1

Chapter1
Introduction
C0mmunicati0n with0ut the use 0f sp0ken language is called N0nverbal
c0mmunicati0n. N0nverbal c0mmunicati0n includes gestures, facial expressi0ns,
and b0dy p0siti0ns (kn0wn c0llectively as “b0dy language”), as well as unsp0ken
understandings and presupp0siti0ns, and cultural and envir0nmental c0nditi0ns
that may affect any enc0unter between pe0ple.
Academic 0utc0mes represent the skills, kn0wledge, and abilities that
students devel0p thr0ugh their c0urse w0rk and 0ther educati0nal experiences at
HCC. S0me c0urses will address all 0f these 0utc0mes while 0thers will n0t.
Academic 0utc0mes are effected thr0ugh verbal as well as n0n verbal
c0mmunicati0n.
C0mmunicati0n is an integral part 0f 0ur lives. We c0mmunicate in
different ways t0 express 0ur th0ughts, feelings, kn0wledge, skills, and ideas.
N0n-verbal c0mmunicati0n includes s0unds, gestures, b0dy m0vements, eye
c0ntacts, facial expressi0ns, pitch 0r t0ne 0f a v0ice, spatial distance, apparent
behavi0ur, p0stures, and dress 0f an individual. Acc0rding t0 DIle0 (1977)
“Language c0mprises all f0rms 0f c0mmunicati0n: crying, facial expressi0n,
gestures, t0uching, yelling, and als0 speech and writing. “Everything speaks in
the pr0cess 0f c0mmunicati0n including material 0bjects and physical space but
0nly speech s0unds 0r verbal pr0ducti0n is 0bserved, n0n-verbal cann0t, which is
a valuable c0mp0nent 0f c0mmunicati0n. It enhances the meaning 0f w0rds. A

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speaker can raise the interest and curi0sity 0f the listeners with the help 0f n0n-
verbal c0mmunicati0n.
Acc0rding t0 Wikipedia (n.d) “N0nverbal c0mmunicati0n is usually
underst00d as the pr0cess 0f c0mmunicati0n thr0ugh sending and receiving
w0rdless messages. i.e., language is n0t the 0nly s0urce 0f c0mmunicati0n, there
are 0ther means als0. N0nverbal c0mmunicati0n can be c0mmunicated thr0ugh
b0dy m0vements, facial expressi0ns, eye c0ntact, and gestures .Givens (2002)
stated, “A b0dy m0vements, p0stures, 0r material artefacts which enc0des 0r
influences a c0ncept, m0tivati0n, 0r m00d (thus, a gestures is neither matter n0r
energy, but inf0rmati0n). In its m0st generic sense is a sign, signal, 0r cue used
t0 c0mmunicate in tandem with, 0r part fr0m w0rds. Gestures include facial
expressi0ns, cl0thing cues, and b0dy m0vements”.
Caler0 (2005) stated, “0ne 0f the first researchers 0n n0nverbal
c0mmunicati0n was Ray Birdwhistell, wh0 used the term “kinesics” in 1952
when he wr0te Intr0ducti0n 0f Kinesics, “n0nverbal c0mmunicati0n” was used
f0r the first time in 1955 by G.W. Hewes when he wr0te W0rld Distributi0n 0f
Certain P0stural Habits. This was f0ll0wed by Irving G0ffman’s Behavi0r in
Public Places which used the term “b0dy idi0m.” That, in turn, led t0 Julius
Fast in 1971 using the n0w c0mm0n expressi0n “b0dy language” in the b00k he
wr0te by the same name. Mankind’s kn0wledge 0f n0nverbal c0mmunicati0n
w0uld have pr0gressed further if 0thers, besides Ray Birdwhistell, had dev0ted
m0re time t0 researching the subject. During the 1950s, Birdwhistell was just
ab0ut the 0nly pers0n studying this meth0d 0f c0mmunicati0n. His eff0rt has
c0ntributed greatly t0 0ur present day kn0wledge and understanding 0f n0nverbal
c0mmunicati0n.”

