbing
• Eco-Camping
b. Activities in Coastal Zones
1) Exploring Mangrove Forest
2) Exploring coral reef and ocean
3) Motor watercraft riding
4) Para cruising and Scuba diving
5) Water skiing and surfing and Kite flying
6) Board surfing and Snorkelling
c. Educative Exercises
1) Nature elucidation and awareness camp
2) Wildlife educative camp
3) Bio-assorted variety camp
4) Exploration of Western Ghats by trekking
5) Exploration of Eastern Ghats by trekking
6) Exploration of sea world
7) Exploration of various eco-framework

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d .Activities in river and waterfall
1) Waterfall shower
2) River rafting and Kayaking
3) River Angling
e. Adventure sports activities on land
1) Rock climbing
2) High rope courses
3) Mountain boarding
4) Grass boarding and Zorbing
e. Adventure sports activities in the sky
1) Paragliding
2) Hang skimming
3) Power kiting
g. Activities in the Village
Support for social, and customary occasions, gettin g a charge out of
rural food and social show, tribal stories and narr ating rivalry, interest in rural
and conventional games, should be encouraged.
E. Ecotourism services
Accomplishment of eco-tourism relies upon the natur e of administration
it gives to the customers.

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a) Quality of eco guides
b) Marketing and publicity
c) Transportation game plan
d) Accommodation office
e) Cleanliness
f) Catering and hospitality
g) Quality of nature understanding and awareness
h) Quality of eco-tourism bundle
i) Safety
F) Operation of Eco-Tourism Disturbing the Eco syst em
Mushrooming of visitor offices, around most wooded territories, have
encouraged the growth of assets,disturbing the unta med life. This has disturbed
the delicate eco-framework.
21 There is debasement of normal assets, waste,
sewage and contamination of different sorts.
G) Joint Forest Management Committee (JFMC)
Monetary advantages from eco-tourism, are enjoyed b y private business
and to some extent, by the State exchequer, but not by the neighbourhood
groups, who had migrated from wildlife regions. Dyn amic cooperation of the
JFMC with eco-tourism exercises, would be an ideal arrangement.
H) Change in Attitude and Organization Set up – Bet ter Co-ordination
Co-ordination among every one of the partners, part icularly between the
Forest Department who controls eco-tourism resource s and Tourism

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Department, who has control over accommodation, adv ertising and
administration, ought to be reinforced. Both are si gnificant players, for
effective advancement of eco-tourism, in the State.
I) Establishment of Tamil Nadu Eco-Tourism Board or Authority under
Forest Department
It is interesting to record that there is no separa te eco-tourism wing in
the Forest Department. Hence to arrange, coordinate and guarantee a successful
usage and administration of eco-tourism destination s and standards in the State,
a separate Eco Tourism Board or an Authority, ought to be set up. The Board
ought to be only for assistance and advancement of eco-tourism, under the
Forest Department, to oversee in situ ecotourism. The Zoo Authority of Tamil
Nadu (ZAT) oversees exsitu ecotourism.
22
Strategies and Promotional Methods by Government an d Non-
Government Organisations
Tourism can yield positive results provided it sati sfies the requirements
of sustainable eco-development and managed scientif ically and gainfully;
otherwise it poses problems. To contain such problems, tourism should be
developed gradually over time so that the society can adopt it, get educated,
participate and enjoy the change. Local people should be made to participate in
planning and development of tourism so that they ca n bring new ideas, support
and influence the decisions and in turn be a part of it.

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The following content focuses on the tourist percep tion, knowledge on
eco-tourism, level of satisfaction derived at various tourist spots and expected
changes / measures to be taken by the Tourism Depar tment of Tamil Nadu.
Tourism is capable of destroying itself, if not pro perly planned. The
well-known aphorism that “tourism destroys tourism” , has duly to be taken
care. Proper planning of the strategy for tourism d evelopment as also for any
other sector, tourist or general, would, therefore seem to be of paramount
importance. A well thought-out and formulated plan/ strategy would go a long
way towards ensuring a successful take-off and sust enance of the tourism
project. Further, while the plan/strategy would, as a matter of course, work out
and incorporate the various cost-benefit and econom ic effects of the tourist
development, it must also anticipate and accommodat e the various likely
effects of the development on the environs, viz., i ts impact on the social,
cultural and environmental milieu.
Tourism development is in this regard, like a doubl e-edge sword and it
can be of great benefit but it can also be a source of great distress. This brings
out the critical need for community involvement, as all travel is essentially
linked with communities, in tourism development pla nning, especially
sustainable development planning. For tourism devel opment to be successful
and sustainable, careful cooperation and coordinati on of both private and
public sectors becomes desirable as well as necessa ry.
The Government of India has identified the followin g key areas for
development of tourism:

185

1. Provision of infrastructure;
2.
Environmental protection and preservation of nation al cultural
heritage
3. Product development and diversification, including development of
mega tourism resorts;
4. Development of trekking, winter sports, wildlife an d beach resorts;
5. Exploring new source markets in region and countrie s with cultural
affinity;
6. Monitoring and evaluation;
7. National image building and marketing in key market s;
8. Providing inexpensive accommodation in different to urist centres;
9. Improving service efficiency in public sector corpo rations;
10. Streamlining of procedures at airports;
11. Human resource development of infrastructure;
12. Strengthening of tourist organizations; and
13. Creating public awareness and participation.
India is one of the first countries in the world to have enacted
environmental legislation, covering all spheres of human-environmental
interaction – the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974; the Air
(Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981 the Environmental (Protection
Act) 1986; Indian Forest Act, 1927; Wildlife (Prote ction) Act, 1972; Forest
(Conservation) Act, 1980; and Coastal Regulation Zo ne Notification, 1991.

186

All are required to follow these laws; and penaltie s have been
incorporated for non-compliance. However, no provis ions have not been made
to provide incentives to industries which comply.
In India, the time is now approaching for providing incentives as
motivation to companies and organizations, that hav e sound environmental
management plans and practices. One emerging trend in India is the active
public debate on environmental issues, ranging from protection of monuments,
heritage sites and wildlife, to concerns relating t o the construction of multi-
purpose dams, and to municipal solid waste manageme nt.
In India, the Department of Tourism is responsible for the formulation
and implementation of policies and programmes for t he development of
tourism; by way of developing infrastructure, publi city and promotion,
dissemination of information, and the coordination and supervision of the
activities of various segments of industry. It has twenty-one fields offices
which are in constant contact with tourists, travel intermediaries and the media,
with the objective of promoting tourism in India.
The development of ecotourism is a joint responsibi lity of the
Government, the tour operators, the tourists, the N GOs and the local people.
Before any eco-project is undertakensteps should be taken to inform the tour
operators and the tourists, regarding maintenance o f biodiversity and ecosystem
of the area. Secondly, the indigenous people of the area should be properly
educated about the ecological importance of their a rea.

187

It is after all they who will suffer or benefit di rectly. It will be ideal to
employ them as guides and as guards of the site to be visited. This in turn
would generate employment and would increase local interest in maintaining
the eco-balance. The NGOs are expected to play a pi votal role. It is heartening
that many NGOs of Tamil Nadu took guard and discuss ed important issues on
the eve of the UN declaration of year 2002 as the Y ear of Eco-tourism.
Conservation Measures A massive awareness camp should be arranged, with c reation of anti-
poaching camps at strategies points.Conservation me asures can be accelerated,
by involving the local community in large number, i n order to check the
poachers, the illegal fishing and the movement of m otorized boats. Park
authority has completed the eco-tourism improvement venture, by setting
uptraining camps for eco-guides and boatmen affilia tions. Furthermore, the
State Forest and Environment Department have a few measures for protection
and administration of its rich biodiversity and uni que wetland. Conservation of
ecotourism should incorporate:
· Ecological awareness
· Eco-friendly practices
· Sensitivity to local practice/culture
· Reinvestment of generated resources locally
· Empowerment of local people.

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Operational Guidelines
The key players in the ecotourism, namely, the Gov ernment, both State
and Union, the developers, the local authorities, t he visitors, the operators, and
the local community, have to be delicate to the env ironment and local traditions
and follow a set of strategies for the successful g rowth of ecotourism. In
addition, scientific /research institutions and non -government organisations
also have to play a key role in the development of ecotourism.
The Government 1. The management plan for each area should be prepare d by professional
landscape architects and urban planners, in consult ation with local
community as well as others directly concerned.
2. The architecture programme for ecotourism centres should include
meticulous access points and cabins, interpretive c entres, signs, self-
guided nature trails, road, transportation option, observation towers and
adequate but unpretentious lodging and dining facil ities. Garbage
disposal facility, docks, and other utilities shoul d be provided, as per
requirement. If needed, suitable living quarters an d facilities for project
personnel have to be provided.
3. Structures presenting visual pollution, marring ana esthetic values and
promotingnon-compatible architecture, should be con trolled and
temporary structures, using local building material and benefiting the
local environment, should be encouraged.

189

4. Exclude development in geologically unstable zones and define
development and buffer zones after proper environme ntal impact
assessments.
5. Specify physical, and social environmental carrying capacities to limit
development activities.
6. Recognize and award quality labels to ecotourism op erators.
7. Provide visitors information and interpretation ser vices, covering
particularly: (i) What to see
(ii) How to see
(iii) How to behave.
8. It can be by way of brochures, leaflets, specialize d guides, visitors’
information centres.
9. Launch training programmes on ecotourism, to help t ourism
administrators, planners, operators, and general pu blic.
Developers, Operators and Suppliers 1. Respect and follow the planning restrictions, stand ards and codes
provided by the government and local authorities.
2. Implement sound environment principles through self -regulation.
3. Be sensitive to conservation of environmentally pro tected or threatened
areas, species and scenic aesthetics, wherever poss ible.
4. Ensure that all structures are unobtrusive and do n ot interfere with the
natural ecosystem to the maximum extent.

