CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
Background of Study
Concrete is one of the biggest basic material that been utilized today in development. Nowadays the concrete has been improve all the time where the material is maintained or improving the concrete strength, because of that it has become a challenge to scientists and engineers alike. Conventional concrete are made with natural aggregates originally from hard rock that the density lies within the range of 2200 to 2600 kg/m3 and represents high proportion of the dead load of a structure. Following a typical development in populace, the sum and sort of waste materials have expanded in like manner. The issue of waste collection exists around the world, particularly in the thickly populated territories. The majority of these materials are left as stores, landfill material or unlawfully dumped in chose regions.

Also, the reason of this research is because of the growth of the coconut used in food industry where the waste is being dump in high volume, this research is to use the waste to becoming beneficial material for the development and minimizing the environmental pollution in the future. In an attempt to reduce environmental degradation, close attention is now being paid to material recycling and the use of agricultural and industrial wastes in concrete production. In civil engineering practice and construction works, large volumes concrete are usually used. The productive use of waste material represents a means of alleviating some of the problems of solid waste management. Thus, the aim of this work is to provide more data on the strengths of coconut shell powder concretes at different coconut shells powder (CSP) replacements and study the transport properties of concrete with coconut shells powder as cement replacement ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Sen”, “given” : “Sanjay”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Chandak”, “given” : “Rajeev”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “4”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “33-35”, “title” : “Effect of coconut fibre ash on strength properties of concrete”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “5” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=b5f8e427-d47c-4e2b-afa1-b586e57f2b47” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Sen & Chandak, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Sen & Chandak, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Sen & Chandak, 2015)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Sen & Chandak, 2015).

Coconut shell powder is one of those many alternative binder replaced partially with cement. These fibers are obtained from the coconut which are available in larger quantities mainly in tropical regions like Asia, Africa and America. The inclusion of other substances to partially replace cement is not a strange procedure. This is something that has been done over the years, thereby incorporating many different types of natural waste and other substance which has been used for experimental process and later practicalized based on substantial reports ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “abstract” : “Concrete is the premier construction material around the world and is most widely used in all types of construction works, including infrastructure, low and high-rise buildings, and domestic developments. It is a man-made product, essentially consisting of a mixture of cement, aggregates, water and admixture(s). Inert granular materials such as sand, crushed stone or gravel form the major part of the aggregates. Traditionally aggregates have been readily available at economic prices and of qualities to suit all purposes. But, the continued extensive extraction use of aggregates from natural resources has been questioned because of the depletion of quality primary aggregates and greater awareness of environmental protection. In light of this, the non-availability of natural resources to future generations has also been realized. Different alternative waste materials and industrial by products such as fly ash, bottom ash, recycled aggregates, foundry sand, china clay sand, crumb rubber, glass were replaced with natural aggregate and investigated properties of the concretes. Apart from above mentioned waste materials and industrial by products, few studies identified that coconut shells, the agricultural by product can also be used as aggregate in concrete. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CIVIL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (IJCIET) ISSN 0976 u2013 6308 (Print) ISSN 0976 u2013 6316(Online) Volume 6, Issue 3, March (2015), pp. 42-61 u00a9 IAEME: www.iaeme.com/Ijciet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2015): 9.1215 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJCIET u00a9IAEME International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 u2013 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 u2013 6316(Online), Volume 6, Issue 3, March (2015), pp. 42-61 u00a9 IAEME 43 According to a report, coconut is grown in more than 86 countries worldwide, with a total production of 54 billion nuts per annum. India occupies the premier position in the world with an annual production of 13 billion nuts, followed by Indonesia and the Philippines. Limited research has been conducted on mechanical properties of concrete with coconut shells as aggregate replacement. However, further research is needed for better understanding of the behavior of coconut shells as aggregate in concrete. Thus, the aim of this work is to provide more data on the strengths of coconut shell concretes at different coconut shells (CS) replacements and study the transport properties of concrete with coconut shells as coarse aggregate replacement. Furthermore, inu2026”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Venkateswara Rao”, “given” : “Kalyanapu”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Rama Rao”, “given” : “DrPKodanda”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “3”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “976-6308”, “title” : “Study on Strength Properties of Coconut Shell Concrete”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “6” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=b25a71cf-0065-4aed-b0fa-a03398da85a2” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Venkateswara Rao & Rama Rao, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Venkateswara Rao & Rama Rao, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Venkateswara Rao & Rama Rao, 2015)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Venkateswara Rao & Rama Rao, 2015).

Problem Statement
The growth of agro-based industries and manufacturing industries in Malaysia, a lot of waste has been produced and by not been treated properly will cause the pollution to the environment. For the good to the environment, the waste need to be solved in order to control and minimized the pollutants released. But if these wastes are investigated and studied, these wastes have a potential to be used as construction material ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Mon”, “given” : “Tai Kah”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2012” }, “title” : “AS COARSE AGGREGATE”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=2a5c1f86-a0de-46a1-9c6e-0495ea108b47” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Mon, 2012)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Mon, 2012)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Mon, 2012)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Mon, 2012).

Recycling and utilization of agricultural waste and industrial by-products are very beneficial to our environment and industry. Increasing of the wastes products, resources preservation and material cost has result in the utilization of solid wastes. Material recovery from the agricultural wastes and industrial waste into reusable materials not only can protect the environment, but also can preserve the natural resources since the natural resources are limited.
Solid waste management is one of the major environmental concerns in the world. With the scarcity of space for land filling and due to its ever increasing cost, waste utilization has become an attractive alternative to disposal. Research is being carried out on the utilization of waste products in concrete. Such waste products include discarded tires, plastic, glass, steel, burnt foundry sand, and coal combustion by-products (CCBs). Each of these waste products has provided a specific effect on the properties of fresh and hardened concreteADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Mon”, “given” : “Tai Kah”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2012” }, “title” : “AS COARSE AGGREGATE”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=2a5c1f86-a0de-46a1-9c6e-0495ea108b47” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Mon, 2012)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Mon, 2012)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Mon, 2012)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Mon, 2012). Hence, this research is carried out to investigate the performance of concrete containing coconut powder shell.

Objective of the Study
The main objective of this research are:
To investigate the strength performance of the concrete that containing coconut shell powder concrete with the concrete without coconut shell powder.

To determine the workability of concrete that containing coconut shell powder.

To compare the workability of concrete that containing coconut powder shell with difference percentage proportion of coconut shell powder that been used.

Significance of Study
The significances of this study are:
Incorporating coconut shell powder as part of cement replacement material in the mixing process as to create a more sustainable environment and an innovative recycled material industry besides enhancing the strength of concrete.

Scope of Study
The scope of study for this research will be cover out the application of coconut powder shell,this study is to determine the performance of concrete replaced by coconut powder shell. Finally, tests will be carried out to determine the performance of concrete that containing coconut shell powder. The test that going to be conducted including:
Workability of the concrete containing coconut shell powder
Compressive strength tests of the concrete containing coconut shell powder with different percentage of material replacement
Test of compressive strength of cubes with partial replacement of normal concrete aggregate with the Coconut Shell Powder.

The analysis of the results obtained from the tests and drawing conclusions from the results.

CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1Introduction
The growing concern of resource depletion and global pollution has challenged many engineers to seek and develop new materials relying on renewable resources ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISBN” : “1300-0160”, “ISSN” : “13000160”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “TEO”, “given” : “D. C. L.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “MANNAN”, “given” : “M. A.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “KURIAN”, “given” : “V. J.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Turkish Journal of Engineering Environment Science”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2006” }, “page” : “251-257”, “title” : “Structural concrete using oil palm shell (OPS) as lightweight aggregate”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “30” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=b699bf66-acfe-4291-9505-be250fbf0d58” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(TEO, MANNAN, & KURIAN, 2006)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Teo, Mannan, & Kurian, 2006)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(TEO, MANNAN, & KURIAN, 2006)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(TEO, MANNAN, & KURIAN, 2006)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Teo, Mannan, & Kurian, 2006). These include the use of by-products and waste materials in building construction. In creating countries where abundant agricultural and industrial wastes are released, these wastes can be utilized as potential material or substitution material in the development business. This will have the double advantage of reduction in the cost of construction material and also as a means of disposal of wastes. Many of these by-products are used as aggregate for the production of concrete. Therefore, the use of alternative materials to normal aggregate in concrete is of paramount importance. Hence the agricultural and industrial wastes which constitutes nuisances both to our health and environment can be converted into useful materials by either turning them into ashes or converting them from the original state and used in various proportions with cement, and thus reduce the cost for concrete works ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “al”, “family” : “Jamaluddin”, “given” : “Norwati et”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “October”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “title” : “Utilization of Sawdust Ash as Cement Replacement for the Concrete Production : A Utilization of Sawdust Ash as Cement”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=74c7e9d3-26cc-4140-bffb-a23d187bd61b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Jamaluddin, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Jamaluddin, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Jamaluddin, 2017)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Jamaluddin, 2017).

2.2Concrete Innovations
2.2.1Use of Fly Ash for High Strength Concrete
For construction of The Century, a 146 meters high condominium building in West Los Angeles using concrete mixes containing 10% to 25% of fly ash depending on concrete application in structures. The provider built up the blends with thought for constructability considering alongside the determination age quality needs in controlling solidifying, setting time and fast advancement of early age quality when managed so by pace of vertical shaping, evacuation of formwok and reshoring. The project schedule was extreme and accommodated one week cycle for each floor. Concrete used for gravity columns and moment frame columns, beams and shear walls with the compressive strength of 55.2 MPa to 69 MPa that containing 10% of fly ash by the total weight of its blend with Type II/V Portland cement.
Design W/C was 0.36. Congested reinforcing steel condition and concerns with strength of 25 mm maximum size local siliceous aggregates dictated the use of 9.5 mm maximum size aggregate (60% by absolute volume of coarse and fine aggregates). The mix contained polycarboxylate high-range water reducer. The design took into account the utilization of set controlling admixture, when required so by surrounding temperature and foreseen length of conveyance time. Acceptance ages were of the mix designed for compressive strength of 55.2 MPa – 90 days and concrete designed for compressive strength of 69.0 MPa – 365 days. Results of evaluation of strength data for the 69.0 MPa mix obtained in the course of construction ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Stein”, “given” : “Boris”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ryan”, “given” : “Robert”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vitkus”, “given” : “Linas”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Halverson”, “given” : “John”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “1-12”, “title” : “Beneficial Use of Fly Ash for Concrete Construction in California”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=39edb6eb-2c37-4b37-bcc1-e547d23ebb0e” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Stein, Ryan, Vitkus, & Halverson, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Stein, Ryan, Vitkus, & Halverson, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Stein, Ryan, Vitkus, & Halverson, 2015)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Stein, Ryan, Vitkus, & Halverson, 2015).