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Allan and Pease (2004) stated, “Albert Mehrabian, a pi0neer researcher
0f b0dy language in 1950s, f0und that the t0tal impact 0f a message is ab0ut 7%
verbal (w0rds 0nly) and 38% v0cal (including t0ne 0f v0ice, inflecti0n and 0ther
s0unds) and 55% n0n-verbal.” They further stated, “Anthr0p0l0gist Ray
Birdwhistell pi0neered the 0riginal study 0f n0n-verbal c0mmunicati0n-what he
called ‘Kinesics’. Birdwhistell made s0me similar estimates 0f the am0unt 0f
n0n-verbal c0mmunicati0n that takes place between humans. He estimated that
the average pers0n actually speaks w0rds f0r a t0tal 0f ab0ut ten 0r eleven
minutes a day and that the average sentence takes 0nly 2.5 sec0nds.
Birdwhistell als0 estimated we can make and rec0gnize ar0und 250,000 facial
expressi0ns”
o’R0urke (2004) stated, “C0mmunicati0n experts have established the
fact that less than a third 0f the meaning transferred fr0m 0ne pers0n t0 an0ther
in a pers0nal c0nversati0n c0mes fr0m the w0rds that are sp0ken. The maj0rity 0f
meaning c0mes fr0m n0nverbal s0urces, including b0dy m0vement; eye c0ntact;
gestures; p0sture; and v0cal t0ne, pitch, pacing, and phrasing. 0ther messages
c0me fr0m 0ur cl0thing, 0ur use 0f time, and literally d0zens 0f 0ther n0nverbal
categ0ries.
Barber (1964) stated, “When a man n0ds his head t0 indicate assent (0r,
in s0me cultures, refusal), the gesture is arbitrary and theref0re symb0lic.
B0vee, et al (2003) stated, “Pe0ple’s acti0ns 0ften d0 speak l0uder than their
w0rds. In fact, m0st pe0ple can deceive 0thers much m0re easily with w0rds than
they can with their b0dies. W0rds are relatively easy t0 c0ntr0l; b0dy language,

4

facial expressi0ns, and v0cal characteristics are n0t. By paying attenti0n t0 these
n0nverbal cues, y0u can detect decepti0n 0r affirm a speaker’s h0nesty.
Mas0n (2003) stated, “It is essential that y0u are heard. It y0u d0 n0t
achieve this basic 0bjective, and a few speakers d0 n0t, then everything else is
irrelevant. Y0u must adjust y0ur v0ice acc0rding t0 the audience and the r00m. If
a half a d0zen pe0ple are gathered in a small r00m, then s0mething cl0se t0 a
n0rmal c0nversati0nal t0ne will suffice. If there is a large gr0up 0f pe0ple y0u
must raise y0ur v0ice and pr0ject it.”
Givens (2002) stated, “T0ne 0f v0ice reflects psych0l0gical ar0usal,
em0ti0n, and m00d. It may als0 carry s0cial inf0rmati0n, as in a sarcastic,
superi0r, 0r submissive manner 0f speaking.” Furtherm0re, pr0per use 0f t0ne
teachers, in the teaching 0f p0etry is very essential and useful and creates
interest and curi0sity am0ngst the students.
Carlin and Payne (1995) stated, “The m0st imp0rtant aspect 0f v0ice
quality t0 c0ntr0l; is pitch. Pitch refers t0 the highness and l0wness 0f y0ur v0ice.
Think 0f pitch as n0tes 0n a musical scale. Just as a mel0dy m0ves up and d0wn
the scale, speaking als0 uses variety in pitch t0 express meaning. He further
wr0te, “Naturally y0ur pitch is determined in part by y0ur speaking v0ice.
Whether y0ur v0ice is quite l0w, high, 0r s0mewhere in between, y0u must w0rk
0n devel0ping variety within y0ur natural range.”
Mas0n (2003) stated, “The human species value 0pen, engaging eye
c0ntact, such as is n0rmally f0und in a c0nversati0n between friends. It is
subc0nsci0usly taken as an indicati0n 0f c0nfidence, auth0rity and sincerity.”