190

5. Buildings should be designed strictly onthe basis o f functional and
environmental considerations and must be avoided ov er construction.
6. In marketing ecotourism products, customers should be given correct
information, as the visitors who appreciate ecotour ism products, usually
belong to environmentally awareness groups.
7. Involve the local community, to the extent possible , in various activities
and vocations.
8. Prepare tourists to minimize possible negative impa ct while visiting
sensitive environments and cultures before their vi sit.
The Visitors 1. Help to save habitats of flora and fauna and any si te, natural or cultural,
which might be influenced by tourism.
2. Make no flames and discourage others from doing so. In the event that
water must be warmed, use as meagre firewood as pos sible under the
circumstances. Where achievable, utilize lamp oil o r fuel-proficient
wood stoves.
3. If toilet amenities are available, try to relieve y ourself at least 30 meters
away from water sources and bury or cover the waste .
4. Keep local water clean and avoid using pollutants s uch as detergents in
streams or springs.
5. Plants ought to be left to prosper in their common habitat and abstain
from taking end cuttings, seeds and roots.

191

6. Leave the campgroundclean after use. Keep in mind t hat another
gathering may utilize a similar campground after yo ur departure.
7. Help guides and watchmen to pursue preservation mea sures and do not
permit cooks to toss rubbish in streams or waterway s.
8. Respect local manners and wear appropriate garments . Kissing openly is
objected to.
9. Strictly follow the rules for individual safety and security and always
take your own precaution and safety measures.
The Destination Population/Host Community
1. Realize and regard nature, the greenery and the lan dmarks, as the social
legacy.
2. Practices protection of nature and culture as a lif estyle.
3. Establish rules to ensure important neighbourhood a ssets and cultivate
tourism administration.
4. Respond to the potential risk of financial speciali sts if it were to affect
the ecosystem.
5. Become successful nature aides by upgrading the her editary
information, relevant to the ecozone.
6. Be cordial with the guests and help them to follow ecotourism codes.
Non-Governmental Organisations/ Scientific and Rese arch Institution
1. Create awareness, amongst all concerned, about the importance of sound
eco practices in tourism development.

192

2. Motivate the local community to increase their inv olvement in
sustainable tourism activities.
3. Establish training programmes to prepare the local people for taking up
many vocations relating to ecotourism.
The Environmental Pledge 1. Stationary and other publicity material to be recyc led and reused.
2. Polythene Bags: We will avoid, wherever conceivable , the utilization of
polythene packs and switch over to paper sacks, fab ric packs and
different options.
3. Alternate source for energy for fuel: Wherever conc eivable, we will
change over to sun-based power.
4. Garbage disposal: We will separate recyclable and n on-recyclable waste
and arrange non-biodegradable refuse scientifically , in order not to hurt
the earth.
5. Water Catchment and Treatment: At whatever point co nceivable, we
will reuse water by using water treatment plans. We will preserve rain
water, to be utilized for our operations.
6. Eco lodges and Resorts: We promise not to damage th e environment,
animal and birdlife of the region.
7. Use of Local Ethnic Materials in Construction of pr operties: In keeping
with local landscape, we will include architectural styles typical to the
area, thus blending with the environment.

193

8. Employment of local communities: Wherever conceivab le, we will
contract locally for our business, to upgrade the e conomy of our zone.
9. Limit Deforestation: we will make no open flames an d discourage others
from doing so. We will use lamp oil or fuel-product ive stoves for
warming water.
10. Plant saplings: We will take saplings and urge our visitors to help plant
them close to our campground or on the trails.
11. Non – biodegradable Garbage: We will leave campgrou nds clean and
reclaim all non-biodegradable litter and make appro priate transfer.
12. Keep Local Water Clean: Toilet will be constructed, not less than 30
meters from the water sources and all waste will be secured legitimately.
13. Plants left in their Natural Environment: We will n ot take away cuttings,
seeds and roots and this is illicit in many parts o f the Himalayas.
14. Respect Local Cultures: We will protect religious s pots and nearby
towns, by never enabling customers to purchase reli gious items or
legacies from remote towns.
15. Alternate Sources of Energy for Fuel: Where conceiv able, we will
change over to sun powered power.
The interest for ecotourism is consistently expandi ng. With precisely
arranged exercises and their watchful executions, w e can positively accomplish
the goal of any devoted tourism specialist.
There is a need to build up an ecotourism approach that is
comprehensive, practicable, and gives sensible link ages of social and

194

indigenous habitats by developing significant param eters. An ecotourism
policy should have following components in its fram ework:
1. Recognition of the interface between tourism and na ture.
2. Avoidance of reductionist and constrained point of view and the
incorporation of extensive variety of partners,to i nfluence tourism
improvement.
3. Provision of a proper comprehension of how travelle rs esteem and
utilize common habitat
4. Promotion of group-based tourism as an industry
5. Identification of the social and ecological effects of tourism.
6. Implementation of a framework to deal with these ef fects.
A large portion of the eco-tourism locales of magni ficence and
biovariety, is situated in the backwoods regions. T o protect untamed life, the
administration has set up 75 national parks, 421 na tural life havens, aside from
seven biosphere locales, which represent a large po rtion of India’s natural life
assets, spread over 14 million hectares. This accou nts for 4.3% of aggregate
geological region of India.
Strategies for Sustainable Eco Tourism There are many reasons why national parks and lands capes in Tamil
Nadu are not the destination of the tourists and on e of the main reasons is that
our nature protection areas do not attract ecotouri sm because it is considered to
interfere with the protection of these areas. There fore, it is extremely vital to

195

evolve a strategy by which Ecotourism could be reco gnized as an industry, on a
sustained basis. The policies could be broadly clas sified into two categories,
namely, short-term strategies and long-term strateg ies.
Short Term Strategy The first and the fore most to begin with would be to identify potential
areas and prepare a detailed inventory of such area s in terms of their tourism
potential. The local communities residing in such a reas should be taken into
confidence right from the beginning and their invol vement should be clearly
defined.
The local communities should be amply motivated so as to sustain their
interests in a particular area where eco-tourism is to be planned. Eco tourism
planning should be directly linked with the livelih ood issue and options that
would be generated in any area for the local people . Organizing workshops for
local communities to explain them the rationale of eco-tourism and how it is
going to better their lives could be a part of imme diate strategy.These
workshops could also be coupled with the launch of awareness programme in
such areas. Village Level Committees could be forme d if the motivation levels
are found to be satisfactorily high.
Long Term Strategy Re-examination of the existing regulations and deve lopment of new
policy should be done to make Ecotourism more busin ess friendly, without
affecting the conservation of forest and wildlife. Research and monitoring

196

should be promoted in such areas to find newer poss ibilities of enhancing and
developing tools for effective ecotourism.
Research should also be promoted in these areas to develop best
practice guides for regions, which have similar kin d of forest areas and
biological diversity. Strategies should be develop ed so as to ensure the original
ecological character of the area on a long-term bas is. Tourism packages should
be developed so that they are economically viable a nd attractive enough to
draw tourists to such areas. A lot needs to be done in terms of infrastructure
development. Good interpretation centres should be developed with audio
visual aids so as to give a synoptic understanding of the area where a tourist is
interested to visit. It would also be extremely imp ortant to build linkages
between various agencies related to the tourism and centralized information
centres being created from where information could be easily accessed.
A more robust and strong marketing strategy needs t o be developed so as to
make all the potential areas of tourism viable to t he national and international
community.

197

End Notes
1. Gupta, S., and Bansal, S.P., Tourism 21st Century, New Delhi: Deep
and Deep Publications Pvt. Ltd., 1998, p.58.
2. Tamil Nadu Tourism, Enchanting Tamil Nadu, Brand In dia 2007,
Department of Tourism, Government of Tamil Nadu, Ch ennai,
2014,pp.4-9.
3. Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Report of the Wo rld Economic
Forum, 2014,pp.3-8.
4. Newsletter, Tamil Nadu Tourism Development Corporation, April and
November 2015, pp.6-9.
5. Tourism, Culture and Religious Endowments Departmen t, Tamil Nadu
Tourism Policy Note 2016-2017, Chennai, 2017, pp.4-7.
6. Tamil Nadu Tourism, Enchanting Tamil Nadu, Chennai, 2015,pp.2-5.
7. Lahri, Sudesh, Tourism Evolution, Scope, Nature and Organisations,
New Delhi: Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd., 1999, pp.1 01-102.
8. Kabia, Sunil, K., Tourism and the Developing Countries, New Delhi:
Mohit Publications, 2005.
9. Bhatt, B.C., (ed.), The Encyclopaedia District Gazetteer of India,
Southern Zone, Vol. II, New Delhi, 1997, p.235.
10. Negi, Jagmohan, Tourism Development and Resource Conservations,
New Delhi: Metropolitan, 1990, p.64.
11. Weaver, Dravid, B., (ed.), The Encyclopaedia of Eco-Tourism, New
Delhi, 2001, pp.143-144.
12. Martha, Honey, op.cit., 2008, p.65.
13. Hunziker, W., Social Tourism: Its Nature and Problems, Geneva:
Alliance International de Turisme, 1951, p.211.
14. Sharma, Lalitha, An Introduction to Eco- Tourism, New Delhi, 2010,
pp.69-70.
15. Ghosh, Bishwanath, Tourism and Travel Management, Vikas Publishing
House Pvt Ltd, Noida, 2007, p.74.