2.2.2Use of Fly Ash for Mass Concrete Foundation
Wilshire Grand Replacement Hotel in Downtown Los Angeles is the tallest building west of Chicago currently under construction. The building will be 73 stories high above five levels of parking structure and 335 m (1100 feet) tall. The concrete foundation for this building was constructed on February 16-17, 2014 within 18.5-hour continuous placement. The replacement rate of Portland cement with fly ash was selected with considerations for performance, constructability, thermal control and required productivity (as affected by the discharge rates of Portland cement and fly ash during batching)ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Stein”, “given” : “Boris”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ryan”, “given” : “Robert”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vitkus”, “given” : “Linas”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Halverson”, “given” : “John”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “1-12”, “title” : “Beneficial Use of Fly Ash for Concrete Construction in California”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=39edb6eb-2c37-4b37-bcc1-e547d23ebb0e” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Stein et al., 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Stein et al., 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Stein et al., 2015)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Stein et al., 2015).

2.2.3Production of Concrete Roofing Tiles Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA)
Investigate the suitability of utilizing rice husk ash, as an agricultural waste with a mixture of cement for producing roofing tiles as an alternative in providing economical concrete roof tiles. The utilization of concrete, joined with RHA to deliver rooftop tiles will affect fundamentally in the diminishment of roofing tile construction costs, while as yet changing over the nation’s stores of agricultural waste which is obviously an environmental health hazard to economic purposes for national development ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Olufemi”, “given” : “Agbede”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Akuto”, “given” : “Tersoo”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Michael”, “given” : “Tiza”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ugama”, “given” : “Terry”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “October”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “title” : “PRODUCTION OF CONCRETE ROOFING TILES USING RICE HUSK ASH ( RHA ) IN PARTIAL”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=87d74f60-3443-401b-ad54-e51f60654d73” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Olufemi, Akuto, Michael, & Ugama, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Olufemi, Akuto, Michael, & Ugama, 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Olufemi, Akuto, Michael, & Ugama, 2016)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Olufemi, Akuto, Michael, ; Ugama, 2016).

2.3Case Study on Coconut Shell
Gambir (2005) stated that the forms in which waste materials are used are wide and varied, they may be used as binder material and as partial replacement of conventional Portland Cement.

Gambir (2005) Classified waste materials into three categories:
Organic wastes (agro wastes)
Inorganic wastes (urban waste)
Industrial wastes.

The focus of this Dissertation is organic waste material from the agricultural origin. The waste materials categorized as organic wastes are of plant origin, namely wood saw dust, coconut pitch, coconut shell, palm kernel shell, rice husk, wheat husk, groundnut husk, plant fibre, etc. It must be appreciated that development of concrete using coconut shell as aggregates is still in early stages and published data are limited. Gambhir (2005) suggested that before using organic wastes on a large scale as constituents in concrete, careful investigations regarding their properties and durability need to be carried out.

ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “abstract” : “Coconut shell ash is agricultural waste. The waste is produced in abundance globally and poses risk to health as well as environment. Thus their effective, conducive and eco-friendly utilization has always been a challenge for scientific applications. This paper mainly deals with identification of characteristics of coconut shell ash using spectroscopic and microscopic analysis. Density, Particle size, Refractoriness, SEM, XRD, XRF and FTIR spectroscopic methods were used for the characterization of the coconut shell ash. The results were compared and it was observed that the ash possesses nearly same chemical phases and other functional groups as reinforcement like fly ash, rice husk ash, bagasse ash that have been in Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs) specifically for automobile applications. Hence, coconut shell ash can be used as a low cost reinforcement in Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs).”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Madakson”, “given” : “P B”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Yawas”, “given” : “D S”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Apasi”, “given” : “A”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “03”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2012” }, “page” : “1190-1198”, “title” : “Characterization of Coconut Shell Ash for Potential Utilization in Metal Matrix Composites for Automotive Applications”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “4” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=a9be520f-527d-4e27-96d5-a6028c4e4b40” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Madakson, Yawas, & Apasi, 2012)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Madakson, Yawas, & Apasi, 2012)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Madakson, Yawas, & Apasi, 2012)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Madakson, Yawas, ; Apasi, 2012) worked on characterization of coconut shell ash for potential utilization in metal matrix composites for automobile applications. Their research centered on the identification of characteristic of coconut shell ash using spectroscopic and microscopic analysis, density, and particles size, refractories SEM, XRD, and FHR spectroscopic methods were used for the characterization of the coconut shell ash. The result shows that the coconut shell ash possesses nearly same chemical phases and other functional groups as reinforcement bagasse ash that has been in metal matrix composites specifically for automobile application. They concluded that coconut shell ash can be used as a low cost reinforcement in metal matrix composites.

ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “IMOISILI”, “given” : “P E”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “IBEGBULAM”, “given” : “C M”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “ADEJUGBE”, “given” : “T I”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “The Pacific Journal of Science and Technology”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2012” }, “page” : “463-468”, “title” : “Effect of Concentration of Coconut Shell Ash on the Tensile Properties of Epoxy Composites”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “13” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8c6e666b-e437-43d4-9597-950f0c15e2f0” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(IMOISILI, IBEGBULAM, & ADEJUGBE, 2012)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Imoisili, Ibegbulam, & Adejugbe, 2012)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(IMOISILI, IBEGBULAM, & ADEJUGBE, 2012)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(IMOISILI, IBEGBULAM, & ADEJUGBE, 2012)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Imoisili, Ibegbulam, ; Adejugbe, 2012) investigated the “Effect of concentration of coconut shell ash on the tensile properties of Epoxy composites”. Having experimented with five filler concentrations (5 – 25% by weight) the test reports show that tensile strength, elastic modulus and micro hardness of the composite increase with increase in filler concentration, while percentage elongation and load at break decreases with increase in filler concentration. He concluded that coconut shell ash can be used as reinforcing filler in epoxy composites.

ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISSN” : “20282508”, “abstract” : “The natural fibre reinforced composites are being developed to save environment. Objective of investigation was to evaluate the physical property-density and mechanical property-tensile properties. Coconut particle reinforced composites were fabricated by reinforcing shell particle (size between 200-800u03bcm) by wt% of 20, 25, 30 & 35 into epoxy matrix. Composites panels were made by casting method in open mould in very easy way. Experimental results showed that density, ultimate strength, modulus of elasticity and % elongation decreases with wt% of shell particle with in this range wt% 20-35 of reinforcement. Tensile strength of 25 MPa and modulus of elasticity of 654 MPa were retained even after of 35% reinforcement. Properties were comparable for application only with compromising slightly with matrix property.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Bhaskar”, “given” : “J.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Singh”, “given” : “V. K.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Journal of Materials and Environmental Science”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2013” }, “page” : “113-116”, “title” : “Water absorption and compressive properties of coconut shell particle reinforced-epoxy composite”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “4” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=26d2b729-1a85-4b3a-9ba8-4ca43efc5e62” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Bhaskar & Singh, 2013)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Bhaskar & Singh, 2013)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Bhaskar & Singh, 2013)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Bhaskar ; Singh, 2013)reported their research work on water absorption and compressive properties of coconut shell particles reinforced epoxy composite. Coconut shell particles reinforced composites were fabricated by reinforcing shell particles (size between 200 – 800µmm) by weight % of 20, 25, 30 and 35 into epoxy matrix. The experimental results showed that water absorption increased with increase of weight % of particle, but compressive properties increased up to 30 weight % of particle approaches to actual compressive strength of epoxy.

ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “abstract” : “The morphology and mechanical properties of coconut shell reinforced polyethylene composite have been evaluated to establish the possibility of using it as a new material for engineering applications. Coconut shell reinforced composite was prepared by compacting low density polyethylene matrix with 5% – 25% volume fraction coconut shell particles and the effect of the particles on the mechanical properties of the composite produced was investigated. The result shows that the hardness of the composite increases with increase in coconut shell content though the tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, impact energy and ductility of the composite decreases with increase in the particle content. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) of the composites (with 0% – 25% particles) surfaces indicates poor interfacial interaction between the coconut shell particle and the low density polyethylene matrix. This study therefore exploits the potential of agrobased waste fiber in Nigeria as an alternative particulate material for the development of a new composite.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Agunsosoye, J.O, Isaac, T.S, Samuel”, “given” : “S.O.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “11”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2012” }, “page” : “774-779”, “title” : “Study of Mechanical Behaviour of Coconut Shell Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composite”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “2012” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=30a379f1-4b05-4b35-a9ce-88cb4c7a4dfa” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Agunsosoye, J.O, Isaac, T.S, Samuel, 2012)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Agunsosoye, J.O, Isaac, T.S, Samuel, 2012)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Agunsosoye, J.O, Isaac, T.S, Samuel, 2012)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Agunsosoye, J.O, Isaac, T.S, Samuel, 2012)studied the mechanical behaviour of coconut shell reinforced polymer matrix composite. The focus of the study was the evaluation of the morphology and mechanical properties of coconut shell reinforced polyethylene composite to establish the possibility of using it as a new material for engineering applications. Coconut shell reinforced composite was processed by compacting low density polyethylene matrix with 5% – 25% volume fraction coconut shell particles and the reaction of the particles on the mechanical properties of the composite formed was investigated. The result shows that the hardness of the composite increased with increase in coconut shell content though the tensile strength, modulus of elasticity impact energy and ductility of the composite decreased with increasing in the particle content, while the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) of the composites (with 0% – 25% particles) surfaces specify poor interfacial interaction between the coconut shell particles and the low density polyethylene matrix. It was concluded that coconut shell particles enhanced the hardness property of the polyethylene matrix composite, which is an added requirement for automobile interior.

