CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the study
The International League against Epilepsy (ILAE) defined status epilepticus (SE) as a disorder whereby exhibition of convulsive characteristics lasts for 30 min. or more, causing a broad scope of clinical manifestations, and with a highly inconstant pathophysiological (ILAE, 2016). SE is not always a single existence and convulsive in feature but of different varieties. The convulsive status epilepticus (CSE) is characterized by long-standing periods oscillation, obvious injury including periodic trauma (Chang and Lowenstein, 2003), hence the name CSE.
The ability of the brain to program adaptive behaviour, solve problems, memorize data, and focus attention are referred to as indices of learning and memory (Grossberg, 2017). These are both higher order behaviours which are susceptible to alteration in CSE. Although SE may occur at any age but its prevalence is higher in infants and children than adults (Holmes, 2007). The prevalence rate of CSE is higher in children (within the first 2 years of age) owing to the fact that, within this age range, available number of neurons and excitatory connections that are yet to undergo functional specialization are exceedingly high. Moreover, an occurrence of CSE may be exacerbated by lack of neuronal pruning (Lawson and Yeager, 2016).
In addition, there is a link between CSE and neurochemical imbalance in some of the brain’ region (Tariq et al., 2008), resulting into neuronal hyperactivity with excessive generation of free radicals (Freitas et al., 2005). Accumulation of free radicals results to excitotoxicity of the brain with oxidizable lipids and metals. Regrettably, the anti-oxidative means of the brain cell are insignificant relative to other tissues of the body (Ahmad et al., 2014). However, at the end of every epileptic seizure, there is always overproduction of free radicals and reduced antioxidant which has been implicated to dramatically alter the neuronal structure and function.