198

16. Annual Report, Ministry of Tourism, Government of I ndia, Tamil Nadu,
2014-15, pp.4-7.
17. Negi, S.S., Omkar Singh and Charan Singh (ed.), Forest for Common
People, Forest for Research Institute, Dehradun, 2008, p.12 4.
18. Tamil Nadu Tourism, Enchanting Tamil Nadu, Coimbatore, 2010,
pp.5-6..
19. Tourism Policy Note (2011 – 2012), Government of I ndia, New Delhi,
2011, pp.3-8.
20. Santaroma, Government of India, Ministry of Environment and F orest,
Vol. XXIV, Central Academy for State Forest Service , Coimbatore,
2011,pp.4-6.
21. Sunheer, S.V., Tourism – Problems and Prospects, Trivandrum: CBH
Publications, 1993, pp.87-88.
22. Tewari, D.N., Western Ghats Eco System, Indian Council of Forestry
Research, Dehradun, 1995, p.147.

199

CHAPTER -IV
DATA ANALYSIS

The role of Government in Eco Tourism, was dealt wi th in the previous
chapter. In this Chapter, an attempt has been made to examine the essential
information, regarding on Tourism Industry, with sp ecial reference to Eco Tourism in
Tamil Nadu. The most compensating travel encounters are those t hat offertravellers
memorable and grand experiences.
1 The fervour and joy of examining new food,
purchasing the things made by the local craftsmen, sold in shops, partaking in local
community traditions and social occasions, constitu te the essence of ecotourism.
2
With its rich social legacy, breath-taking landmark s, lovely shoreline and sanctuaries
and outlandish food, Tamil Nadu eco spots are consi dered the height of tourism
goal.
3Even after the State Government has taken efforts t o promote tourism, the
outcome has not been productive. The fulfilment of the visitors is one of the
fundamental conditions for the development of Eco t ourism.
4
For the research study, the statistical universe was taken as the State of Tamil
Nadu as a whole. Both primary and secondary data fo rmed the basic part of the study.
Instrumentation Structured questionnaires were administered to the random sample of
ecotourists.
Tabulation of Data The primary data, based on responses, were assemble d, arranged and classified,
for scientific investigation.

200

Analysis and Interpretation
Socio-psycho profiles of the respondents were analy sed.
Tools of Analysis Simple statistical tools were employed, to interpre t the data.
Socio – Economic Profile of Respondents Financial profile of ecotourists influenced their p references as per their age,
sex, instruction and occupation.
Age Financial status and age were related. The youthful and middle age individuals
enthusiastically contributed financially towards ec o-tourism. In this investigation,
respondents were ordered into three groups, viz. un der 25, 26-50 and over 50 years.
Table No:4-1
Age Wise Distribution of Respondents
Age No.of
Respondents Percentage
Less than 25 76 22
26-50 172 49
More than 50 102 29
Total 350 100

(Source: Compiled data – Age wise distribution of r
espondents, Tamil Nadu, April 2015)
From the Table 4.1, it is gathered that respondents were classified into three
categories. Eco tourists were mostly in the age cla ssification of 26-50.
Gender
Gender assumes a fundamental part in the tourism se gment. For the most part,
sexual orientation of a man is thought to be an imp erative factor which impacts
awareness. Male individuals, more than female indiv iduals, took to ecotourism.

201

Table No:4-2
Sex Wise Distribution of Respondents
Sex No.of Respondents %
Male 214 61
Female 136 39
Total 350 100
(Source: Compiled Data – Sexwise distribution of Re spondents, Tamil Nadu, April
2015)
Table No. 4.2 shows that the males were very much i nterested in Eco tourism,
as 214 (61 percentage) of the respondents were male members and the remaining 136
(39 percentage) were female members.
Marital Status Respondents were classified into two groups, viz., married and unmarried.
Table No:4-3
Marital Status of Respondents
Sex No. of
Respondents Percentage
Married 188 54
Unmarried 162 46
Total 350 100
( Source: Compiled Data – Marital Status of Respond
ents, Tamil Nadu, April 2015)
The Table No. 4.3 portrays that married respondents at 188 (54 percent) were
eager to visit the ecospots than more unmarried res pondents at 162 (46 percent).
It is inferred that the married respondents attache d more importance to visit
these eco spots in order to enjoy, with their famil y, in a pollution free zone.

202

Education
To identify the preference of tourists, it is impor tant to know their educational
background. Hence, they were classified into four g roups viz., up to higher secondary,
graduate, post-graduate and others.
Table No:4-4
Education –Wise Distribution of Respondents
Educational
Qualification
No.of Respondents
Percentage
H.SC. 39 11
Graduate 143 41
Post–Graduate 89 25
Others 79 23
Total 350 100
(Source: Compiled Data – Education wise Distributio n of Respondents, Tamil Nadu,
May 2015)
It is clear from the Table No. 4.4 that out of 350 respondents, 143 respondents
were graduates. It is gathered that respondents wit h graduation were more eager to
visit Eco spots.
5 It is interesting to note that the general populat ion also took interest in
Eco tourism, independent of the educational status.

Occupation
Category
No. of
Respondents
(Domestic)
Students 13
Government
Employee
60
Private
Employee
65
Professional 40
Self-
Employment
72
Total 250
( Source: Data gathered from the Respondents regarding
Classification, May

Table No. 4
.5 demonstrates
occupation. The greatest number of household travellers
employed. 48 percent of
32 percent from Government
Occupation
students
private employee
self employed
Table No:4-5
Occupation-Wise Classification of Respondents
No. of
Respondents
(Domestic) Percentage

No. of
Respondents (Foreign)
13 5 6
60 24 32
65 26 10
40 16 48
72 29 4
250 100 100
gathered from the Respondents regarding Occupation
May 2015)
.5 demonstrates the distribution of respondents on the basis of
greatest number of household travellers, i.e. 29 percent
48 percent of foreign vacationers were professionals
32 percent from Government sectors.
Figure:4.1
Occupation-Wise Distribution of Respondents

studentsGovernment employee
private employeeprofessional
self employed
203

Percentage
6
32
10
48
4
100
Occupation wise
the distribution of respondents on the basis of
29 percent, were self-
rofessionals, followed by

204

Income
The income of respondents is an important factor fo r evaluating the economic
wellbeing of every traveller in the study area.
6Visitors were classified into four
categories, on the basis of income, i.e., beneath R s 6,000, Rs 6,001-10,000, Rs
10,001-20,000 and Rs Above 20,001.
Table No:4-6
Income-Wise Distribution of Respondents
Income (Rs) No.of Respondents Percentage
Below 6000 33 9.4
6001 – 10000 89 25.4
10001 – 20000 92 26.3
Above 20001 136 38.9
Total 350 100
( Source: Data gathered from Respondents regarding Income wise distribution Tamil
Nadu, May 2015)

It is seen from the Table 4.6 that out of 350 respo ndents, 136 ecotouristsearned
more than Rs. 20,000 (38.9 percent), thus boosting Eco tourism.Only 33 low earning
respondents, at 9.4 percent were eco tourists in Ta mil Nadu. In short, only individuals
with surplus income, could undertake tourism, is cl ear from the Table.
Table No:4-7
Nationality –Wise Distribution of Respondents
Nationality No.of Respondents Percentage
Domestic Tourist 250 71.4
Foreign Tourist 100 28.6
Total 350 100
(Primary Source: Combined data – nationality wise d istribution of respondents, Tamil
Nadu,Aug 2015)

The Table demonstrates that
foreign tourists, at 28.6 percent
knew about the significance of
Nationality
Religion
Religion
Hindu
Christian
Muslim
Others
Total
( Source : Data taken from Respondents regarding
Nadu, August 2015

The Table 4
.8 demonstrates that 40.9 percent of the respondent s
In other words, Hindus were enthused about Eco tourism than Christian
Muslims. It is quite possible that since
of respondents were Hindus.
able demonstrates that 71.4 percent domestic travellers, outpaced the
foreign tourists, at 28.6 percent. This is on account of the fact that
w about the significance of ecotourism than foreign counterparts.7
Figure: 4.2
Nationality –Wise Distribution of Respondents

Table No:4-8
Religion –Wise Distribution of Respondents
Religion No. of
Respondents Percentage
Hindu 143 40.9
Christian 112 32
Muslim 69 19.7
Others 26 7.4
Total 350 100
taken from Respondents regarding Religion wise Distribution
2015)
.8 demonstrates that 40.9 percent of the respondent
s
were enthused about Eco tourism than Christian
s. It is quite possible that since Tamil Nadu has more number of Hindu
Hindus.
Nationality wise Distribution
of Respondents
IndianForeigner
205
domestic travellers, outpaced the
the Indian guests
7
Wise Distribution of Respondents
Wise Distribution of Respondents
istribution, Tamil
.8 demonstrates that 40.9 percent of the respondent s were Hindus.
were enthused about Eco tourism than Christians and
Tamil Nadu has more number of Hindus, 143

Purpose
Eco Tourist
Pleasure
Education
Business/Official
Health
Social functions
Any other
Total
( Source: Data culled from the Respondents regarding
September 2015)

The Table 4
.9 shows that
the main purpose of their visit. Pleasure formed th e second major reason for
the eco spots.
Since eco visitors were matched by an almost equal number of pleasure
seekers, the State could design the eco spots in such a way that eco visit is
supplemented by more pleasure components in the travel plan.
Eco Tourist
Business/Official
Any Others
Table No:4-9
Purpose of Visit

Purpose No. of Respondents Percentage
181 51.7
108 30.9
14 4
Business/Official 9 2.6
18 5.1
Social functions 16 4.6
4 1.1
350 100
culled from the Respondents regarding Purpose of Visit
.9 shows that 51.7 percent of respondents stated ecotourism to be
the main purpose of their visit. Pleasure formed the second major reason for
Since eco visitors were matched by an almost equal number of pleasure
tate could design the eco spots in such a way that eco visit is
supplemented by more pleasure components in the travel plan.
Figure :4-3
Purpose of Visit

