According to the Center for Disease Control (2016), more than 3 million American women between the ages of 15 and 44 are at risk of exposing their developing child to alcohol because they drink, have sex and do not use contraception to prevent pregnancy. However, because of this reasoning, approximately half of all pregnancies in the US are not planned and, even if they are planned, most women do not know they are pregnant until 4-6 weeks after pregnancy (CDC, 2016). This means that a woman could drink and expose her developing baby to alcohol without knowing it (CDC, 2016. It is recommended that pregnant or pregnant women do not drink anything because FASD does not occur if a developing child is not exposed to alcohol before birth CDC, 2016). Drinking during pregnancy can also increase the risk of miscarriage, stillbirth, prematurity, and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) (Department of Women Health, n.d.). It is estimated that up to 1 in 20 children in the US can have FASD (CDC, 2016).

What types of abnormalities can be caused by alcohol, and how does genetics influence this?
Fetal spectrum disorder (FASD) is a group of conditions that can occur to a person whose mother drinks alcohol during pregnancy. FASDs are completely preventable: if a woman do not drink alcohol during pregnancy, her child has no risk of FASD

People with FASD may experience a combination of the following problems: physical problems such as low birth weight and growth, heart problems, kidneys and other organs damage the brain pieces Which leads to behavioral disabilities and intellectual disabilities and low IQ and hyperactivity. This can lead to lifelong school problems and social skills, to living independently, to mental health and to substance use. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) are a group of conditions that can occur in a person whose mother drank alcohol during pregnancy. FASDs are completely preventable: if a woman does not drink alcohol during pregnancy, her child has zero risk of an FASD.
Much progress has been made in recent years in the field of gene identification, they write, but “the genetic determinants of alcoholism have not yet been discovered