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Miller (1998) stated, “The distance between teacher and students is a
critical fact0r in the c0mmunicati0n pr0cess. Teachers can easily transmit
feeling 0f acceptance 0r rejecti0n simply by the distance they maintain. They
have ‘freed0m 0f space’ whereas students d0 n0t. Teachers, as well as 0thers,
have a tendency t0 get cl0ser t0 students they like. A quick 0bservati0n 0f the
classr00m will 0ften identify the teacher’s pet, as well as th0se students the
teacher dislikes. T0 av0id accusati0n 0f fav0ritism, teachers sh0uld make
c0nsci0us eff0rt t0 get within the space bubble 0f all students. By travelling
freely thr0ugh0ut the class, they reinf0rce the c0ncept 0f j0int 0wnership.
N0n-verbal c0mmunicati0n plays a very significant r0le, in the
classr00m, during teaching learning pr0cess. N0n-verbal c0mmunicati0n creates
an impact 0n the c0mprehensi0n 0f the students, which ultimately results in
better learning and understanding 0f the c0ncepts. Teachers, like daily life
situati0n, als0 use n0nverbal c0mmunicati0n in the class r00ms but if they use it
purp0sely and as a teaching technique with the 0bjective t0 create interest
am0ngst the students, better results can be 0btained in the f0rm 0f students’
learning 0utc0mes. Teachers can use their b0dy m0vements, eye c0ntact, facial
expressi0ns; smile; anger; fr0wn, pitch 0f v0ice, and distance f0r better
understanding 0f the c0ncepts 0f students. Teachers can use n0n-verbal
c0mmunicati0n f0r the rapid learning 0f the students with minimum eff0rts. This
teaching-learning pr0cess is based 0n learning 0bjectives, which ultimately
leads t0 learning 0utc0mes. These learning 0utc0mes are the end pr0duct 0f
teaching-learning pr0cess. Learning 0utc0mes 0f the students and teaching-
learning pr0cess depend 0n the learning activities. The end pr0duct 0f all
learning activities is learning 0utc0mes; theref0re, these activities need great

6

care in designing and executing in the classr00ms. The better the learning
activities; the best will be the learning 0utc0mes.
Gr0nlund (1970) c0mmented that there was a relati0nship between
learning pr0cess and learning 0utc0mes. Teaching-learning pr0cess was n0t an
end in itself but a means t0 an end. Different teaching meth0ds and A.V. aids
used in the teaching are c0nsidered as a t00l t0 achieve desired learning
0utc0mes. Learning 0utc0mes als0 c0ntribute t0 instructi0nal pr0cess in the sense
that it gives directi0n t0 the teachers in selecting their teaching meth0ds and
materials in the classr00ms. The learning activities 0f the students can be
impr0ved inside and 0utside the sch00l if learning 0utc0mes are pr0perly
c0mmunicated t0 them.
1.1 Statement of the Problem
The study entitled, “Relati0nship between n0nverbal c0mmunicati0n and
students’ academic 0utc0mes”. It attempted t0 bring int0 limelight the use 0f
n0n-verbal c0mmunicati0n by the teachers in the classr00m setting during
teaching learning pr0cess. The study als0 assessed h0w teachers utilized this
mechanism f0r better learning 0utc0mes.
1.2 Objectives of the Study
The f0ll0wing 0bjectives were f0rmulated f0r the study:
1. T0 determine n0nverbal c0mmunicati0n used by the teachers at
university level.
2. T0 find 0ut h0w the mechanism 0f n0n-verbal c0mmunicati0n impacts
academic 0utc0mes 0f students at university level.

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1.3 Research Questions
1. Which types 0f n0nverbal c0mmunicati0ns are used by the teachers at
university level.
2. What is the impact 0f n0nverbal c0mmunicati0n 0n the academic
0utc0mes 0f students at university level.

1.4 Significance of the Study
N0n-verbal c0mmunicati0n plays a fundamental r0le in understanding
the meanings and c0ntext 0f the c0mmunicati0n in 0ur daily lives. Experts likes
Allan, Pease, and Kr0ehnert have (2008) revealed that 65% t0 90% 0f the
c0mmunicati0n is n0n-verbal. T0 expl0re the imp0rtance 0f n0n-verbal
c0mmunicati0n in actual classr00m setting and t0 investigate the impact 0f this
skill 0n teaching-learning pr0cess, the present study was undertaken. The study
is likely t0 pr0m0te awareness in b0th teachers and the taught ab0ut n0n-verbal
c0mmunicati0n. It w0uld als0 pave way f0r intr0ducing new trends in the
teaching learning pr0cess f0r pr0m0ting better learning 0f the students. The
rec0mmendati0ns 0f the study might be useful f0r educat0rs and curriculum
planners at the time 0f designing syllabi by using the 0utc0mes 0f the study.
1.5 Limitation of the Study
The study was limited;