Sales
Eco TouristPleasureEducation
Business/OfficialHealthSocial Functions
Any Others
206
Percentage

isit, Tamil Nadu,
51.7 percent of respondents stated ecotourism to be
the main purpose of their visit. Pleasure formed the second major reason for visiting
Since eco visitors were matched by an almost equal number of pleasure
tate could design the eco spots in such a way that eco visit is

207

Table No – 4.10
Sources of Information

Sources No. of
Respondents Percentage
Friend / Relative 197 56.3
Advertisement 55 15.7
Tourist brochures 49 14
Travel agencies 21 6
Websites 28 8
Total 350 100
(Source: Compiled data – Sources of Information of Respondents, Tamil Nadu,
September 2015)
Table 4.10 reveals that 197 respondents (56.3 perce nt) gained information
about ecotourism through companions and relatives w hile 15.7 percent, through
advertisement and 14 percent were drawn by tourist pamphlets, distributed by the
Department of Tourism of State Government and Hotel iers. In other words,
companions and relatives motivated majority of resp ondents to goon eco-tourism.
8
Table No:4-11
Reason for Selection of Places to Visit
Purpose No.of Respondents Percentage
Proximity 56 16
Climate 34 9.7
Attraction 91 26
Economy 67 19.1
Family interest 45 12.9
Other 57 16.3
Total 350 100
( Source :Compiled data from Respondents–Reason fo r Selection of Places to visit,
Tamil Nadu, September 2015)

208

Table 4.11 demonstrates that 91 (26 percent) of the sample respondents
attributed Eco fascination and joy as the reason fo r the visit. 67 (19.1 percent) and 56
(16 percent) considered economy and proximity as th e reason for the visit of the eco
spot.
Transport Travel is essential for tourism and it might involv e transport by air, ocean, rail
or street. More number of respondents preferred tra in because it was cheaper. The
choice of air travel by foreign eco tourists is obv ious.
Table No:4-12
Mode of Transport Used

Transport Domestic
Tourists

Foreign Tourists

Total
No.of
Respondents
% No. of
Respondents

%
No.of
Respondents
Air 35 14 75 75 110
Rail 135 54 12 12 147
Road 53 21 8 8 61
Air ; Road 27 11 5 5 32
Total 250 100 100 100 350
(Source: Data collected from the Respondents regard ing the used Mode of Transport
Tamil Nadu, November 2015)
Table 4.12 portrays that 135 (54 percent) of domest ic tourists preferred train
service. 80 percent of the foreign tourists preferr ed air transport as they have to fly
from their home country to India, to visit eco spot s in India.

209

TableNo.4.13
Mode of Public Transport Used

Public
Transport Domestic Tourists Foreign Tourists Total
No.of
Respondents
% No.of
Respondents

% No.of
Respondents
Bu 46 18.4 21 21 67
Autorickshaw 92 36.8 34 34 126
Taxi 108 43.2 34 45 153
Others 4 1.6 0 0 4
Total 250 100 100 100 350
( Source: Data collected from the Respondents regar ding the used Mode of Public
Transport Tamil Nadu, November 2015)

Table 4.13 demonstrates that 153 of the foreign res pondents preferred Taxi,
followed by 126 respondents, opting for Auto Ricksh aws.
The respondents opined that it was easier for them to find the particular places
effortlessly because the taxi and auto drivers knew the eco spots.
Facility for Stay When individuals are far from home, regardless of w hether for relaxation or
business reason, they require a place to stay, whic h should be as comfortable as home.

210

TableNo.4.14
Accommodation Selection

Public
Transport Domestic Tourists Foreign Tourists Total
No.of
Respondents

% No.of
Respondents
%

No.of
Respondents
Star Hotel/ Resorts 53 21.2 34 34 87
Budget Hotels 67 26.8 42 42 109
Lodge 65 26 24 24 89
House of Friends/
Relatives 65 26 0 0 65
Total 250 100 100 100 350
(Source: Data collected from the Respondents regard
ing the Selection of
Accommodation , Tamil Nadu, November 2015)
Table 4.14 demonstrates that 67 sample respondents (26.8 percent) were
domestic travellers who favoured budget lodgings an d 53 (21.2 percent) of them
wanted to remain in star hotels. 65 (26 percent) of them stayed in lodges while another
65 of them stayed with their friends and relatives separately. 34 percent of foreign
visitors stayed in star hotels and 42 percent staye d in budget hotels.
Table No.4-15
Number of Days Spent in Tourist Places

Choice
Domestic Tourists Foreign Tourists
No.of
Respondents % No.of
Respondents %
Less than 3 days 178 71 0 0
Between 3to 5days 45 18 12 12
Morethan a week 27 11 88 88
Total 250 100 100 100
(Source : Compiled Data – Number of Days spent in T
ourist Places by Respondents,
Tamil Nadu, January 2016)

211

The Table 4.15 reveals wide dissimilarity between h ousehold visitors and
outside travellers, on the length of stay.For large portion of the domestic vacationers,
it was “under three” while it was “over seven days” for foreign sightseers.
Table No.4.16
Tourist Attraction
Locations No of Respondents %
Eco spots 110 31.4
Arts and Architecture 42 12.0
Museum 56 16.0
Sea 78 22.3
Religious festival 36 10.3
Others 28 8.0
Total 350 100.0
( Source: Data gathered from the Respondents regar ding Tourist Attraction, Tamil
Nadu, September 2015)

Table 4.16 delineates the areas, favoured by sample respondents. 110 (31.4
percent) of them selected Eco spots, 78 of responde nts (22.3 percent) went for Sea,
followed by Museum at 56 (16 percent) and Arts and Architecture 42 (12 percent).
TableNo.4.17
Opinion about stay in the Tourist Places

Tourists No.of Respondents
Yes No
Domestic Tourists 175 75
Foreign Tourists 100 –
Total 275 75
( Source :Compiled Data about the Opinion regardi
ng Stay in the Tourist Places by
Respondents, Tamil Nadu, January 2016)

212

Table No. 4.17 demonstrates that out of 350 respond ents, 75 of the domestic
vacationers did not record any opinion aboutaccommo dation.It is interesting to record
that all foreign tourists recorded their opinion ab out stay in tourist places.
TableNo.4.18
Availability of Accommodation
Tourists Easily
available Difficult
Very
Difficult Total
Domestic
Tourists
123
52
0
175
Foreign
Tourists
82
18
0
100
Total 205 70 0 275
(Source: Data gathered from the Respondents regar ding Availability of
Accommodation, Tamil Nadu, November 2015)
Table 4.18 demonstrates the opinion of the responde nts with respect to the
accessibility of accommodation for sightseers. 123 domestic and 82 foreign visitors
opined that there was easy availability of accommod ation though 52 and 18 of them
reported that it was hard to find for accommodation .
TableNo.4.19
Tourists’ satisfaction on Accommodation Facilities
Parameter for rating No.of
Respon %
Highly Satisfactory 15 5.5
Satisfactory
68 24.7
Neither Satisfactory nor Dissatisfactory 64 23.3
Dissatisfactory 92 33.5
Highly Dissatisfactory 36 13.0
Total
275 100.0
(Source: Compiled Data of the Respondents regarding Tourists’ satisfaction on
Accommodation Facilities, Tamil Nadu, November 201 5)

213

Table 4.19 gives the rating by the respondents, reg arding accommodation.
There were five parameters, based on which the resp ondents were requested to rate
this facility. It could be seen from the Table that only 5.5 percent were highly
satisfied, 24.7 percent were satisfied and 23.3 per cent were indifferent about the
quality of accommodation. While 33.5 percent found it dissatisfactory, 13 percent
found it exceedingly dissatisfactory. Huge number o f ecotourists were disappointed
with poor condition of accommodation, absence of ti diness and an irregular duty.
9
Table No.4.20
Cost of Conveyance
Conveyance Cost No of Respondents %
Less than5000 132 37.8
5001to10000 68 19.4
10001to50000 67 19.1
More than50001 83 23.7
Total 350 100.0
(Source: Compiled data of the Respondents regarding Cost of Conveyance, Tamil
Nadu, February 2016)

From the Table No. 4.20, it is found that132 respon dents (37.8 percent)
reported that the transport cost was less than Rs. 5000.

214

TableNo.4.21
Awareness on Availability of Services

Services No.of Respondents

Total
Awareness of Services
Yes % No %
Food and Beverage 223 81.1 52 18.9 275
Bar 242 88.0 33 12.0 275
Room Services 236 85.8 39 14.2 275
Shopping centres 58 21.1 217 78.9 275
Entertainment
facilities 91 33.1 184 66.9 275
Transportation
facilities 48 17.5 227 82.5 275
Parking 193 70.2 82 29.8 275
Telecommunication 34 12.4 241 87.6 275
Rental Car/Taxi 46 16.7 229 83.3 275
Indoor/outdoor games 17 6.2 258 93.8 275
(Source: Compiled Data of Respondents a regarding A
wareness on Availability of
Services, Tamil Nadu, October 2015)

Table 4.21 presents the awareness level of responde nts about the different
services, available in the hotels. The highest numb er of respondentsfavoured Bar (88
percent), followed by room service, (85.8 percent), food and beverages, (81.1
percent). Only a small number of people were aware of transportation, rental auto/taxi,
and indoor/outside amusements. These fun items were not accessible, in all lodgings
and cabins, in the vacation places.