(Olanipekun, 2006) carried out the comparative cost analysis and strength characteristics of concrete formed using crushed, granular coconut and palm kernel shell as substitutes for conventional coarse aggregate. The main objective is to inspire the use of waste products as construction materials in low-cost housing. Crushed granular coconut and palm kernel were been used as substitute for conventional coarse aggregate in the following ratios: 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% for adapting of mixture ratios 1:1:2 and 1:2:4. Total 320 cubes were casted, tested and their physical and mechanical properties were determined. The result showed that the compressive strength of the concrete decreasing as the percentage of the coconut shell increasing in the two mixture ratios, Coconut shell exhibited a greater compressive strength than palm kernel shell in the test. Furthermore, there is a cost reduction of 30% and 42% for concrete produced from coconut shell and palm kernel shell respectively.

(SitiAminahBtTukiman and Sabarudin Bin Mohd, 2009) replaced the coarse aggregate by coconut shell and grained palm kernel in their study. Percentage of replacement by coconut shell were 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% respectively. Conclusion is that the combination of these materials has potential of being used as lightweight aggregate in concrete and also has reduce the material cost in construction.

(Olutoge, 2010) studied the saw dust and palm kernel shells (PKS). Fine aggregates are replaced by saw dust and coarse aggregates by palm kernel shells in reinforced concrete slabs casting. Conventional aggregates were replaced by saw dust and PKS in same ratios of 0%, 25%, 50%,75% and 100%. Compressive and flexural strengths were noted at different time intervals. It was seen that at 25% sawdust and PKS can produce lightweight reinforced concrete slabs that can be used where low stress is required at reduced cost. 7.43% reduction can be achieved.

(Abubakar and Muhammed Saleh Abubakar, 2011) compared the physical and mechanical properties of coconut shell and crushed granite rock also a total of 72 concrete cubes of size 150x150x150mm with different mix ratios of 1:2:4, 1:1.5 :3 and 1:3:6 were casted and tested for evaluating different properties. Aggregate crushing value (ACV) for coarse aggregate was 21.84 and 4.71 for coconut shell. Elongation and flakiness index were 58.54 and 15.69 respectively for gravels, while for coconut shell, it was 50.56 and 99.19 respectively. Compressive strength of concrete cubes in N/mm2 of coconut shell at 7,14,21 and 28 days with mix ratios of 1:2:4, 1:1.5:3, and 1:3:6 respectively for gravel. Since the concrete strength of coconut shell with mix ratio 1:1.5:3, attained 16.5 N/mm2 compressive strength at 28 days it can be used in plain concrete works, cost reduction of 48% will be achieved.

(Maninder Kaur ;Manpreet Kaur, 2012) published a review paper in which it is concluded that use of coconut shells in cement concrete can help in waste reduction and pollution reduction. It is also expected to serve the purpose of encouraging housing developers in investing these materials in house construction. It is also concluded that the Coconut Shells are more suitable as low strength giving lightweight aggregate when used to replace common coarse aggregate in concrete production.

(Vishwas P. Kulkarni et al, 2013) studied that Aggregates provide volume at low cost, comprising 66 percent to 78 percent of the concrete. M20 Concrete is produced by 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% replacement of coarse aggregate by coconut shell. There is no need to treat the coconut shell before use as an aggregate except for water absorption. No bond failure was observed, confirming that there was adequate bonding between the coconut shell aggregate concrete and the steel bars.

ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Parag S. Kambli”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “IOSR Journal of Engineering (IOSR-JEN)”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “4”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2014” }, “page” : “7”, “title” : “Compressive Strength of Concrete by Using Coconut Shell”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “4” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=2fb57011-2620-41ab-b3b7-c2f74fb31ece” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Parag S. Kambli, 2014)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Parag S. Kambli, 2014)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Parag S. Kambli, 2014)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Parag S. Kambli, 2014) prepare three different Mixture Designs for M20, M35, M50 grade of concrete. Percentage replacement by coconut shell as 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% respectively. It is concluded in this research that for M20 grade concrete cubes with 30% replacement of coconut shell aggregates had strength of 23 MPa at 28 days. Concrete cubes with 30% replacement of coconut shell aggregates had given strength of 42 MPa at 28 days for M35. For M50 grade concrete cubes with 30% replacement of coconut shell aggregates had given strength of 51 MPa at 28 days.

(DewanshuAhlawat;L.G.Kalurkar, 2014) explored the possibility of producing M20 grade of concrete by replacing conventional aggregate of granite by coconut shell. Forty five cubes were casted. Percentage of replacement of conventional coarse aggregate by coconut shell were 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, 10%. Compressive strength were 19.71, 19.53, 19.08, 18.91 N/mm2 respectively at 28 days. Workability and compressive strength had been evaluated at 7, 14 and 28 days. The compressive strength of concrete reduced as the percentage replacement increased. By these results it can be concluded that coconut shell concrete can be used in reinforced concrete.

2.4Coconut Shell
Coconut shell is one of the by-products from the processing of coconut, it is organic in nature and similar to hard woods in chemical composition though lignin content is higher and cellulose content is lower. The shell composition is shown in Table 2.1.

Table 2.1: Chemical composition of Coconut Shell
COCONUT SHELL COMPOUND
(Dry basis)
COMPOUND PERCENT
CELLULOSE 33.61
LIGNIN 36.51
PENTOSANS 29.27
ASH 0.61
Coconut tree from which coconut shell is a by-product is often referred to as the “Tree of Life” because of the endless lists of products and by-products derived from its various parts. It serves as food, shelter and fuel. Therefore, considering the high cost of conventional building materials in the country which affects housing delivery, concrete using coconut shell as coarse aggregate can be useful as a structural lightweight concrete. This will enhance the quest for low cost housing system for both the rural, urban population and in the developing countries. The use of the waste generated will also contribute toward a cleaner environment. These waste materials however must be tested to ascertain their properties – chemical, mechanical and their suitability for constructional purposes.
The coconut palm is one of the most useful plants in the world. Coconut is grown in 92 countries in the world. Global production of coconut is 51 billion nuts from an area of 12 million hectares. Coconut shells which were already broken into two pieces were collected from local temple; air dried for five days approximately at the temperature of 25 to 30 C? removed fiber and husk ondried shells. Water absorption of the coconut shells was 8% and specific gravity at saturated surface dry condition of the material was found as 1.33.

Generally, the parameters that determine the compatibility requirements for the coconut shells cement composite are maximum hydration temperature, time taken to attain maximum temperature, ratio of the setting times of coconut shells fines-cement mixture, neat cement and inhibitory index. Inhibitory effect is the measure of the decrease in heat release during the exothermic chemical process of cement hydration. The coconut shells cement compatibility was analyzed with the properties such as normal consistency, initial and final setting times, compressive strength and hydration using the samples of coconut shells fines with cement and neat cement.

Figure 2.1: Coconut Shell
2.4.1Present Use of Coconut Shell
Coconut shells have good durability characteristics, high toughness and abrasion resistant properties also it is suitable for long continued use. Coconut shells were mostly used as an ornament, making lavish items, house hold utensils, and it also use as a source of activated carbon from its charcoal. Coconut powder shell is also used in the industries of plastics, glues, and abrasive materials and it is usually used for the manufacture of insect repellent in the form of mosquito coils and in agarbathis. The purposed of this study work is to develop a concrete with coconut shells powder as cement addition.. After the coconut is scraped out, the shell is usually discarded as waste. The vast amount of this discarded coconut shells resource is as yet unutilized commercially where its use as a building material especially in concrete. The study of coconut shells will not only provide a new material for construction but will also can help in the preservation of the environment in addition to improve the economy by providing new use for the coconut shells ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “abstract” : “Concrete is the premier construction material around the world and is most widely used in all types of construction works, including infrastructure, low and high-rise buildings, and domestic developments. It is a man-made product, essentially consisting of a mixture of cement, aggregates, water and admixture(s). Inert granular materials such as sand, crushed stone or gravel form the major part of the aggregates. Traditionally aggregates have been readily available at economic prices and of qualities to suit all purposes. But, the continued extensive extraction use of aggregates from natural resources has been questioned because of the depletion of quality primary aggregates and greater awareness of environmental protection. In light of this, the non-availability of natural resources to future generations has also been realized. Different alternative waste materials and industrial by products such as fly ash, bottom ash, recycled aggregates, foundry sand, china clay sand, crumb rubber, glass were replaced with natural aggregate and investigated properties of the concretes. Apart from above mentioned waste materials and industrial by products, few studies identified that coconut shells, the agricultural by product can also be used as aggregate in concrete. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CIVIL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (IJCIET) ISSN 0976 u2013 6308 (Print) ISSN 0976 u2013 6316(Online) Volume 6, Issue 3, March (2015), pp. 42-61 u00a9 IAEME: www.iaeme.com/Ijciet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2015): 9.1215 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJCIET u00a9IAEME International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 u2013 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 u2013 6316(Online), Volume 6, Issue 3, March (2015), pp. 42-61 u00a9 IAEME 43 According to a report, coconut is grown in more than 86 countries worldwide, with a total production of 54 billion nuts per annum. India occupies the premier position in the world with an annual production of 13 billion nuts, followed by Indonesia and the Philippines. Limited research has been conducted on mechanical properties of concrete with coconut shells as aggregate replacement. However, further research is needed for better understanding of the behavior of coconut shells as aggregate in concrete. Thus, the aim of this work is to provide more data on the strengths of coconut shell concretes at different coconut shells (CS) replacements and study the transport properties of concrete with coconut shells as coarse aggregate replacement. Furthermore, inu2026”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Venkateswara Rao”, “given” : “Kalyanapu”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Rama Rao”, “given” : “DrPKodanda”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “3”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “976-6308”, “title” : “Study on Strength Properties of Coconut Shell Concrete”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “6” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=b25a71cf-0065-4aed-b0fa-a03398da85a2” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Venkateswara Rao & Rama Rao, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Venkateswara Rao & Rama Rao, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Venkateswara Rao & Rama Rao, 2015)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Venkateswara Rao ; Rama Rao, 2015).