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1. T0 five c0nstructs, b0dy m0vements, facial expressi0ns, eye c0ntact, pitch 0f
v0ice, and spatial distance between teachers and students.
2. T0 the n0nverbal c0mmunicati0n used by Lah0re C0llege f0r W0men
University Jhang campus teachers.
3. T0 a small sample size 0f 150 students fr0m tehsil Jhang

CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Communication
C0mmunicati0n is a basic need f0r human life. Pe0ple c0mmunicate f0r a
variety 0f reas0ns 0ne 0f which is t0 create c0mm0n understandings (Richard,
1998). The transmissi0n 0f facts, ideas, 0pini0ns, attitudes, and feelings enables
humans t0 devel0p awareness and t0 learn (Richm0nd, McCr0skey, & P0well,
2012). In any 0rganizati0n, c0mmunicati0n is a necessity f0r c00rdinating m0st

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activities, and this is especially true in educati0nal instituti0ns. Given the
widespread changes in educati0n t0day, educati0nal instituti0ns need effective
leaders wh0 are g00d c0mmunicat0rs. Lunenburg and (Irby, 2006) c0ntend that
effective leaders spend m0st 0f their time c0mmunicating with vari0us
stakeh0lders.
C0mmunicati0n is a learned skill. H0wever, while m0st pe0ple are b0rn
with the physical ability t0 talk, n0t all can c0mmunicate well unless they make
special eff0rts t0 devel0p and refine this skill further. Very 0ften, we take the
ease with which we c0mmunicate with each 0ther f0r granted, s0 much s0 that
we s0metimes f0rget h0w c0mplex the c0mmunicati0n pr0cess actually is.
(Ludl0w, R., & Pant0n, 1992)
The w0rd ‘c0mmunicati0n is derived fr0m Latin w0rd ‘c0mmunes which
means c0mm0n .It is a pr0cess 0f exchange 0f facts, ideas 0pini0ns and a means
that individuals 0r 0rganizati0ns share ithe meaning and understanding with 0ne
an0ther. (Wikipedia) C0mmunicati0n is defined differently by different auth0rs;
C0mmunicati0n is a pr0cess where pe0ple (c0mmunicat0r) sending stimulus in
purp0se t0 change 0r t0 make behavi0r 0f 0ther pe0ple (H0vland, Janis & Kelley,
1953).
C0mmunicati0n is a pr0cess sending inf0rmati0n, idea, em0ti0n, ability,
etc. By using symb0ls such as w0rds, pictures, numbers, etc.
(Berels0ndanStainer, 1964) C0mmunicati0n basely is a pr0cess which explain
wh0, says what, in which channel, t0 wh0m, with what effect. (Lass well, 1960)
C0mmunicati0n is a pr0cess which makes s0mething which bel0ng t0 0ne pers0n
bec0me bel0ng t0 2 pers0ns 0r m0re. (G0de, 1959 cited in Dance, 1970

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Acc0rding t0 G.G Br0wn. C0mmunicati0n is transfer 0f inf0rmati0n fr0m 0ne
pers0n t0 an0ther, whether 0r n0t it elicits c0nfidence. But the inf0rmati0n
transferred must be understandable t0 the receiver.
Acc0rding t0 Herbert, Sim0n, “C0mmunicati0n can be defined as any
pr0cess whereby decisi0nal premises are transmitted fr0m 0ne member 0f an
0rganizati0n t0 an0ther.” C0mmunicati0n can be defined as the pr0cess 0f
transmitting inf0rmati0n and c0mm0n understanding fr0m 0ne pers0n t0 an0ther
(Keyt0n, 2011). Acc0rding t0 L0uis A. Allen, “C0mmunicati0n is the sum 0f all
the things 0ne pers0n d0es when he wants t0 create understanding in the mind 0f
an0ther. It is a bridge 0f meaning. It inv0lves a systematic and c0ntinu0us
pr0cess 0f telling, listening and understanding.”
2.2 Types of Communicati0n
Pe0ple c0mmunicate with each 0ther in a number 0f ways that depend up0n
the message and its c0ntext in which it is being sent. Ch0ice 0f c0mmunicati0n
channel and y0ur style 0f c0mmunicating als0 affects c0mmunicati0n. S0,
there are variety 0f types 0f c0mmunicati0n (e-H0w; n.d). The eh0w devel0pers
menti0ned f0ll0wing different types 0f c0mmunicati0n.
? Verbal c0mmunicati0n
? N0n-verbal c0mmunicati0n
2.3 Verbal communication
Verbal c0mmunicati0n refers t0 the f0rm 0f c0mmunicati0n in which
message is transmitted verbally; c0mmunicati0n is d0ne by w0rd 0f m0uth and a
piece 0f writing.((Katz and Kahn 1966) 0bjective 0f every c0mmunicati0n is t0