215

TableNo.4.22
Type of Tourism Relevant to all Eco Tourist Destina tion

Alternatives Service providers Tourists
No.of
Respondents

% No.of
Respondents
%
(a)Tourism related
without culture
9
9
18
5
(b) Eco-friendly
Tourism
12
12
7
2
(c)Domestic Income
generating Tourism
3
3
3
1
(d)Tourism earning
foreign exchange
2
2
3
1
(e)All these 74 74 319 91
Total 100 100 350 100
(Source: Data gathered from the Respondents regardi ng Type of Tourism of Eco
Tourist Destination, Tamil Nadu, January 2016)

The Table 4.22 demonstrates that majority of respon dents (74%) favoured a
bundle of tourist products, which agreed with local culture, eco-friendly and income
generating, especially foreign exchange.
TableNo.4.23
Opinion Regarding Prices Charged for Various Servic es
Service Too high High Moderate
Cheap Total
Transport 3 25 62 10 100
Accommodation 1 37 59 3 100
Food ; Beverages 2 26 71 1 100

216

Shopping 5 42 51 2 100
ConductedTours 4 52 44 0 100
Entertainment 4 24 71 1 100
TaxonHotel Bill 7 19 72 2 100
(Source: Data culled from the Respondents regarding Prices charged for Various
Services, Tamil Nadu, December 2015)

Majority of respondents considered the charges on t ransport (62%),
accommodation (59%), food and beverages (71%), shop ping (51%) and entertainment
(71%), to be moderate. But in the case of conducted tour, the pricing was perceived to
be high, by 52 respondents. Tax on hotel bill also was considered to be moderate.
TableNo.4-24
Problems Affecting the Ecotourism inTamil Nadu
Problems No.ofRespond ents %
Noeffectivemanagementoftourismpotential 53 15
Noseriouspublicityfor Ecotourismpromotion 7 2
Facilitiesat Ecotourismcentreisseriously lacking 38
11
Noco-operationamongstakeholdersof Tourism 35 10
All these 217 62
Total 350 100
(Source: Compiled Data from the Respondents regarding Problems affecting the
Ecotourism in Tamil Nadu, Tamil Nadu, October 2015)
It is clear from the Table 4.24 that 62 percent of respondents opined that all the
four issues influenced the Eco tourism in Tamil Nad u. This perspective of the
respondents is to be taken up seriously since they are the fundamental requirements
for any tourism improvement.

217

TableNo.4-25
The Views of the Respondents on Private Sector bein g allowed to play
more in promoting Ecotourism

Alternatives given No of
respondents (%)
1.More infrastructure and employment
opportunities can be created 238 68
2.Private sector will exploit the resources for
their profit motive 67 19
3.It will be a loss to the government as it
loses the control
45 13
Total
350 100
(Source: Compiled data from respondents regarding the private sector being allowed
to play more in promoting ecotourism, Tamil Nadu, J uly 2015)
238 respondents (68 percent) opined that privatizat ion will work efficiently
towards the success of ecotourism in Tamil Nadu
TableNo.4-26
Opinion Regarding the Role of the Government in Pro moting
Ecotourism in Tamil Nadu
Choice/Option Respondents
support %
1.Act as promoter and conduct national, internation al
publicity for Eco tourism 94 27
2.Create infrastructure 196 56
3.Provide necessary facilities at Eco tourism centres 60 17
Total 350 100
( Source: Compiled data about the Opinion regarding
the Role of the Government in
promoting Ecotourism in Tamil Nadu, Tamil Nadu, Aug ust 2015)

218

Majority of respondents reported that the Governmen t should build more
infrastructure. A small number opined that the Gove rnment could be a promoter for
Eco tourism
TableNo.4.27
A Demand– Supply Gap of Hospitality Services at Eco Tourist
Destination
Variables
Potential Effective supply
(Excellent and
good) Unfulfilled supply
(Moderate and
sub-standard)
No.of
Respondents % No.of
Respondents %
Road journey 100% 4 1 346 99
Cleanliness
and Hygiene 100% 73 21 277 79
Entertainment 100% 81 23 269 77
Guide Service 100% 42 12 308 88
Total 400 57 343
Average 100

14.25
85.75
(Source: Compiled data about the Opinion of the Re spondents regarding a demand
supply Gap of Hospitality Services at Eco tourist D estination, Tamil Nadu,
September 2015)

There is a gap between visitor desire and reality o f ecotourism administration.
The Table 4.27 shows that there was lack of hospita lity administration, vitally
connected with ecotourism

219

TableNo.4.28
Demand-Supply Gap Between Tourist Services at Eco T ourist Destinations

Variables
Potentiald emand Effective
Supply(Excellent and Good) Unfulfilled supply
(Moderate and sub- standard)
No.of
Respondents
% No.of
Respondents
%
Tourist
Information
100%
80
23
270
77
Conducted
Tours
100%
95
27
255
73
Basic
Facilities
100%
32
9
318
91
Recreation /
Eco tourist
Activities
100%
63
18
287
82
Total 400% 77 323
Average 100%
19.25
80.75
(Source: Compiled Data about the Respondents rega rding Demand ; Supply gap
between Tourist Services at Eco tourist Destination s, Tamil Nadu, July 2015)

Table No.4.28 demonstrates that there was a gap bet ween potential desire of
visitors and real supply of services. Just 19.25 pe rcent of respondents reported
satisfaction while 80.75 percent felt disappointed, with the services actually rendered.

220

TableNo.4.29
Institutions represented by Informants

Institutions No.of
Respondents
%
Hotel 37 37
Travel Agents 20 20
Tour Operators 21 21
Tourist Homes/Lodges 15 15
Tourismrelated Industries 7 7
Total 100 100
(Source: Data gathered from the Respondents regard ing Institutions represented by
Informants, Tamil Nadu, October 2015)
The table 4.29 delineates the informants who repres ented eco spots. Hotels,
followed by travel specialists, agents, tourist hom es and tourism related ventures,
formed the sources of information.
Table No.4.30
Classification of Host Communities
Classification No.of Respondents %
Owners 13 13
Top Executives 61 61
Middle-level Managers 21 21
Sub-ordinate Staff 5 5
Total 100 100
( Source: Data collected from the Respondents rega
rding Classification of Host
Communities, Tamil Nadu, November 2015)

221

From the Table No. 4.30, it is evident that the top -level administrators (61)
followed by Middle level supervisors (21), propriet ors (13) and sub-ordinate staff (5)
constituted the host communities.
TableNo.4.31
General Complaints Made by Tourists Visiting Eco De stinations
Complaints No.ofrespondents
Yes % No %
Pricechargedforservicesistoohigh 81 23 269 73
Touristcentreslacknecessaryfacili
ties 245 70 105 30
Nocleanlinessandhygiene 256 73 94 27
Menaceandmiscreants 66 19 284 81
Noguidestoaccompany them 224 64 126 36
Nosufficienttouristinfo
rmation
287 82 63 18
Tediousroadjourney 319 91 31 9
(Source: Data culled from the Respondents regarding
the General Complaints made
by Tourists visiting Eco Destinations, Tamil Nadu, January 2016)

Table 4.31 displays the perception of ecotourists t owards various components
of eco-tourism. Majority of respondents (245) compl ained about lack of facilities in
the tourist centres. 256 respondents reported about lack of hygiene in the eco spots.
224 respondents complained about lack of guides, 28 7 complained about lack of
information on eco spots and 319 complained about t edious road journey.
Surprisingly, 269 respondents did not find pricing to be high and 284 respondents did
not report any problem from miscreants.

222

Table No.4.32
Accompaniment of Others with Tourists visiting Eco Spots
Choice Domestic Tourists Foreign Tourists
No.of
Respondents %
No.of
Respondents %
Single 60 24 20 20
With family 63 25 25 25
With friends 125 50 51 51
With a
Guide
2 1 4 4
Total 250 100 100 100
(Source: Data culled from the Respondents regardin
g the Accompaniment of Others
with Tourists visiting Eco Spots, Tamil Nadu, Decem ber 2015)
The Table demonstrates that majority of respondents , both domestic and
foreign, travelled with companions. 25 percent of d omestic and foreign tourists,
favoured family trip, followed by single and in the company of friends.
Communication Communication assumes a critical part in tourism. I n the face of hurdles to
communication, meaningful transaction is not possib le.
TableNo.4.33
Communication Hurdles in Destinations
Tourist Communication Problems
Yes % No % Total %
DomesticT
ourists
89
35.6
161
64.4
250
100
ForeignT
ourists
78
78
22
22
100
100
Total 167
183
350
(Source: Compiled data from the Respondents regardi
ng Communication Hurdles in
Destinations, Tamil Nadu, January 2016)

223

Table 4.33 reveals that 78 percent of foreign trave llers did experience
communication problems while 64.4 percent of domest ic tourists did not confront any
communication issue.
Travel Agency Travel agents are the critical mediators in the tou rism business. They assume
an indispensable part in offering tourist products.
10
TableNo.4.34
Dependants on Travel Agents

Tourist Depending on
Agents Not Depending
on Agents
Total
Yes % Yes % Total %
Domestic
Tourists
103
41
147
59
250
100
Foreign
Tourists
87
87
13
13
100
100
Total 190
160
350
(Source: Data culled from the Respondents regarding
the Dependants on Travel
Agents, Tamil Nadu, May 2016)
Table No. 4.34 demonstrates that 87 percent of fore ign tourists and 41 percent
of domestic visitors relied upon tourism specialist s for their travel plans.
Consequently, it might be inferred that tourism spe cialists play a vital part in the
tourism business.

224

TableNo. 4.35
Level of satisfaction obtained from the Services of Travel Agents

Response Domestic Tourists
Foreign Tourists Total
No.of
Responden
ts
% No.of
Respondents

% No.of
Respondents
Highly satisfied 72 29 36 36 108
Satisfied 143 57 52 52 195
Not satisfied 35 14 12 12 17
Total 250 100 100 100 350
(Source: Data gathered from the Respondents regard ing the Level of Satisfaction
obtained from the Services of Travel Agents, Tamil Nadu, January 2016)

Tourism has become an industry. Disappointed visito r will damage the
business through negative word of mouth advertiseme nt. Consequently, an attempt
was made to know the satisfaction level of vacation ers,recording services rendered by
operators. From the Table 4.35, it is comprehended that only 29 percent of domestic
visitors were exceedingly happy with their travel a gents and 57 percent were just
satisfied and the rest of 14 percent of domestic to urists were completely disappointed.
Further, 12% of foreign travellers were disappointe d, 52 percent were satisfied and 36
percent were highly satisfied. Hence there is a nee d for preparing the agents occupied
with the tourism business.