2.4.2Coconut Shell Powder Properties
Coconut shell is one of the most influential common fillers produced in tropical countries such as Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, and Sri Lanka. Many works have been dedicated to use of other common natural fillers in composites in the recent years and coconut shell is a potential candidate for the development of latest composites because they have high strength and modulus properties along with the advantages of high lignin content. The high lignin content makes the composites made with these fillers more weather resistant and thus more suitable for application as construction materials. Coconut shell powder is also largely used to produce products like furnishing materials, rope etc. Coconut shells also absorb less moisture due to its low cellulose content ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “abstract” : “The environmental impact of OPC is significant because its production emits large amount of CO2. Utilization of industrial soil waste or secondary materials has been encouraged in construction field for the production of cement and concrete because it contributes for reducing the consumption of natural raw materials as resources. The volume of wastes generated in the world has increased over the years due to increase in population, socioeconomic activities and social development. One of the most attractive options of managing such wastes is to look into the possibility of waste minimization and re-use. The cost of cement used in concrete works is on the increase and unaffordable, yet the need for housing and other constructions requiring this material keeps growing with increasing population, thus the need to find alternative binding materials that can be used solely or in partial replacement of cement. Agricultural waste material, in this case, coconut shells, which is an environmental pollutant, are collected and burnt in the open air (uncontrolled combustion) for three hours and that product is incinerated in muffle furnace at 800oC for 6 hrs to produce coconut shell ash (CSA), which in turn was used as pozzolana in partial replacement of cement in concrete production. Concrete mortar cubes were produced using replacement levels of 0 and 5 percent of OPC with CSA. The Coconut Shell ash is used for the partial replacement of cement. Further, use of coconut shell ash as a value added material as in the case of binary blended cement concrete, reduces the consumption of cement. Reduction of cement usage will reduce the production of cement which in turn cut the CO2 emissions. The time has come for the review of progress made in the field of development of binary blended cement concrete.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Nagarajan”, “given” : “Vignesh Kumar”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Devi”, “given” : “S Aruna”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Manohari”, “given” : “S P”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Santha”, “given” : “M Maria”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “International Journal of Sciences and reasearch (IJSR)”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “3”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2014” }, “page” : “651-661”, “title” : “Experimental Study on Partial Replacement of Cement with Coconut Shell Ash in Concrete”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “3” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=ef3846bc-7ef9-42f4-b8fb-3f644ad1e96f” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Nagarajan, Devi, Manohari, & Santha, 2014)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Nagarajan, Devi, Manohari, & Santha, 2014)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Nagarajan, Devi, Manohari, & Santha, 2014)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Nagarajan, Devi, Manohari, ; Santha, 2014).
Table 2.2: Chemical Composition of Coconut Fibre
Constituents Percentage composition %
Sio2 13.78
Al2O3 36.24
Fe2O3 0.15
Cao 33.37
Mgo 20.06
So3 0.007
MnO 0.13
K2O 0.73
P2O5 0.021
Na2O 0.38
LOI 2.14
2.5Concrete
Concrete is known to be a simple material in appearance but with a very complex internal nature. In contrast to its internal complexity, versatility, durability, and economy of concrete have made it the most frequently used construction material in the world. Concrete is a mixture of cement, water, and aggregates, with or without admixtures. The cement and water will form a paste that hardens as a result of a chemical reaction between the cement and water. The paste acts as glue, binding the aggregates (sand and gravel or crushed stone) into a solid rock-like mass. The quality of the paste and the aggregates dictate the engineering properties of this construction material. During hydration and hardening, concrete will develop certain physical and chemical properties, among others, mechanical strength, low permeability and chemical and volume stability. Concrete has relatively high compressive strength, but significantly lower tensile strength (about 10% of the compressive strength). Table 2.4 shows the typical properties of normal strength Portland cement concrete.

Table 2.3: Typical Properties of Normal-Strength Portland Cement Concrete
Characteristic
_______________________________________________________________
Compressive strength 20–40 MPa
Flexural strength 3–5 MPa
Tensile strength2–5 MPa
Modulus of elasticity14,000–41,000 MPa
Permeability 1×10–10 cm/sec
Coefficient of thermal expansion 10–5/°C
Drying shrinkage 4–8 x 10–4
Drying shrinkage of reinforced concrete2–3 x 10–4
Poisson’s ratio 0.20–0.21
Shear strain 6000–17,000 MPa
Density 2240–2400 kg/m3
Concrete is used to make pavements, building structures, foundations, roads, overpasses, parking structures, brick/block walls and bases for gates, fences and poles. Over six billion tons of concrete are made each year, amounting to the equivalent of one ton for every person on Earth, and powers a US$35 billion industry which employs over two million workers in the United States alone (Kosmatka,1999).

2.6Cement
Cements may be defined as adhesive substances capable of uniting fragments or masses of solid mater to a compact whole. Portland cement was invented in 1824 by an English mason, Joseph Aspdin, who named his product Portland cement because it produced a concrete that was of the same color as natural stone on the Isle of Portland in the English Channel.

Raw materials for manufacturing cement consist of basically calcareous and siliceous (generally argillaceous) material. The mixture is heated to a high temperature within a rotating kiln to produce a complex group of chemicals, collectively called cement clinker. Cement is distinct from the ancient cement. It is termed hydraulic cement for its ability to set and harden under water. Briefly, the chemicals present in clinker are nominally the four major potential compounds and several minor compounds. The four major potential compounds are normally termed as tricalcium silicate (3CaO.SiO2), dicalcium silicate (2CaO.SiO2), tricalcium aluminate (3CaO.Al2O3) and tetracalciumaluminoferrite (4CaO. Al2O3.Fe2O3) ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “MULANDI”, “given” : “MATI MARTIN”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “April”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2014” }, “title” : “UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI INVESTIGATION OF THE PERFORMANCE OF NATURAL FIBRES AS A MICRO REINFORCEMENT IN CONCRETE . A project submitted as a partial fulfilment for the requirement for the award of the degree of BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN CIVIL & CONSTRUCTION ENGI”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=e9fcc3c9-f0b7-4720-9c80-948a9c71ef88” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(MULANDI, 2014)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Mulandi, 2014)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(MULANDI, 2014)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(MULANDI, 2014)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Mulandi, 2014).

2.6.1 Chemical and Compound Composition of Portland Cement
The chemical compositions of Portland cement are slightly varying according to cement supply of manufacturers. However, it mostly contained limestone, alumina and silica as these few types of chemical compound are extremely vital for the formation of calcium silicate hydration during hydration process. A general idea on range of chemical composition of OPC is listed in Table 2.4 (Neville, 2010).

The four raw materials that used in Portland cement manufacturing mainly are lime, silica, alumina and iron oxide. The reactions were carried out in the rotary kiln and form complex chemical compound. The complex chemical compounds that formed in the rotary kiln were referred to the major constituents of cement and these compounds are listed in Table 2.2 (Neville, 2010).

Table 2.4: General Composition Limits of Portland Cement (Neville, 2010)
______________________________________________________________
Oxide Content, %
______________________________________________________________
CaO60 – 67
SiO217 – 25
Al2O3 3 – 8
Fe2O30.5 – 6.0
MgO0.5 – 4.0
Na2O 0.3 – 1.2
SO3 2.0 – 3.5
Table 2.5: Main Compounds of Portland Cement (Neville, 2011)
Name of Compound Oxide Composition Abbreviation Compound Composition (%)
Tricalcium Silicate 3CaO.SiO2 C3S 42 – 67
Dicalcium Silicate 2CaO.SiO2 C2S 8 – 31
Tricalcium Aluminate 3CaO.Al2O3 C3A 5 – 14
TetracalciumAluminoferrite 4CaO.Al2O3.Fe2O3 C4AF 6 – 12
2.7Properties of concrete
2.7.1Strength
Concrete has relatively high compressive strength, but significantly lower tensile strength. It is fair to assume that a concrete sample’s tensile strength is about 10%-15% of its compressive strength. As a result, without compensating, concrete would almost always fail from tensile stresses, even when loaded in compression. The practical implication of this is that concrete elements subjected to tensile stresses must be reinforced with materials that are strong in tension. Reinforced concrete is the most common form of concrete. The reinforcement is often steel, rebar (mesh, spiral, bars and other forms). Structural fibers of various materials are available. Concrete can also be prestressed (reducing tensile stress) using internal steel cables (tendons), allowing for beams or slabs with a longer span than is practical with reinforced concrete alone. Inspection of concrete structures can be non-destructive if carried out with equipment such as a Schmidt hammer, which is used to estimate concrete strength. The ultimate strength of concrete is influenced by the water-cementitious ratio (w/c), the design constituents, and the mixing, placement and curing methods employed. All things being equal, concrete with a lower water-cement (cementitious) ratio makes a stronger concrete than that with a higher ratio. The total quantity of cementitious materials (Portland cement, slag cement, Pozzolana) can affect strength, water demand, shrinkage, abrasion resistance and density. All concrete will crack independent of whether or not it has sufficient compressive strength. In fact, high Portland cement content mixtures can actually crack more readily due to increased hydration rate.
As concrete transforms from its plastic state, hydrating to a solid, the material undergoes shrinkage. Plastic shrinkage cracks can occur soon after placement but if the evaporation rate is high they often can actually occur during finishing operations, for example in hot weather or a breezy day. In very high-strength concrete mixtures the crushing strength of the aggregate can be a limiting factor to the ultimate compressive strength. In lean concretes (with a high water cement ratio) the crushing strength of the aggregates is not so significant. The internal forces in common shapes of structure, such as arches, vaults, columns and walls are predominantly compressive forces, with floors and pavements subjected to tensile forces. Compressive strength is widely used for specification requirement and quality control of concrete. The engineer knows his target tensile (flexural) requirements and will express these in terms of compressive strength.
2.7.2Elasticity
The modulus of elasticity of concrete is a function of the modulus of elasticity of the aggregates and the cement matrix and their relative proportions. The modulus of elasticity of concrete is relatively constant at low stress levels but starts decreasing at higher stress levels as matrix cracking develop ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “MULANDI”, “given” : “MATI MARTIN”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “April”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2014” }, “title” : “UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI INVESTIGATION OF THE PERFORMANCE OF NATURAL FIBRES AS A MICRO REINFORCEMENT IN CONCRETE . A project submitted as a partial fulfilment for the requirement for the award of the degree of BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN CIVIL & CONSTRUCTION ENGI”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=e9fcc3c9-f0b7-4720-9c80-948a9c71ef88” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(MULANDI, 2014)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Mulandi, 2014)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(MULANDI, 2014)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(MULANDI, 2014)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Mulandi, 2014).