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have pe0ple understand what we are trying t0 c0nvey. In verbal c0mmunicati0n
remember the acr0nym KISS (keep it sh0rt and simple).
It has been suggested that since verbal c0mmunicati0n (i.e., using
human language t0 represent the w0rld and pass 0n inf0rmati0n) can be seen as a
subsystem 0f a larger system 0f human c0mmunicati0n, it theref0re exhibits all
features 0f an 0pen c0mmunicati0n system (Katz and Kahn 1966). The f0ll0wing
characteristics pr0vide an insight int0 the nature 0f ´the speechmaking system´
fr0m this perspective (R0ss 1989):
Imp0rtati0n 0f energy fr0m 0utside the system is achieved esp. thr0ugh
the g0al (intenti0n, purp0se) 0f c0mmunicati0n which pr0vide the system with
´energy,´ thr0ughput means that verbal c0mmunicati0n pr0ceeds thr0ugh
c00rdinated activity 0f vari0us subsystems inv0lved (c0nceptualizati0n,
verbalizati0n, articulati0n, percepti0n, interpretati0n.
2.4 Non Verbal Communicati0n.
Thill and B0vee (1999) stated, “The m0st basic f0rm 0f c0mmunicati0n is
n0n-verbal c0mmunicati0n: all the cues, gestures, v0cal qualities, spatial
relati0nships, and attitudes t0ward time that all0w us t0 c0mmunicate with0ut
w0rds. Anthr0p0l0gists the0rize that l0ng bef0re human beings used w0rds t0 talk
things 0ver, 0ur ancest0rs c0mmunicated with 0ne an0ther by using their b0dies.
They gritted their teeth t0 sh0w anger; they smiled and t0uched 0ne an0ther t0
indicate affecti0n. Alth0ugh we have c0me a l0ng way since th0se primitive
times, we still use n0n-verbal cues t0 express superi0rity, dependence, dislike,
respect, l0ve, and 0ther feelings. N0n-verbal c0mmunicati0n differs fr0m verbal
c0mmunicati0n in fundamental ways. F0r 0ne thing, it’s less structured, s0 it’s

12

m0re difficult t0 study. It als0 differs in terms 0f intent and sp0ntaneity. We
generally plan 0ur w0rds. When we say, “Please get back t0 me 0n that 0rder by
Friday,” we have a c0nsci0us purp0se.
We think ab0ut the message, if 0nly f0r a m0ment. H0wever, when we
c0mmunicate n0n-verbally, we s0metimes d0 s0 unc0nsci0usly. We d0n’t mean t0
raise an eyebr0w 0r blush. Th0se acti0ns c0me naturally with0ut 0ur c0nsent”.
Carlin and Payne (1995) stated, “S0me researcher suggest that less than ten
percent 0f a message’s impact fr0m verbal c0mmunicati0n. While y0u listen t0
speaker’s w0rds, whether y0u realize it 0r n0t, y0u’re als0 influenced by the way
the speaker talks as well as by the speaker’s acti0ns. The fact that n0nverbal
c0mmunicati0n has such a str0ng influence 0n the way pe0ple interpret
messages emphasizes an imp0rtant rule ab0ut c0mmunicati0n-it is imp0ssible
n0t t0 c0mmunicate. Even when y0u’re silent, y0u’re c0mmunicating. Bef0re y0u
begin t0 speak, when y0u pause, 0r when y0u leave the speaker’s stand, y0u’re
still sending messages t0 y0ur audience.”Kr0ehnert (2006) stated, “N0nverbal
c0mmunicati0n is anything that can alter 0r reinf0rce the message in any f0rm 0f
c0mmunicati0n. If y0u think that thesis a very br0ad definiti0n, and c0vers all
types 0f c0mmunicati0n, y0u are right. We c0mmunicate n0nverbally by the way
we dress, 0ur p0sture, the expressi0n 0n 0ur face, the am0unt 0f eye c0ntact used,
the way we p0siti0n 0ur hands, the way we t0uched things and the way we
listen. Even a simple statement can have its meaning altered 0r reinf0rced by
the way we shrug 0ur sh0ulders when we put it t0 the gr0up, by inflecti0n in 0ur
v0ice when we say it, by the way it is written 0r typed when we give it as a
hand0ut.” He further stated, “S0me studies indicate that ar0und 65 percent 0f 0ur
c0mmunicati0n is thr0ugh n0nverbal signals, while 0ther studies sh0w that this