225

TableNo.4.36
Opinion on Law and Order Situation
Tourist Adequate
Law and
Order Work of Pick
Packets Lack of
Safety for
Tourists
Total
Yes % Yes % Yes % Total %
Domestic
Tourists
118
47.2
69
27.6
63
25.2
250
100
Foreign
Tourists
31
31
18
18
51
51
100
100
Total 149
87
114
350
(Source: Compiled Data from the Respondents regard
ing the Level of Satisfaction
obtained from the Services of Travel Agents, Tamil Nadu, May 2016)

The law and order situation will greatly affect tou rism. If the authorities do not
guarantee security, tourists would not visit such p laces. The State has an additional
responsibility in this regard. The Table demonstrat es that 31 percent of foreign
vacationers were content with the law and order con ditions. They opined that some
more measures of security should be introduced, bot h for domestic and foreign
sightseers. Tourism is an industry, which ensures e conomic prosperity of a country.
No wonder every government undertakes development p rogrammes of tourism. But
improvement of any industry, basically relies upon the level of satisfaction of the
customers. Hence the Researcher wanted to assess th e satisfaction level of tourists.

226

Table No. 4.37
Satisfaction on different Destinations and Attracti ons

Destination/ Attraction
HS
S
NSNDS
DS
HDS
Total
Hindu Temples 231 82 37 0 0 350
Church/
Mosque
92
197
49
12
0
350
Museum 42 95 98 73 42 350
Greenlands /
Eco spots 98 174 78 0 0 350
Sea 223 89 22 9 7 350
Artand
Architecture
44
64
88
118
36
350
Festival 182 94 74 0 0 350
(Primary Source: Respondents combined data regardin g Satisfaction on different
Destinations and Attractions, Tamil Nadu,June 2016)
(HS-Highly Satisfied; S-Satisfied; NSNDS- Neither Satisfiednor Dissatisfie d;
DS-Dissatisfied; HDS-Highly Dissatisfied)
It is seen from the Table that tourism attractions assume an indispensable part in
influencing the satisfaction levels of the tourists at Tamil Nadu. Hindu sanctuaries
were star attractions for the visitors. It wasfollo wed by the Sea, Green grounds/Eco
spots and Church/Mosque. There are other tourist sp ots, which must be transformed
into tourist products, saleable to the potential to urists.

Problems Perceived All tourists would like to fulfil their tourist goa ls, without any hitch. In each
business, there are factors which add to the develo pment while certain components

227

ruin the development and tourism is no exemption to this. Tamil Nadu suffers from its
own particular issues like water contamination, poo r standard of tidiness etc. The
issues, faced by the Eco travellers, are illustrate d in Table. 4.38
Table No.4.38
Problems Faced by the Tourists

Problems
Stron gly
Agree
Agree

Normal

Disagree

Strongly
Disagree
Total

Avera ge
Score Rank

Water
Contamination
92

98

108

34
18
350

3.60

5
Environmental Pollution
76

107

93
60
14
350

3.49

7
Beggars
Nuisance
178

142

24
4
2
350

4.4
1
Exploitation
by Taxis and Autos
85

96

126

16
27
350

3.56

6
Uncultured
behaviour of people
0
43

72
162
73
350

2.24

14

228

Impolite
behaviour of
Hotel Staff
4
25

48
197
76
350

2.10

15

Mosquitoes 86 226 38 0 0 350 4.13 2
Lack of
Cleanliness
122

127

69
20
12
350

3.93

3
Shop Owners problem
62

89

124

65
10
350

3.36

9
High
Admission Charge
48

72

90
120
20
350

3.02

12

Relationship with Host
68

92

106

62
22
350

3.34

8
InadequateBanking
Facility
12

45

193

85
15
350

2.87

13

Inadequate
Sanitary
conditions facility
96

111

128

12
3
350

3.81

4
Inadequate Transport
46

75

160

52
17
350

3.23

10

Inadequate Parking
facility
48

102

112

38
50
350

3.17

11

(Source: Data Collected from the Respondents regard ing Problems Faced by the
Tourists, Tamil Nadu, September 2015)

It is deduced from the Table that the most disturbi ng issue, faced by the
tourists, was the menace of beggars. (score =4.4) B eggars present a powerful obstacle

229

to the improvement of tourism. The administration s hould campaign against beggary.
The authorities, especially the tourist division, c ould teach some crafts to beggars turn
them away from begging. Mosquitoes, with an average score of 4.13 and absence of
neatness (Average score = 3.93) and inadequate sani tary conditions (Average score =
3.81) make our tourist products very unattractive, especially to foreign tourists. Steps
must be taken to enhance the cleanliness of the tou rism spots.
Water contamination (Average score =3.60) was the n ext issue, which annoyed
the tourists. Satisfactory measures for ensuring wa ter asset, are a pressing need. The
water collecting plan has been planned, to expand t he quality of ground water. The
ecological contamination (Average score =3.49), whi ch was caused by the utilization
of plastic and transfer of the same and other litte r, in spots other than assigned
dustbins. In the absence of any project, to recycle and reuse bio non-degradable
refuse, ecological degradation on persists.Tourism Division and other skilled
specialists should create awareness about utilizati on of non-degradable things.
Punishment for miscreants in this direction, must b e enforced.
11
TableNo.4.39
Comparison of off-Season income with on- Season

Off-Season Income No. of
Respondents %
Same 12 12
Less 33 33
Very less 47 47
No Income 8 8
TOTAL 100 100
(Source: Data collected from the Respondents regard
ing Comparison of off-Season
income with on- Season, Tamil Nadu, December 2015)

230

It is seen that there was difference between on-sea son income and off-season
income and a vast majority of the respondents repor ted that their wage,during off-
season, was less than seasonableincome.
12
In other words, those who profited through tourism in Tamil Nadu, gained only
on-season and they were financially hit during the off-season, when traveller inflow
was less.
Table No.4.40
Activities at Tourist Destination
Activities Respondents %
a) Trekking 39 11.1
b) Wildlife Viewing 43 12.2
c) Hiking 3 0.8
d) Snorkelling 9 2.5
e) Bird watching 11 3.1
f) Cycling 19 5.4
g) Amphibians, insects, reptiles spotting 17 4.8
h) Tour to biodiversity hotspots 31 8.8
i) Cultural activities 6 1.7
j) Horse riding 22 6.2
k) Walking 18 5.1
l) Running 4 1.1
m) Kayaking 23 6.5
n) Rock Climbing 26 7.4
o) Canopy Walk 24 6.8
p) Camping 34 9.7
q) Picnic 21 6.8
Total 350 100
( Source: Compiled Data gathered from the Respondents regarding the Activities at
Tourist Destination, Tamil Nadu, October 2015)

231

It is seen from the Table that 12.2 percent of tour ists wanted to see untamed life
and also do trekking.
13 Tourists also enjoyed outdoor activities like campi ng (97%),
rock climbing (7.4%), visit biodiversity spots (8.8 %), cycling (5.4%) etc.
Table No. 4.41
Impacts Due to the Development of Eco Tourism
Impact Respondents

%
a) Employmentgenerated 39 11.1
b) Production and
supplyofgoodsandservicesincrea
sed
31 8.8
c) Information and
telecommunicationfacilityimpro
ved
19 5.4
d) Transportationimproved 25 7.1
e) Accommodation 21 6.2
f) Percapitaincomeoffamilyimprov
ed
18 5.1
g) Sanitationfacility 16 4.5
h) Regiongotdevelopment 29 8.2
i) Standardoflivingimproved 6 1.7
j) Heritagemonuments and
historicalbuildingspreserved
5 1.4
k) Power andwatersupplyimproved 7 2.5
l) Pricesofessentialcommoditiesinc
reased 4 1.1
m)
Landvalueincreased 11 3.1
n) Othersectoroftheeconomy
affected
26 7.4
o) Pollutionproblemraised 40 11.4

232

(Source: Compiled Data culled from the Respondents about the Opinion regarding
Impacts due to the Development of Eco-tourism, Tami l Nadu, September
2015)

It is seen that there has been variance between pos itive and negative
perspectives on Eco tourism.
14 There could be contamination at the eco spots beca use
of more guests. On other hand, local community coul d gain economically.
15Due to
Eco spot improvement, more tourists could be accomm odated.
TableNo.4.42
Appropriate Impact of Eco Tourism

Impact of Tourism
Respondents
%
a) Eco Tourism willresult
inemploymentgeneration,incomeearning,im
provement
oftransport,accommodation,protectionofNat
uralresource,andincreased 156 46
b)
Eco Tourism
willresultininflation,overcrowding,pollution
anddescriptionof environmentalresources. 138 39
c)
Both 44 12
d) No Response 12 3
Total 350 100
(Source: Compiled Data from the Respondents about the Opinion regarding
appropriate Impact of Eco-tourism, Tamil Nadu, July 2015)
p)
Environmentofplaceaffected 31 8.8
q) Qualityofgoodsandserviceaffect
ed 22 6.2
Total
350 100

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According to Table 4.42, 46 percent of tourists had reported that Eco Tourism
introduced business, employment, improved transport , protection of natural asset.
16But
39 percent of tourists recorded that Eco Tourism br ought about congestion,
contamination and degradation of ecological assets.
17 Thus, there was more positive
assessment of Eco Tourism in Tamil Nadu. TableNo.4.43
Necessity for the Development of Ecotourism