2.7.3Expansion and shrinkage
Concrete has a very low coefficient of thermal expansion. However, if no provision is made for expansion, very large forces can be created, causing cracks in parts of the structure not capable of withstanding the force or the repeated cycles of expansion and contraction. As concrete matures it continues to shrink, due to the ongoing reaction taking place in the material, although the rate of shrinkage falls relatively quickly and keeps reducing over time (for all practical purposes concrete is usually considered to not shrink due to hydration any further after 30 years). The relative shrinkage and expansion of concrete and brickwork require careful accommodation when the two forms of construction interface. Because concrete is continuously shrinking for years after it is initially placed, it is generally accepted that under thermal loading it will never expand to its originally placed volumeADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “MULANDI”, “given” : “MATI MARTIN”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “April”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2014” }, “title” : “UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI INVESTIGATION OF THE PERFORMANCE OF NATURAL FIBRES AS A MICRO REINFORCEMENT IN CONCRETE . A project submitted as a partial fulfilment for the requirement for the award of the degree of BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN CIVIL & CONSTRUCTION ENGI”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=e9fcc3c9-f0b7-4720-9c80-948a9c71ef88” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(MULANDI, 2014)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Mulandi, 2014)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(MULANDI, 2014)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(MULANDI, 2014)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Mulandi, 2014).

2.7.4Cracking
All concrete structures will crack to some extent. Concrete cracks due to tensile stress induced by shrinkage or stresses occurring during setting or use. Various means are used to overcome this. Fiber reinforced concrete uses fine fibers distributed throughout the mix or larger metal or other reinforcement elements to limit the size and extent of cracks. In many large structures joints or concealed saw-cuts are placed in the concrete as it sets to make the inevitable cracks occur where they can be managed and out of sight. Water tanks and highways are examples of structures requiring crack control.

2.7.5Creep
Creep is the term used to describe the permanent movement or deformation of a material in order to relieve stresses within the material. Concrete which is subjected to long-duration forces is prone to creep. Short-duration forces (such as wind or earthquakes) do not cause creep. Creep can sometimes reduce the amount of cracking that occurs in a concrete structure or element, but it also must be controlled. The amount of primary and secondary reinforcing in concrete structures contributes to a reduction in the amount of shrinkage, creep and crackingADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “MULANDI”, “given” : “MATI MARTIN”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “April”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2014” }, “title” : “UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI INVESTIGATION OF THE PERFORMANCE OF NATURAL FIBRES AS A MICRO REINFORCEMENT IN CONCRETE . A project submitted as a partial fulfilment for the requirement for the award of the degree of BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN CIVIL & CONSTRUCTION ENGI”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=e9fcc3c9-f0b7-4720-9c80-948a9c71ef88” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(MULANDI, 2014)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Mulandi, 2014)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(MULANDI, 2014)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(MULANDI, 2014)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Mulandi, 2014).

2.8Workability of Coconut Shell Powder as Partial Replacement of OPC in Concrete
An investigation has proven that the addition of coconut fiber ash and fly ash by a certain percentage can yield positive results as a partial replacement of cement. Therefore, it can be incorporated for construction purposes. For M40 grade of concrete with replacements of coconut fiber ash, the water cement ratio of 0.40 was insufficient for the mixes to produce proper and good workability. Hence, the inclusion of super plasticizer was needful ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Wungko”, “given” : “Peresia Blapoh”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Bindumathi”, “given” : “K”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “5”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “240-245”, “title” : “Examining Concrete Properties using Coconut Fiber Ash and Fly Ash as Partial Replacement for Cement”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “46” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d4ce5900-00da-4754-af07-9d934ea2fe18” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Wungko & Bindumathi, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Wungko & Bindumathi, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Wungko & Bindumathi, 2017)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Wungko ; Bindumathi, 2017).

Coconut fibres are collected and the fibre are properly dried and burnt in the open air with a temperature range of 6000 c to 7000 c. when the fibres turned into ash. The ash was collected and made to pass through 150 micron sieve. This work presents the results of laboratory test carried out using coconut fibre ash (CFA) as a partial replacement for cement in concrete production. Concrete cubes are cast and tested at curing aging of 7, 28, 60, ; 90 days using 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, ; 25 percent replacement levels. The slump test results show that the workability of the concrete decreased as the CFA content increased. Table 2 shows the slump test result ; it can be observed that the slump value decrease with increasing the percentage of coconut fibre ash. This indicates that the concrete became less workable (stiff) as the CFA content increased ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Sen”, “given” : “Sanjay”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Chandak”, “given” : “Rajeev”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “4”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “33-35”, “title” : “Effect of coconut fibre ash on strength properties of concrete”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “5” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=b5f8e427-d47c-4e2b-afa1-b586e57f2b47” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Sen & Chandak, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Sen & Chandak, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Sen & Chandak, 2015)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Sen ; Chandak, 2015).

Table2.6: Slump test result of coconut fibre ash concrete.

% replacement Slump (mm)
0 110
5 103
10 96
15 90
20 86
25 82

2.9Compressive Strength of Coconut as Partial Replacement of OPC in Concrete
ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISBN” : “2348036738”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Utsev”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “T.”, “given” : “J.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Taku”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “K”, “given” : “J.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “8”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2012” }, “page” : “86-89”, “title” : “Coconut Shell Ash As Partial Replacement of Ordinary Portland Cement In Concrete Production”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “1” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=9f2b682b-92ce-46a8-a82d-a184436d26ae” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Utsev, T., Taku, & K, 2012)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Utsev, T., Taku, & K, 2012)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Utsev, T., Taku, & K, 2012)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Utsev, T., Taku, ; K, 2012) conduct a study to determine the suitability of coconut shell ash (CSA) for use in partial replacement of cement in concrete production. The objectives include ascertaining the optimum replacement level of Portland cement with CSA that will still give required compressive strength as well as compare the setting times of OPC paste with OPC- CSA pastes at various replacement levels. Concrete cubes were produced using various replacement levels of 0, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 percent of OPC with CSA. A total of 54 cubes were produced and cured by immersing them in water for 7, 14 and 28 days respectively. Properties such as compressive strength and density were determined.

The results showed that the densities of concrete cubes for 10 -15% replacement was above 2400Kg/m3 and the compressive strength increased from 12.45N/mm2 at 7days to 31.78N/mm2 at 28 days curing thus meeting the requirement for use in both heavy weight and light weight concreting. Thus, 10 -15% replacement of OPC with CSA is recommended for both heavy weight and light weight concrete production. The compressive strength decreases with increasing percentage replacement of OPC with CSA. This can be seen in fig 2.3. The 7 days strength decreases from 13.78N/mm2 for OPC to 6.43N/mm2 for 30% replacement with CSA. The strength after 28 days curing decreases from 34.22N/mm2 for OPC to 13.11N/mm2 30% replacement with CSA. The optimal 28 days strength for OPC-CSA mix is recorded at 10% replacement (31.78N/mm2).

Figure 2.3: Compressive strength at various percentage replacements 0-30%.

ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Wungko”, “given” : “Peresia Blapoh”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Bindumathi”, “given” : “K”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “5”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “240-245”, “title” : “Examining Concrete Properties using Coconut Fiber Ash and Fly Ash as Partial Replacement for Cement”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “46” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d4ce5900-00da-4754-af07-9d934ea2fe18” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Wungko & Bindumathi, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Wungko & Bindumathi, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Wungko & Bindumathi, 2017)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Wungko ; Bindumathi, 2017) investigate concrete properties using coconut fiber ash and fly ash as partial replacement for cement in regards to the compressive strength which is investigated for 3,7, 28,56 and 90 days. In this study, mix proportion of M40 grade of concrete was used for 8 mixes in accordance with IS 456: 2000 and IS 10262: 2009. These mixes were an inclusion of separate mixes of conventional concrete as well as different percentages of coconut fiber ash and fly ash as a partial replacement for cement of which the various results obtained for the partial mixes strength will be compared to the strength of the conventional concrete. The addition of coconut fiber ash ranges from 20% to 40 % and fly ash ranges from 10% to 25%.

It is observed that partially replacing cement with at most 20% of coconut fiber ash without the addition of fly ash yields a better compressive strength of 29 N/mm2 at 28 days and 38.21N/mm2 at 90 days. From the investigation, it can be noted that, by the addition of 20% coconut fiber ash and 10% fly ash as a partial replacement for cement yields a high compressive strength because at a curing date of 28 days, the compressive strength was found to be 22.09N/mm2 and 42.92N/mm2 at 90 days. The increase in coconut fiber ash and fly ash of more than 20% does not produce a good compressive strength as shown in figure 2.4, which also proves that using a higher amount of coconut fiber ash only or even blended with fly ash cannot be used for construction purposes.The maximum decrement of compressive strength in this investigation is 18.07N/mm2 at 28 days and 24.47N/mm2 at 90 days which is produced from the addition of 40% coconut fiber ash and 10% fly ash by weight of cement.