13

figure c0uld be as high as 93 percent. Teachers sh0uld be experts in
c0mmunicati0n, s0 it f0ll0ws that they must kn0w ab0ut these signals. N0nverbal
c0mmunicati0n is als0 referred t0 as ‘b0dy language’, and is a study in itself.”
Miller (1988) stated, “Teachers sh0uld be aware 0f n0nverbal
c0mmunicati0n f0r tw0 basic reas0ns: (1) t0 bec0me better receiver 0f student
messages and t0 gain the ability t0 send student p0sitive signals that reinf0rce
learning, and at the same time bec0me m0re adept at av0iding negative signals
that stifle learning. Researchers suggest that a student’s n0nverbal expressi0ns
serve as an imp0rtant s0urce in the f0rmati0n 0f teacher’s impressi0n, attitude,
beliefs, and recipr0cal behavi0ral expressi0ns. Being a g00d message receiver
requires m0re than just listening t0 w0rds. Much is c0mmunicated by n0nverbal
means, such as feelings and values. Thus t0 be a g00d receiver 0f student
messages, a teacher must be attuned t0 many 0f these subtle cues.”
Hybels and Weaver (2004) have presented f0ur functi0ns 0f n0nverbal
c0mmunicati0n. N0nverbal gestures c0mplement, regulate, substitute, and
accent. They further stated the characteristics 0f n0nverbal c0mmunicati0n, “All
f0rms 0f n0nverbal c0mmunicati0n have f0ur characteristics in c0mm0n. First,
much n0nverbal c0mmunicati0n is unique t0 the culture 0r subculture t0 which
y0u bel0ng. Sec0nd, verbal and n0nverbal messages may be in c0nflict with 0ne
an0ther. Third, much n0nverbal c0mmunicati0n 0perates at a subc0nsci0us level-
y0u are 0ften n0t aware 0f it. F0urth, y0ur n0nverbal c0mmunicati0n sh0ws y0ur
feelings and attitude. These characteristics are c0nsidered basic principles that
g0vern n0nverbal c0mmunicati0n.”
2.5 Types of Non-verbal Communication

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2.5.1 Kinesics
Kinesis is the study 0f h0w we use b0dy m0vement and facial
expressi0ns. We interpret a great deal 0f meaning thr0ugh b0dy m0vement,
facial expressi0ns, and eye c0ntact. Many pe0ple believe they can easily
interpret the meanings 0f b0dy m0vements and facial expressi0ns in 0thers. But
the reality is, it is alm0st imp0ssible t0 determine an exact meaning f0r gestures,
facial expressi0ns, and eye c0ntact. Even s0, we rely a great deal 0n kinesics t0
interpret and express meaning. We kn0w that kinesics can c0mmunicate liking,
s0cial status, and even relati0nal resp0nsiveness (Given, D. B. 2002). Facial
expressi0ns are a primary meth0d 0f sharing em0ti0ns and feelings (Ekman &
Friesen, 1967). F0r example, imagine y0urself at a party and y0u see s0me0ne
acr0ss the r00m y0u are attracted t0. What s0rt 0f n0nverbal behavi0rs d0 y0u
engage in t0 let that pers0n kn0w? Likewise, what n0nverbal behavi0rs are y0u
l00king f0r fr0m them t0 indicate that it’s safe t0 c0me 0ver and intr0duce
y0urself? We are able t0 g0 thr0ugh exchanges like this using 0nly 0ur n0nverbal
c0mmunicati0n. As y0u pr0bably kn0w, s0me exchanges are m0re successful
than 0thers!
2.5.2 Haptics
Haptics is the study 0f t0uch. T0uch is the first type 0f n0nverbal
c0mmunicati0n we experience as humans and is vital t0 0ur devel0pment and
health (Keyt0n, J. 2010). Th0se wh0 d0n’t have p0sitive t0uch in their lives are
less healthy b0th mentally and physically than th0se wh0 experience p0sitive
t0uch. We use t0uch t0 share feelings and relati0nal meanings`. Hugs, kisses,
handshakes, 0r even playful r0ughh0using dem0nstrate relati0nal meanings and
indicate relati0nal cl0seness. In western s0ciety, t0uch is largely reserved f0r

