Bruner felt that it was vital for a child to obtain the fundamental principles of a subject. His theoretical framework is that learning is an active process and pupils construct new ideas and concepts based upon existing knowledge; like Piaget, he used three phases to develop his theory on modes of representation (how a pupil may think of an object). Each mode is dominant at different stages of development but all are present and accessible at all times. The first stage (0-3)he termed was “enactive”, when a child learns about the world through actions or physical objects along with the outcomes. The second stage was named “iconic”, where learning can be obtained through using models and pictures and “symbolic” in which the learner develops the capacity to think in abstract terms. Based on this three-stage notion, Bruner recommended using a combination of concrete, pictorial and then symbolic activities which will lead into more effective learning.