Variables Respondents
%
a) Infrastructuredevelopment 58 16.5
b) Human resource development for qualityservice 24 6. 8
c) Improvementintransportationandaccommodationfacil
ities 97 27.7
d)
Improvementandmodernizationintheentertainmentan
drecreation facilities 18 5.3
e)
Newproductdevelopment 32 9.2
f) Planningandpromotionof Ecotourism 121 34.5
Total 350 100
(Source: Data gathered from the Respondents about t he Opinion regarding necessary
for the Development of Ecotourism, Tamil Nadu, Febr uary 2016)

From the Table, it is clear that 34.5% of responden ts considered advancement
of Eco tourism is a must. 27.7 percent of them had reported that there ought to be
improvement in transportation and accommodation.
18

234

TableNo.4.44
Most Agreed Point Statement
Variables Respondents
%
a) I understand what is meant by the term Eco
Tourism 101 28.8
a) Eco Tourism is very important to the
development of economy 134 38.4
a) I Think Eco Tourism is very popular
115 32.8
Total 350 100
(Source: Compiled Data from the Respondents about the Opinion regarding most
agreed point statement, Tamil Nadu, November 2017)

The Table :4.44 reveals that 38.4 percent reported that Eco Tourism is critical
to the improvement of economy while 32.8 percent of respondents recorded that Eco
tourism is very popular. 28.8 percent of respondent s understood the concept of Eco
Tourism. In other words, Eco tourism in Tamil Nadu has a positive impression on the
tourists and Eco tourism in Tamil Nadu has a big ro le to play in the days to come.
19

235

End Notes
1. Avvil , R., Man and Environment, London: Penguin, 1967, p.55.
2. Batra, L.K., ‘Role of Advertising in Promoting Tou rist Industry’ in India
Journal of Marketing, 1978-79. Vol. 7, p.31.
3. Pran Nath Seth and Sushma Seth Bhat, An Introduction to Travel and Tourism,
New Delhi: Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd., 2007, pp. 163-164.
4. Negi, Jagmohan, International Tourism and Travel, New Delhi: S.Chand;
Company Ltd., 2004,p.33.
5. Kaul, R.N., Dynamics of Tourism: Transportation and Marketing, New Delhi:
Sterling Publishers (P.) Ltd., Vol. 3, 1985, p.141.
6. Nirmal Kumar, Tourism and Economic Development, New Delhi: APH
Publishing Corporations, 1996, p. 14.
7. Mallya, Abilash, Eco-Tourism and the Community Participation, New Delhi,
2006, p.237.
8. Mohanty, Pragati, Hotel Industry and Tourism in India, New Delhi: Ashish
Publishing House, 1992, p.28.
9. Zeithaml, V. A., Services Marketing, London: McGraw Hill, 1996, p.76.
10. Paul, Bernecker, Methods and Media of Tourist Publicity , Vienna: Austrian
National Tourist Office, 1961, p.48.
11. Bhatia, A.K., International Tourism, New Delhi: Sterling Publishers (P.) Ltd.,
1991, p.92.
12. Sethi, Praveen, Strategies for the Future of Travel and Tourism, New Delhi:
Rajat Publications, 1999, p.140.

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13. Ashworth, G.J., Marketing in the Tourism Industry, London: Routledge, 1990,
p.161.
14. Gill, Pushpinder, S., Perspectives on Indian Tourism, New Delhi: Anmol
Publications Pvt. Ltd., 1997, p.88.
15. Sinha, R. K., Growth and Development of Modern Tourism, New Delhi:
Dominant Publishers and Distributors, 1999, p.145.
16. Robert and Bradnock, Foot Print India Handbook, Rome, Italy, 2000.
17. Kapoor, Rakesh, Tourism Policy Organisation and Management, New Delhi:
Kanishka Publishers, 1997, p.86.
18. Sethi, Praveen, Tourism Planning and Development , New Delhi: Rajat
Publications, 1999, p.177.
19. Sethi, Praveen, Nature and Scope of Tourism, New Delhi: Rajat Publications,
1999, p.60.

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CONCLUSION
Eco tourism is a part and parcel of tourism. Yet it has its own
perceptions. These perceptions in many ways help th e tourism activities at all
level. Indeed, ecotourism paves the way for the suc cessful tourism in all the
aspects. The tourists, at the destinations, have po sitive attitude towards all the
eco-tourism concepts. This positive aspect keeps bo th the natives of the tourist
spots and the tourists in cheer. Ecotourism will re duce deforestation, by
providing economic alternatives to the local people , by creating a national
desire, to preserve the region, for its natural and economic value. In modern
there is an increasing deforestation due to the inc reasing need of the people.
The area of the forest is diminishing day by day bu t the concept of ecotourism
helps for the growth of afforestation. Further the Environmental education and
the understanding of the significance of the ecolog y positively influencing the
behaviour pattern of native communities at the tour ist destinations.
Environmental awareness programs of both Government and non-Government
organisations has providing a fillip to local commu nities, to protect the ecology
of the natural tourist spots. Thus, the hypothese s given in Introduction
Chapters are substantiated.
This Conclusion Part also presents the major findin gs of the research,
followed by suggestions, to improve Ecotourism in T amil Nadu. Eco tourism is
an object by itself and it is different from other perceptions of tourism.
Tourists, at the destinations, have positive attitu de towards all the Ecotourism
concepts. This will definitely reduce deforestation , by providing economic

238

alternatives to the local people, by creating a nat ional desire, to preserve the
region, for its natural and economic value. Environ mental education will
positively influence the behaviour of local communi ties, at the eco destinations.
Environmental awareness programs will provide an en couragement to local
communities, to protect the ecological corridors.
The study titled “Eco Tourism in Tamil Nadu, 2015-2 017” involved
extensive travelling around all places of Eco spots in the State. The Researcher
interviewed various service providers and tourists to know the present status of
Eco tourism in Tamil Nadu. It is found that the Sta te has wide scope of Eco
tourism promotional activities. In addition to natu re-based importance it has
places of attraction like beach, historical places and natural gardens, mountains,
falls etc.
The Eco tourism promotes nature values and dissemin ates information
on our cultural and historical heritage to various countries. But certain issues
like Health, Hygiene, basic amenities like transpor t, water and other services
are not up to the expectations of tourist populatio n.
It is high time local authorities and department of tourism take necessary
steps to promote happy, entertaining, healthy touri sm in Tamil Nadu.
In general, Eco tourism in Tamil Nadu has the poten tial for attracting
maximum number of tourists and also for generating employment opportunities
for the local community.

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Findings
The following findings of the study are listed belo w:
1. Growth of Eco tourism
2. Development of Eco Tourism under Tourism Industry
3. Perception of the Tourists
Growth of Eco tourism Tourism can definitely yield a positive result by s atisfying the
sustainable eco development programs. By gradually developing the concept of
eco-tourism, the society can adapt it, get educated , cultured, contribute and
enjoy the change. All the local people must be made to take part in planning
and development of tourism, so that they can bring various new ideas, provide
their support and influence the decisions, and in t urn be a part of it.
Development of Eco Tourism under Tourism Industry The development of Ecotourism and its infrastructur e including
promotion is primarily the responsibility of the St ate Governments and Union
Territory Administrations. The Ministry of Tourism also provides Central
Financial Assistance (CFA) for various projects tha t are wide-ranging as per
existing strategies and funds are sanctioned immedi ately in order to support the
growth of eco-tourism. The Ministry of Tourism also taken various initiatives
to boost eco-tourism in the country. The Evolved Co mprehensive Sustainable
Tourism Criteria for India (STCI) has three major s ections of the tourism
industry, namely lodging, tour operators, Beaches, Backwaters, Lakes and

240

Rivers sectors, which is applicable for the whole c ountry. There are many
Guidelines for endorsement of Hotel Projects at the execution stage and also
for Classification/Re-classification of functioning hotels under various groups
mandate incorporation of various eco-friendly actio ns like fixing of the Sewage
Treatment Plant, the Rain water Harvesting, the Was te Management System,
the Pollution Control and the Introduction of non-C hlorofluorocarbon
apparatus for the refrigeration and the air conditi oners and the water
conservation measures. Under the Eco-Tourism theme there are many
upcoming schemes, which will launch shortly in orde r to develop the
infrastructure of all the states of India. Promotin g the Eco-Tourism through the
domestic and international campaigns and also by su pporting various seminars,
events and conferences, which focusing on developme nt of Eco Tourism in the
country, from time to time has already started in r esulting a massive growth for
our future generations.
Perception of Tourists
· Out of 350 respondents, 172 respondents were in the age group, ranging
from 26 to 50 years. It shows that the middle age g roup was much
involved in Eco tourism.
· 214 respondents were male while the remaining 136 w ere female
respondents. It is apparent that the malesdominated Eco tourism.
· 188 respondents (54 percent) were married and 162 w ere unmarried. It
shows that marriage did not influence the decision to undertake Eco

241

tours. Infact, both married and unmarried equally t ook part in Eco
tourism.
· Irrespective of the educational status, all engaged themselves in Eco
tourism.
· 19 respondents were students, 92 respondents were w orking as
government employees, 75 respondents were with priv ate concern, 86
were professionals and 76 were self-employed. It is clear that
occupation was not a factor which influenced the pa rticipation in the
Eco tourism.
· 33 respondents earned Rs. 6,000 or less, per month, 89 earned between
Rs. 6,001 – 10,000, 92 were in the income range of Rs. 10,001 – 20,000
and 136 earned above Rs. 20000. It is apparent that the income status
played a vital role in undertaking ecotourism.
· Domestic spots were given more importance, in Eco t ourism, to the
extent of 71.4 percent, by the domestic tourists. T his is because the
Indian visitors already knew the importance of thes e local eco spots
rather than the foreign visitors.
· 143 respondents were Hindus, 112 were Christians, 6 9 were Muslims
and 26 were Others. Since the State has more number of Hindu, the
number of Hindu respondents was obviously high.
· 51.70 percent of the respondents were of the opinio n that the purpose of
visit was purely to involve themselves in Eco touri sm than in other
purposes. Since the State has more number of temple s, churches and