15

family and r0mantic relati0nships. Generally girls and w0men in same-sex
friendships have m0re liberty t0 express t0uch as part 0f the relati0nship than
men in same-sex friendships. H0wever, despite these unf0rtunate s0cial tab00s,
the need f0r t0uch is s0 str0ng that men are quite s0phisticated at findings ways
t0 inc0rp0rate this int0 their friendships in s0cially acceptable ways. 0ne such
example is wrestling am0ng ad0lescent and y0ung-adult males. D0 y0u ever
w0nder why y0u d0n’t see as many w0men d0ing this? Perhaps it’s because
wrestling is s0cially acceptable f0r men whereas w0men are m0re likely t0 hug,
h0ld hands, and sit t0uching 0ne an0ther. Perhaps 0ne day we will pr0gress
bey0nd these arbitrary gender c0nstructs, and every0ne can engage in needed
t0uching behavi0rs in ways that are c0mf0rtable t0 them. As y0u pr0bably kn0w,
s0me exchanges are m0re successful than 0thers!
2.5.3 Personal Appearance, objects, and Artifacts
Pers0nal Appearance, 0bjects, and Artifacts are als0 types 0f n0nverbal
c0mmunicati0n we use t0 c0mmunicate meaning t0 0thers. C0nsider y0ur
preferences f0r hair-style, cl0thing, jewelry, and aut0m0biles, as well the way
y0u maintain y0ur b0dy. Y0ur ch0ices express meanings t0 th0se ar0und y0u
ab0ut what y0u value and the image y0u wish t0 put f0rth. As with m0st
c0mmunicati0n, 0ur ch0ices f0r pers0nal appearance, 0bjects, and artifacts 0ccur
within cultural c0ntexts, and are interpreted in light 0f these c0ntexts.
2.5.4 Polemics
P0lemics is the study 0f h0w 0ur use 0f space influences the ways we
relate with 0thers. It als0 dem0nstrates 0ur relati0nal standing with th0se ar0und
us. (Devit0, A. J. 2009).devel0ped f0ur categ0ries 0f space we use in the U.S. t0
f0rm and maintain relati0nships. Intimate space c0nsists 0f space that ranges

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fr0m t0uch t0 eighteen inches. We use intimate space with th0se wh0m we are
cl0se (family members, cl0se friends, and intimate partners). Pers0nal space
ranges fr0m eighteen inches t0 f0ur feet and is reserved f0r m0st c0nversati0ns
with n0n-intimate 0thers (friends and acquaintances). S0cial space extends fr0m
f0ur t0 twelve feet and is used f0r small gr0up interacti0ns such as sitting ar0und
a dinner table with 0thers 0r a gr0up meeting. Public space extends bey0nd
twelve feet and is m0st 0ften used in public speaking situati0ns. We use space t0
regulate 0ur verbal c0mmunicati0n and c0mmunicate relati0nal and s0cial
meanings. A fun exercise t0 d0 is t0 g0 t0 a public space and 0bserve pe0ple.
Based 0n their use 0f the ab0ve categ0ries 0f space, try t0 determine what type 0f
relati0nship the pe0ple are in: R0mantic, Family, 0r Friends.
2.5.5 Environment
0ur envir0nment ?cts ?s ?n0ther type 0f n0nverb?l c0mmunic?ti0n we
use. Think 0f y0ur h0me, r00m, ?ut0m0bile, 0r 0ffice sp?ce. Wh?t me?nings c?n
0thers perceive ?b0ut y0u fr0m these sp?ces? Wh?t me?nings ?re y0u trying t0
send by h0w y0u keep them? Think ?b0ut sp?ces y0u use frequently ?nd the
n0nverb?l me?nings they h?ve f0r y0u. M0st educ?ti0n?l instituti0ns
intenti0n?lly p?int cl?ssr00ms in dull c0l0rs. Why? Dull c0l0rs 0n w?lls h?ve ?
c?lming effect, the0retic?lly keeping students fr0m being distr?cted by bright
c0l0rs ?nd excessive stimuli. C0ntr?st the envir0nment 0f ? cl?ssr00m t0 th?t 0f ?
f?st f00d rest?ur?nt. These est?blishments h?ve bright c0l0rs ?nd h?rd pl?stic
se?ts ?nd t?bles. The bright c0l0rs gener?te ?n upbe?t envir0nment, while the
h?rd pl?stic se?ts ?re just unc0mf0rt?ble en0ugh t0 keep p?tr0ns fr0m st?ying
t00 l0ng (remember, it’s F?ST f00d). Pe0ple ?nd cultures pl?ce different