Figure 2.4: A 3D cluster chart showing compressive strength of cubes with coconut fiber ash and fly ash replacements.

CHAPTER 3
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.0Introduction
Concrete is a construction material consist of cement and water combined with sand, gravel or crushed stoned, or other kind of inert material such as slag or vermiculite. The cement and water form a paste which hardens causes by the chemical reaction into a strong, stone-alike mass. The inert materials were labelled as aggregates, and for economy no more cement paste were used necessary to coat the aggregates surfaces and fill the voids. With too many water, however, producing a concrete that is much porous and weaker. Proportioning of the ingredients of concrete is referred to as designing the mixture, and for the most structural work the concrete is design to have a compressive strengths of 15 to 35 MPa. Main objective of the present investigation was to study performance of Coconut Shell Powder concretes in terms of strength with normal water curing and with no chemical admixtures in the mixes. Performance of the concretes was assessed through compressive strength.

For this research, Coconut Shell Powder was subjected to determine whether they are in compliance with the standard used. The experimental program was designed to investigate coconut shell powder as cement addition in concrete. The addition level of the cement by coconut shell powder are selected as 5%, 10% and 15% and the water cement ratio of 0.45, 0.55 and 0.60 is chosen to use for standard size of cubes. The specimens of standard cubes (100 x 100 x 100mm), was casted with coconut shell powder. Compressive machine was used to test the specimen. The specimens were casted with different replacement levels of cement from 0 to 15% of coconut shell powder. Thirty six samples to be casted and the cubes were put in curing tank for 7, 14 and 28 days and density of the cube and compressive strength were determined and recorded down accordingly. The test methods used should be simple, direct and convenient to apply. Figure 3.1 shows a flow chart of the process involved in carrying out the experiment throughout this study.

Preparation of the Materials

Determination of the Mix Design

Trial Mixing

SlumpTest

Not Satisfied

Satisfied
Casting Mould Size of 100mm3

Curing (7th, 14th and 28th days)

Compressive Strength Test

Data Collection and Analysis

Figure 3.1: Process Involve in Mixing Coconut Shell Powder
3.2 Material Used
3.2.1Cement
Cement is a material, generally in powder foam that can be made into paste usually by addition of water and when it being poured it will turn into a solid mass. Numerous organic compounds used for adhering or fastening materials are called cements, but these are classified as adhesives and the term cement alone means a construction materials. The most widely used of the construction cement is Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). It is a bluish-gray powder obtained by finely grinding the clinker made by strongly heating an intimate mixture of calcareous and argillaceous minerals.

Figure 3.2: Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) been used for this experiment
3.2.2Fine Aggregate

Fine aggregate or sand is an accumulation of grains of mineral matter derived from the disintegration of rocks. It is distinguished from gravel only by the size of the grains or particles, but is distinct from clays which contain organic materials. Sands that have been sorted out and separated from the organic material by the action of currents of water or by winds across arid lands are generally quite uniform in size of grains. Fine aggregates generally consist of natural sand or crushed stone with most particles passing through a 4.75 mm sieve. As with coarse aggregates these can be from Primary, Secondary or Recycled sources.

3.2.3Coarse Aggregate

Coarse aggregates play important role in a concrete structure as it influence the strength significantly. According to the design, the stone used in this research is crushed stone sized less than 20mm as per shown in Appendix A. To be more specific and accurate, a quick and simple sieve test has been conducted to obtain the desirable size of aggregates. Given the fact that we used 100 mm3 mould, undeniably the space will be limited. To avoid segregation phenomenon and non-homogenous mix, the size of aggregates that has been adopted in this research is aggregates that passed 20 mm sieve and retained at 14, 10 and 6.3 mm sieve.

3.2.4Water

Water is when mixed with the dry composite (cement, sand, aggregate ; fly ash), produces a semi-liquid that can be shaped (typically by pouring it into a form). The concrete solidifies and hardens through a chemical process called hydration. The water reacts with the cement, which bonds the other components together, creating a robust stone-like material. Combining water with a cementitious material forms a cement paste by the process of hydration. The cement paste glues the aggregate together, fills voids within it, and makes it flow more freely.

A lower water-to-cement ratio yields a stronger, more durable concrete, whereas more water gives a free – flowing concrete with a higher slump. Impure water used to make concrete can cause problems when setting or in causing premature failure of the structure. Hydration involves many different reactions, often occurring at the same time. As the reactions proceed, the products of the cement hydration process gradually bond together the individual sand and gravel particles and other components of the concrete to form a solid mass.

3.2.5Coconut Shell Powder

Many researchers have made efforts for preparing carbon black from agricultural by-products such as coconut shell apricot stones, sugarcane bagasse, nutshells, forest residues and tobacco stems. Coconut shells have little or no economic value and their disposal is not only costly but may also cause environmental problems. Coconut shell is suitable for preparing carbon black due to its excellent natural structure and low ash content. Conversion of coconut shells into activated carbons which can be used as adsorbents in water purification or the treatment of industrial and municipal effluents would add value to these agricultural commodities, help reduce the cost of waste disposal, and provide a potentially cheap alternative to existing commercial carbons.

Coconut shell powder have high strength and modulus properties along with the added advantage of high lignin content. The high lignin content makes the composites made with these filler more weather resistant and hence more suitable for application as construction materials. Coconut shell powder is also extensively used to make products like furnishing materials, rope etc. The shells also absorb less moisture due to its low cellulose content the report focuses on studying the effectiveness of coconut shell particles as a source of natural material for reinforcing epoxy resins towards their flexural properties.

Figure 3.2: Coconut Shell Powder
3.3Preparing For Samples

All materials shall be brought to room temperature, preferably between 24 ? C to 29 ? C. The cement samples, on arrival at the laboratory, shall be thoroughly mixed dry either by hand or in suitable mixer to ensure the greatest possible blending and uniformly in the material. Can being taken to avoid the intrusion of foreign matter. The cement shall then be stored in a dry place, preferably in air-tight metal containers. Samples of aggregates for each batch of concrete shall be of the grading and shall be in an all dried condition. In general, the aggregates shall be separated into tint and course fractions and recombined for each concrete batch in such a manner as to produce the desired grading.

The proportion of the materials, including water in concrete mixes used for determining the suitability of the materials available, shall be similar in all respected to those to be imply in the work. Where the proportions of the ingredients of the concrete as used on the site are to be specified by volume, they shall be calculated from the proportion, by the weight used in the test cubes and the unit weight of the materials. The quantities of cement, each size of aggregates and water for each batch shall be determined by weight to an accuracy of 0.1 percent of the total weight of the batch. The mix proportion is calculated by using ST5 Mix Design. The coconut shell powder being mix with the concrete.

The concrete shall be mixed by hand, or preferably in laboratory batch mixer, in such manner as to avoid loss of water or other materials. Each batch of concrete shall be calculated extra 10 percent excess for wastage after moulding the desired number of test specimens below. Each of the percentage of the sample, it will be curing for, 7, 14 and 28 days. Table 3.1 shows the number of samples that be tested for each curing age and batch.

Table 3.1: Total number of samples for this type of materials is 36
Coconut Shell Powder Addition Curing Age
7 days 14 days 28 days
0% 3 3 3
5% 3 3 3
10% 3 3 3
15% 3 3 3

3.4Trial Mix

Trial mix can be defined as the process of selecting suitable ingredients of concrete and determining their relative proportions with the object of producing concrete of certain minimum strength and durability as economically as possible. One of the ultimate aims of studying the various properties of the materials of concrete, plastic concrete and hardened concrete is to enable a concrete technologist to design a concrete mix for a particular strength and durability. The design of concrete mix is not a simple task on account of the widely varying properties of the constituent materials, the conditions that prevail at the site of work, in particular the exposure condition, and the conditions that are demanded for a particular work for which the mix is designed.

Design of concrete mix requires complete knowledge of the various properties of these constituent materials, these make the task of mix design more complex and difficult. Design of concrete mix needs not only the knowledge of material properties and properties of concrete in plastic condition; it also needs wider knowledge and experience of concreting. Even then the proportion of the materials of concrete found out at the laboratory requires modification and re adjustments to suit the field conditions. With better understanding of the properties, the concrete is becoming more and more an exact material than in the past. The structural designer specifies certain minimum strength; and the concrete technologist designs the concrete mix with the knowledge of the materials, site exposure conditions and standard of supervision available at the site of work to achieve this minimum strength and durability. Purpose of this trial mix is to determine the optimum water/cement ratio with an addition of 5%, 10% and 15% of coconut shell powder. Three trial mix with 0.45, 0.55 and 0.60 will be conducted to obtain the optimum value of water/cement ratio.

3.5Determination of Mix Proportion
Mix design is the process to determine the appropriate amount of mix proportion that suitable being used for concrete with the addition of coconut shell powder, it is also the process of selecting suitable ingredients in order to successfully achieve the required strength, workability and durability. For this research, 105 cubes will be produced where 5 samples for each testing day and in total 15 cubes will be prepared for each batch. The proportion of the mix material for each batch is shown in the Table 3.2.

Table 3.3: Mixture ratios for 36 cube samples
Batch Cement (kg) Fine aggregate (kg) Coarse aggregate (kg) Water (kg) Coconut Shell Powder (kg)
Control 3.06
5.75 10.71 1.683 –
5% CPS Addition
3.06
5.75 10.71 1.683 0.153
10% CPS Addition
3.06 5.75 10.71 1.683 0.306
15% CPS Addition
3.06 5.75 10.71 1.683 0.459
The information shown in Table 3.1 is the result after the computation of the mixture which is referred from BS 5328: Part 2 (1997). In this case, the volume of 3 cube or for 1 batch of mix seems to be inadequate to conduct slump test. Therefore, the minimum required amount to conduct slump test is the volume of the slump cone itself. The amount of mix is based on the volume of the slump cone used in this research. This is so, so that there will be enough volume of the mix to conduct a slump test for each mix. Referring to Appendix A are the standard mixes of mix proportions that have been used to determine the mixes.