242

mosques of historical importance, the religious pur pose of visiting the
places was obviously high. The visit of 108 respond ents, for pleasure,
indicated that many sites are now turned into touri st destinations.
· 197 respondents (56.3 percent) gathered information from friends and
relatives. The source of information from advertise ment, was 15.7
percent. In other words, friends and relatives infl uenced the respondents,
to go for tourist places. Lack of proper advertisem ent was also recorded.
· 91 (26 percent) of the sample respondents opined th at they had selected
the particular place of visit due to attraction, fo llowed by economy at 67
(19.1 percent) and proximity at 56 (16 percent). To urist attraction was
the main reason for the popularity of tourist centr es.
· 80 percent of the foreign tourists preferred air tr ansport and 54 percent
of domestic tourists opted for rail transport. Thou gh there is no air
service to Eco spots directly, the tourists used to reach nearby airport
directly, by air transport and then they took the l ocal transport. The
tourists, who came by road reported, that because o f the inadequacy of
train service, they had to travel by road transport .
· 153 of the respondents preferred taxi, followed by 126 respondents, who
opted for Auto Rickshaw. Bus service did not find f avour with them
because of the inadequacy in services, overcrowded and low frequency.
· 26.8 percent of domestic tourists preferred budget hotels and
21.2 percent of them preferred to stay in star hote ls. 26 percent of them
went to lodges or houses of friends and relatives.3 4 percent of foreign

243

tourists preferred star hotels and 42 percent prefe rred budget hotels. It is
inferred that majority of respondents preferred ord inary accommodation
only.
· The length of stay, for most of the domestic touris ts, was “less than
three” while it was “more than a week” for internat ional tourists. Since
many domestic tourists were from local places, they could travel
whenever they found time but international tourists were unable to travel
often and hence they had to stay for a longer time to visit other tourist
attractions, in and around Tamil Nadu.
· Regarding locations preferred by sample respondents , 110 opted for Eco
spots, 78 of the respondents selected Sea, followed by Museum at 56,
Arts and Architecture at 42. It is inferred that th e places selected, were
mostly for pilgrimage and religious tourism.
· Out of 350 respondents, 75 of the domestic tourists did not opt for any
sort of accommodation, in the eco spots. Since Tami l Nadu has many
tourist places, they preferred to visit as many tou rist destinations as
possible.
· 123 domestic tourists and 82 foreign tourists opine d that they enjoyed
easy availability of accommodation whereas 52 domes tic and 18 foreign
tourists responded that it was difficult to search for accommodation. It is
understood that availability of accommodation for t ourists was enough
for Eco destinations.

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· Many of the tourists were dissatisfied with facilit ies of accommodation
due to poor condition of facilities, in hotels and lodges. The local
conveyance was limited, at the tourist places, in T amil Nadu.
· Regarding the awareness of the respondents, about t he various services
provided by the hotels, 88 percent of people prefer red Bar, followed by
Room services (85.6 percent) and food and beverages service
(81.1 percent). Least number of people were aware o f the shopping
centres, transportation facilities, rental car/taxi , indoor / outdoor games
etc and some of these facilities were not available in all hotels and
lodges.
· Majority of respondents reported that tourism in Ta mil Nadu should be
culture oriented, eco-friendly and provide economic return.
· In the case of shopping and tax on hotel bills, dom estic tourists were
more dissatisfied than foreign tourists. Foreign to urists did not have any
complaint regarding prices, charged for various tou rist services, except
‘tax on hotel bill’.
· 62% respondents opined that all the four problems a ffected the Eco
tourism industry in Tamil Nadu adversely. The opini ons greatly
supported the need for strategic management, in the tourism industry, in
Tamil Nadu.
· Majority opined that privatization would create mor e and more
infrastructure and employment opportunities, in and around the Eco
tourists’ spots.

245

· Majority of the respondents suggested that the role of the Government is
to create infrastructure facilities (56 percentage) while a lesser number
(27 percentage) opined that the Government must act as promoter and
organize national / international publicity for Eco tourism.
· There is a gap between tourist expectation and actu al quality of
hospitality services. It is understood from this an alysis that the
availability of standard variables such as road jou rney,
cleanliness/hygiene, entertainment and guide servic e, were poor for
14.25 % of respondents.
· There is a gap between expected potential of touris t services and the
reality in Tamil Nadu. Services like tourist inform ation, conducted tours,
recreation activities and basic facilities, in the tourist destination, were
assessed to be wanting, by 19.25 percent of respond ents.
· Majority of respondents received information on eco spots, from Hotel
(37 percentage), followed by tour operators, travel agents, tourist
home/lodges and tourism related industries.
· The general complaints, made by tourists visiting E co destination, were
tedious road journey (91 percent), lack of cleanlin ess and hygiene
(73 percent), followed by lack of necessary facilit ies (70%), lack of
guides to accompany with the tourists, price charge d for services being
too high and menace of beggars and miscreants.
· While many domestic tourists went on family trip, f oreign tourists
moved with friends.

246

· 78 percent of foreign tourists faced communication problems, due to
lack of tour guides whereas 64.4 percent of domesti c tourists were
comfortable and did not face any communication prob lems.
· 87 percentage of foreign tourists and 41 percent of domestic tourists
depended on travel agents for their travel bookings . Thus, it may be
concluded that they played an important role in the tourism industry.
· 29 percent of the tourists were highly satisfied wi th the services and
57 percent were satisfied and the remaining 14 perc ent were totally
dissatisfied. Further, it appears that 12 percent f oreign tourists were
dissatisfied, 52 percent were satisfied and 36 perc ent were highly
satisfied. Therefore, there is a need for training the personnel, engaged
in the industry.
· The law and order situation was considered satisfac tory. The communal
violence and terrorism were not reported. Tamil Nad u has an added
advantage in this respect. 31 percentage of foreign tourists were happy
with the law and order situation.
· There is a need for strategic management, in touris m industry, for Eco
tourism, in Tamil Nadu.
· Tamil Nadu, in spite of having Eco/Nature based dim ension of tourism,
it does not attract large number of tourists and fo r which many reasons
were found through the research.
· There is a gap between expected demand of tourist s ervices and actual
supply of tourist services in Eco destinations.

247

· Eco tourism in Tamil Nadu promotes nature-based tou rism. It also helps
in the growth of economic development and promotes standard of living
of the local community.
· Lack of publicity, lack of co-ordination, among the stake holders of
tourism development, hamper the growth of Eco touri sm in Tamil Nadu.
· Professional management of tourism is the need of t he hour, with
reference to Eco tourism in Tamil Nadu.
· No wide publicity is given, about the famous Eco sp ots, like they do in
other countries.
· The Eco spots has poor and unsafe road connections.
· Hygienic conditions were poor and there were no pro per toilet facilities.
The communication system and guidance were also rep orted to be
wanting.
· Price, charged by the service providers, was report ed to be high. Hence
tourists preferred tourist vehicle as the mode of t ransport.
· Good co-operation from local authorities was report ed.
· Local small level entrepreneurs were able to genera te money, by
providing various services such as by taking photos of tourists in the eco
spots and selling hand made products like paper flo wers, jute bags,
wooden carvings, terracotta articles.

248

Suggestions
1. The Government, promoters, local entrepreneurs, loc al authorities
should provide the following, to enhance Eco Touris m, in Tamil Nadu.
2. Hygiene and Sanitation: The Government should initi ate a policy on
environmental cleanliness. Adequate steps should be taken, to provide
sanitation facilities, at places of public interest like cinema theatres, sea
shore area, railway station, bus terminus and so on .
3. Unless the conditions are improved, Eco spots may l ose business.
4. Schools, NGOs, industry associations could be invol ved, in carrying out
major cleanliness drive at important tourist destin ations. The Ministry of
Tourism should provide suitable incentives as well as awards, for all the
organizations and individuals involved in this impo rtant initiative.
5. International Fairs: Various international fairs mu st be conducted by the
Department of Tourism, in order to increase the tou rist arrivals.
6. Trained staff and guides must be appointed by the T ourism Department.
The guides must be in a position to explain the imp ortance of the places,
in the respective foreign languages and to promote Eco Tourist
activities.
7. Display of Signboards: For the convenience of touri sts, information
about the road directions, at the important junctio ns and accommodation
in hotels, lodges, clubs and tourist bungalows, sho uld be displayed at the
railway station, bus stand, along with the tariff.

249

8. Tourist Information Centres: Tourism Department mus t start more
tourism information centres at bus stand, shopping complexes and
commercial complexes.
9. The provision should be made, to get feedback and s uggestions, from
the tourists at the tourist destinations, for bette r strategic management.
10. Safety of Tourists: Special protection can be arran ged by the
Government, with the help of police department, at tourist centres.
11. Basic Facilities: Government should provide necessa ry basic facilities,
like safe drinking water facilities, roads, connect ing different
destinations, are to be improved and broadened.
12. Separate counters have to be opened, in banks, excl usively for tourists.
More number of ATMs should be established, at impor tant tourist
centres, to cater to the needs of tourists.
13. Link tourism centres, with better transport facilit ies, to help the tourist to
reach the tourist destinations, with ease.
14. Regulate crowd, during season time, with the help o f police and private
security forces.
15. Advertisements should be made, to restrict the use of plastic and
non – degradable materials, in tourist centres, by host community and
the tourists.
16. Steps should be taken, to provide bio-degradable to ilets, in the tourist
destinations.