Adopt : ST5
Maximum aggregates size= 20mm
Slump = 125mm
Fine aggregates grade= 35 %
3.6Workability Test

The slump test is a means of assess the consistency of freshened concrete. It is used indirectly as a means of checking the suitable amount of water has been add to the mixture. The test is carried out in accordance with BS 5328-3: 1990. The steel slump cone is placed on a solid, impermeable, level base and filled with the fresh concrete in three equal layers. Each layer is rodded 25 times to ensure compaction. The third layer is finished off level with the top of the cone. The cone is carefully lifted up, leaving a heap of concrete that settles or ‘slumps’ slightly. The upturned slump cone is placed on the base to act as a reference, and the difference in level between its top and the top of the concrete is measured and recorded to the nearest 5 mm to give the slump of the concrete.

When the cone is removed, the slump may take one of three forms. In a true slump the concrete simply subsides, keeping more or less to shape. In a shear slump the top portion of the concrete shears off and slips sideways. In a collapse slump the concrete collapses completely. Only a true slump is of any use in the test. If a shear or collapse slump is achieved, a fresh sample should be taken and the test repeated. A collapse slump will generally mean that the mix is too wet or that it is a high workability mix, for which the flow test (see separate entry) is more appropriate. 
Table 3.2: Water-cement Ratio Mix Proportions
Batch Water-cement Ratio Water (kg) Slump (mm) Type of Slump
5% CPS Addition
0.45 1.377 18 True Slump
5% CPS Addition
0.55 1.683 38 True Slump
5% CPS Addition
0.60 1.840 85 Shear Slump
From the Table 3.2 above, slump test have been conducted. As it been shown above water-cement ratio of 0.55 have been chosen because it is the most suitable workability for concrete with the addition of coconut shell powder. From the table above for water-cement ratio of 0.45, the workability is too low and not suitable even it is true slump. Meanwhile, for water-cement ratio of 0.60, the workability has resulted shear slump which means it failed the test.

3.7Casting and Curing
3.7.1Mixing Procedure
There are three mixes were employed. First, control mix which is concrete without coconut shell was made by using a basic material such as Ordinary Portland cement, fine and coarse aggregates and water. Normal concrete sample made are as comparative experiments between coconut shells concrete. Then, mix of concrete added with 10, 15 and 20 percentages of coconut shell was made. Every percent of coconut shell used, curing period and also coconut shell size used requires at least three cubes to get the average value for compressive strength test. Since all material has been prepared, the concrete work can be carried out by using mixer. Then, after several minute and the concrete were mixed well, the mixture will pour into a mould with prescribed size.

Each batch was mixed in the lab with capacity of the concrete are depending on the number of specimens to be prepared for each series of test. The following steps were followed during the mixing process. Firstly, cement, coconut shell powder, course aggregates, fine aggregates were mixed properly on the plywood. Then the water was added to the mix and being mix properly. After completion of the batch, the mix was poured into the cube moulds and compacted.

3.7.2Demoulding Procedure

Test cubes should be demoulded between 16 and 24 hours after they have been made. If after this period of time the concrete has not achieved sufficient strength to enable demoulding without damaging the cube then the demoulding should be delayed for a further 24 hours. When removing the concrete cube from the mould, take the mould apart completely. Take care not to damage the cube because, if any cracking is caused, the compressive strength may be reduced.

After demoulding, each cube should be marked with a legible identification on the top or bottom using a waterproof crayon or ink. The mould must be thoroughly cleaned after demoulding the cube. Ensure that grease or dirt does not collect between the faces of the flanges, otherwise the two halves will not fit together properly and there will be leakage through the joint and an irregularly shaped cube may result.

3.7.3Curing Procedure

Adding water to portland cement starts a chemical reaction called hydration. As hydration proceeds over time, the portland cement and water are transformed into beneficial calcium silicate hydrate compounds. These compounds are the glue that hold the aggregates together, creating the hard, solid material we know as concrete. There are other compounds that form during the hydration process, but they are not responsible for strength.Curing is the process of maintaining moisture levels inside cast concrete so that hydration can continue. As long as free moisture and unhydrated cement exist inside the concrete, the strength, hardness and density will gradually increase. Practically speaking, curing is simply the process of keeping the hardened concrete moist so that it can continue to gain strength.

As the concrete gets stronger and denser, its porosity decreases. This is important, because early on the concrete is much more porous than when it’s older and has hydrated longer. Porous concrete loses moisture to evaporation quickly, and this can lower internal moisture levels and stop hydration. If the concrete dries out, it stops gaining strength. This is why it is so important to cover your concrete right after casting and keep it moist. When concrete is mixed, all the water needed for full hydration is present in the mix design. Often contractors add more to the concrete than needed for hydration, to make the concrete more workable. This extra water is called water of convenience. This extra water causes the cement particles to be too far apart to knit together into a strong matrix. It results in a longer set time and lower strength.

Cubes must be cured before they are tested. Unless required for test at 24 hours, the cube should be placed immediately after demoulding in the curing tank or mist room. The curing temperature of the water in the curing tank should be maintained at 27-30°C. If curing is in a mist room, the relative humidity should be maintained at no less than 95%. Curing should be continued as long as possible up to the time of testing. In order to provide adequate circulation of water, adequate space should be provided between the cubes, and between the cubes and the side of the curing tank. If curing is in a mist room, there should be sufficient space between cubes to ensure that all surfaces of the cubes are moist at all times.

Figure 3.5: Moist Curing Time and Compressive Strength Gain
3.8Compressive Test

The compressive strength applying most important role in durability of structure. The design parameters depend upon various influencing factors such as specimen size and shape, application of loading, matrix porosity and transition zone porosity. Generally the BS 1881: Part 120:1983 specifies that, the strength of cylinder is equal to 0.8 times of the strength of cubes but, in reality; there is no unique relationship among the cube and cylinder made with different proportion. The interrelation varies also with age factors; the compressive strength of core concrete is affected by many parameters. These parameters are; the magnitude of core compressive strength itself, core diameter, core diameter over height ratio, coring orientation, core moisture condition at the time of testing and presence of reinforcement within the concrete core.

The compressive strength of concrete is determined in batching plant laboratories for every batch in order to maintain the desired quality of concrete during casting. The strength of concrete is required to calculate the strength of the members. Concrete specimens are a cast and tested under the action of compressive loads to determine the strength of concrete.

In very simple words, compressive strength is calculated by dividing the failure load with the area of application of load, usually after 28 days of curing. The strength of concrete is controlled by the proportioning of cement, coarse and fine aggregates, water, and various admixtures. The ratio of the water to cement is the chief factor for determining concrete strength. The lower the water-cement ratio, the higher is the compressive strength.

Figure 3.6: Placement of the concrete cube for compression test
CHAPTER 4
RESULT AND DISCUSSIONS
4.1Introduction

In this study, all the result obtained from the experiment were analyzed in this chapter. The result obtained include the slump test and cube compressive strength test.

In this analysis, the concrete cube that containing the coconut powder shell as the addition of cement were compared with the conventional concrete cube. In order to make the data and result more clearly, all the data obtained were tabulated and presented in tables and graphs. The data from the slump test of the fresh concrete and compressive test on the conventional concrete and concrete containing coconut shell powder were compared in certain age of the concrete.4.2Workability

The slump test is used to find the consistency of the fresh concrete. It measures the consistency or the wetness of concrete. In this study, slump tests were conducted on the fresh concrete to determine the workability of concrete. The slump of the concrete were determined by measured the displacement of the top surface concrete from the original surface form of the concrete. As the percentage addition of the coconut powder shell increases, the workability of the concrete decrease. The results were tabulated in Table 4.1 and shown in Figure 4.2.

Table 4.1: Slump test result of coconut shell powder concrete.

% addition Slump (mm)
0 54
5 38
10 25
15 12

Figure 4.1: Workability of Fresh Concrete
From Table 4.1, the data shows the result of a slump measurement that has been taken place for different addition of Coconut Shell Powder in the concrete mix. At 0% of addition that are control mix, the slump is 54 mm. On the other hand, with an addition of Coconut Shell Powder shows decreasing amount of slump compared to the mix that containing 0% of Coconut Shell Powder addition. On which it means, the control mix produced better workability compared to the mix that being added with Coconut Shell Powder. Since the slump does not exceed the allowable slump, and the shape of the slump does not collapse and fail, thus the mix achieved the true slump.

However, among the mix with the addition of Coconut Shell Powder, the graph showed in figure 4.1 that 5% of addition marked higher amount of slump compared with other mix that containing the Coconut Shell Powder, which shows that it possess a slightly decreased amount of workability. This is probably due to its chemical properties take will take reaction when it reaches a certain volume in the mix. Other than that, from the graph in figure 4.1 above showed that 15% addition of Coconut Shell Powder recorded the lower amount of slump value compared with other concrete mix that containing the addition of Coconut Shell Powder due to the reaction of water and the Coconut Shell Powder effected the workability of the concrete mix.

4.3 Density of Concrete Cube
From the experiment, the result of density of concrete cube that containing coconut shell powder have a lower density compared to the normal weight concrete due to the addition of coconut shell power. The densities of all the concrete cubes with w/c of 0.55 were tabulated in Table 4.2. The density of concrete cube that containing of coconut shell powder with the percentage of 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% for the ages of 7 days, 14 days and 28 days, respectively are shown in Table 4.2 and from the data, graph were being plotted in figure 4..

Table 4.2: Density of Samples
Sample Ages (days) No’s Weight (kg) Density (kg/m3) Average density (kg/m3)
0% addition of CSP 7 1
2
3 2.385
2.275
2.360 2385
2275
2360 2340
14 4
5
6 2.380
2.455
2.385 2380
2455
2385 2406.67
28 7
8
9 2.390
2.415
2.425 2390
2415
2425 2410
5% addition of CSP 7 1
2
3 2.320
2.165
2.360 2320
2165
2360 2281.67
14 4
5
6 2.350
2.345
2.410 2350
2345
2410 2368.33
28 7
8
9 2.395
2.410
2.365 2395
2410
2365 2390
Table 4.2: (Continues)
Sample Ages (days) No’s Weight (kg) Density (kg/m3) Average density (kg/m3)
10% addition of CSP 7 1
2
3 2.275
2.155
2.220 2275
2155
2220 2216.67
14 4
5
6 2.230
2.225
2.125 2230
2225
2125 2193.33
28 7
8
9 2.255
2.175
2.170 2255
2175
2170 2200
15% addition of CSP 7 1
2
3 2.075
2.065
2.095 2075
2065
2095 2078.33
14 4
5
6 2.165
2.210
2.155 2165
2210
2155 2176.67
28 7
8
9 2.035
2.125
2.090 2035
2125
2090 2083.33

Figure 4.2: Development of Cube Density
From Table 4.2 and graph from figure 4.2, the data shows the result of a cube density that has been taken place for different addition of Coconut Shell Powder in the concrete mix. As we can see from the table and the figure above showed that the density of the concrete decreased with increased in percentage of Coconut Shell Powder. From the result above, it can be seen that the average density decrease with percentage addition from 2340 Kg/m3 for the control concrete cube to 2281.67 Kg/m3 at 5% addition, 2078.33 Kg/m3 at 10% addition and 2078.33 Kg/m3 at 15% addition for the concrete cube at the ages of 7th days.
For the concrete cube at the ages of 14th days the same pattern of result recorded, the average density decrease with percentage addition from 2406.67 Kg/m3 for the control concrete cube to 2368.33 Kg/m3 at 5% addition, 2193.33 Kg/m3 at 10% addition and 2176.67 Kg/m3 at 15% addition. Also, for the concrete cube at the ages of 28th days the result recorded that the average density decrease with percentage addition from 2410 Kg/m3 for the control concrete cube to 2390 Kg/m3 at 5% addition, 2200 Kg/m3 at 10% addition and 2083.33 Kg/m3 at 15% addition. Form the data above, it showed that the highest value for the density concrete cube that containing Coconut Shell Powder were at 5% of addition compared with other addition of Coconut Shell Powder.
4.4Compressive Test

To ensure the mix design meets the requirement in terms of the compressive strength and the workability, trial mixes were conducted. The trial mix of concrete with grade 25 and water cement ratio of 0.55 were carried out. The result showed that the trial mix meets the design requirement in terms of the compressive strength and the workability.

The data recorded was obtained from a compressive strength test machine. In total there are 36 cube samples that has been tested, all 36 cube were tested at Mudahjaya Sdn Bhd. The results shown in table 4.3 and figure 4.2 are the results that have been calculated and simplified
Table 4.3: Compressive strength test result
Sample Ages (days) No’s Compressive Strength (MPa) Average Compressive Strength (MPa)
0% addition of CSP 7 1
2
3 21.60
18.00
19.00 19.53
14 4
5
6 18.50
23.25
22.15 21.30
28 7
8
9 24.80
26.60
27.85 26.42
5% addition of CSP 7 1
2
3 18.00
15.00
14.00 15.67
14 4
5
6 19.00
18.00
20.50 19.17
28 7
8
9 22.20
24.10
21.00 22.43
Table 4.3: (Continues)
Sample Ages (days) No’s Compressive Strength (MPa) Average Compressive Strength (MPa)
10% addition of CSP 7 1
2
3 16.00
11.50
14.00 13.83
14 4
5
6 16.00
20.10
15.00 17.03
28 7
8
9 21.20
18.20
16.80 18.73
15% addition of CSP 7 1
2
3 5.50
4.60
5.75 5.28
14 4
5
6 9.00
11.55
8.30 9.62
28 7
8
9 9.60
12.40
10.60 10.87

Figure 4.3: Development of Compressive Strength
The results of the cube test for the trial mix and design were summarised in Table 4.3. In order to make the comparisons more clearly and the trend development of the compressive strength of concrete, graph in Figure 4.3 was plotted. The strength development of the concrete containing Coconut Shell Powder was difference between the control cubes. The data include the ages of the concrete based from the percentages of Coconut Shell Powder added in concrete as well as compressive strength.
Figure 4.3 indicates the differences of strength between all batches compared to the control batch. For all concrete mix that containing the addition of Coconut Shell Powder, the highest strength recorded is at the 28th day that is for 5% of addition. This tells us that, Coconut Shell Powder has the capabilities to effecting the strength of the concrete. The compressive strength of concrete cube increasing when the density of concrete cube increases. With that, the strength of concrete cube lower and decrease when the percentage of coconut shell added increasing. This occurs when the percentage of coconut shell powder added is higher. This is because the density of cement is quite higher than coconut shell.
The compressive strength of control concrete cube cured for ages of 7 days was 19.53 MPa while the compressive strength for 5% addition of Coconut Shell Powder concrete was 15.67 MPa which was 19.8% lower than the strength of normal concrete. The compressive strength for 10% addition of Coconut Shell Powder concrete and 15% addition of Coconut Shell Powder concrete was 13.83 MPa and 5.28 MPa or 29.19% and 72.9% lower than normal concrete respectively. From the tabulated result, concrete containing 15% addition of Coconut Shell Powder recorded with lowest compressive which are 5.28 MPa or 72.9% lower than normal concrete.

On the other hand, the compressive strength of concrete cube cured for ages of 14 days showed compressive strength of 21.30 MPa for the control concrete cube. While the compressive strength for 5% addition of Coconut Shell Powder concrete was 19.17 MPa which was 10% lower than the strength of normal concrete. The compressive strength for 10% addition of Coconut Shell Powder concrete and 15% addition of Coconut Shell Powder concrete was 17.03 MPa and 9.62 MPa or 20.1% and 54.8% lower than normal concrete respectively. From the tabulated result, concrete containing 15% addition of Coconut Shell Powder recorded with lowest compressive which are 9.62 MPa or 54.8% lower than normal concrete.

Refer back to Table 4.3 and Figure 4.3, the compressive strength results for a curing period of 28 days differ. The compressive strength for control concrete cube was 26.42 MPa while the average strength for concrete containing 5% addition of Coconut Shell Powder was 22.43 MPa or 15.1% lower than the strength of normal concrete. The compressive strength of 10% addition of Coconut Shell Powder concrete was 18.73 Mpa or 29.1% lower than the strength of normal concrete. The results for 15% addition of Coconut Shell Powder concrete were lower than 5% addition of Coconut Shell Powder and 10% addition of Coconut Shell Powder concrete which were 10.87 MPa or 58.9% respectively.
4.5 Relationship between Compressive Strength, Density and Addition of CSP

Figure 4.4: Relationship between Compressive Strength, Density and Addition of Coconut Shell Powder
As we can see from the results in figure 4.4 above, it showed the relationship between compressive strength, density and concrete added with different percentages of Coconut Shell Powder. Concrete containing addition of coconut shell powder had the lowers density compared with the control concrete cube. This proves that coconut shell powder plays its roles in concrete hence effecting the strength as well as the density of the concrete. Meanwhile, as the percentage of Coconut Shell Powder increasing, the compressive strength and density of Coconut Shell Powder concrete will decrease. Hence, adding more of coconut shell powder to a concrete mixture is not suitable as it can causes concrete to lose its strength as well as the density of the concrete mixture.

CHAPTER 5
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.0 Conclusions
In this research, Coconut Shell Powder have been used and put into a test to study their properties and compatibility with concrete. As mentioned in Chapter 3, the work involved in this study and the mixing process is broken down into two, first is the preparation of material and second is the mixing process. The preparation of materials involved in designing the proper mix ratio. The addition of Coconut Shell Powder had added slightly extra volume in the mixture based from the cement volume, but the overall volume of material in a mix is remaining constant.
After these series of laboratory tests, concrete with the addition of Coconut Shell Powder will have lower density and compressive strength compared with the conventional concrete. Based from the collected results, analysis and comparisons in terms of the workability, compressive strength and density of the concrete cube, the conclusions that can be concluded are as follows:
The addition of Coconut Shell Powder in concrete reduces the workability of concrete because coconut shell has a higher level of water absorption.

The density of concrete containing the addition of Coconut Shell Powder decreases when an increasing percentage of Coconut Shell Powder is added into concrete mixture.

The compressive strength of concrete containing the addition of Coconut Shell Powder also decreases with the increasing percentage of Coconut Shell Powder is added into concrete mixture.

In this study, the mix ratio used in this study is 1: 1.88: 3.5 and with that this mix were M25 grade concrete, the result from the control mix proved that the design mix reached the targeted strength. However, by incoporating Coconut Shell Powder into the mix, the 28th day strength reached 22.43 MPa which resemble the strength of a M20 Grade Concrete. This shows a significant effect on the strength when concrete is corporate with Coconut Shell Powder.

5.1 Recommendation
Based on the result obtained, it shows that Coconut Shell Powder has the abilities to effecting the compressive strength of a concrete mixture. However, there are still plenty of room and aspect that can be improved to make it better. Some aspects that require more attention and recommended to do further study are:
Conduct a new research to study the regeneration properties of Coconut Shell Powder. One of the tests that can be carried out to measure regeneration properties is by conducting the Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity. This test will help to identify the presence and amount of voids in a test sample, thus difference between controls samples with the Coconut Shell Powder sample can be analyse.

Adding the mixture with a Superplasticizer admixture. Based on research paper conducted, Superplasticizer will improves the performance of the hardening fresh mixture without affecting the workability of the mixture.
To study the creep and shrinkage of the uncrushed palm oil shell concrete.

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