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emph?sis 0n the use 0f sp?ce ?s ? w?y t0 c0mmunic?te n0nverb?lly ?ti0nship
the pe0ple ?re in: R0m?ntic, F?mily, 0r Friends.
2.5.6 Chromatics
Chr0m?tics is the study 0f h0w pe0ple use time. ?re y0u s0me0ne wh0 is
?lw?ys e?rly 0r 0n-time? 0r, ?re y0u s0me0ne wh0 ?arrives l?te t0 m0st events?
(L0cker, 2004) believes 0ur use 0f time c0mmunic?tes a v?riety 0f me?nings t0
th0se ?r0und us. Think ?b0ut the pers0n y0u kn0w wh0 is m0st frequently l?te.
H0w d0 y0u describe th?t pers0n b?sed 0n their use 0f time? N0w, think ?b0ut
s0me0ne else wh0 is ?lw?ys 0n time. H0w d0 y0u describe th?t pers0n? Is there ?
difference? If s0, these differences ?re pr0b?bly b?sed 0n their use 0f time. In
the U.S., we pl?ce high v?lue 0n being 0n time, ?nd resp0nd m0re p0sitively t0
pe0ple wh0 ?re punctu?l. But, in m?ny ?r?b ?nd L?tin ?meric?n c0untries,
time is used m0re l00sely, ?nd punctu?lity is n0t necess?rily ? g0?l t0 ?chieve.
Y0u m?y h?ve he?rd the expressi0n, “Indi?n time” t0 refer t0 “the percepti0n 0f
time th?t is circul?r ?nd flexible” (Shutiv?, 2004). Here the belief is th?t
?ctivities will c0mmence when every0ne is present ?nd re?dy; n0t ?cc0rding t0
?n ?rbitr?ry schedule b?sed 0n ? cl0ck 0r c?lend?r. Neither ?ppr0?ch is better
th?n the 0ther, but the dissimil?r uses 0f time c?n cre?te misunderst?ndings
?m0ng th0se fr0m different cultur?l gr0ups.
2.5.7 P?r?l?ngu?ge
P?r?l?ngu?ge is the term we use t0 describe v0c?l qu?lities such ?s
pitch, v0lume, inflecti0n, r?te 0f speech, ?nd rhythm. While the types 0f
n0nverb?l c0mmunic?ti0n we’ve discussed s0 f?r ?re n0n-v0c?l, s0me n0nverb?l
c0mmunic?ti0n is ?ctu?lly v0c?l. H0w we s?y w0rds 0ften expresses gre?ter
me?ning th?n the ?ctu?l w0rds themselves. S?rc?sm ?nd in c0ngruency ?re

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tw0 ex?mples 0f this. The c0medi?n Stephen Wright b?ses much 0f his c0medy
0n his use 0f p?r?l?ngu?ge. He t?lks in ? c0mpletely m0n0t0ne v0ice thr0ugh0ut
his ?ct ?nd frequently m?kes st?tements such ?s, “I’m getting re?lly excited”
while using ? m0n0t0ne v0ice, ?cc0mp?nied by ? bl?nk f?ci?l expressi0n. The
hum0r lies in the in c0ngruency his p?r?l?ngu?ge ?nd f?ci?l expressi0ns
c0ntr?dict his verb?l mess?ge. Whenever y0u use s?rc?sm, y0ur p?r?l?ngu?ge
is intended t0 c0ntr?dict the verb?l mess?ge y0u s?y. Y0ur ?uth0rs h?ve f0und
th?t using s?rc?sm in the cl?ssr00m c?n b?ckfire when students d0 n0t pick up
0ur p?r?linguistic cues ?nd f0cus prim?rily 0n the verb?l mess?ge. We h?ve
le?rned t0 use s?rc?sm sp?ringly s0 ?s n0t t0 hurt ?ny0ne’s feelings.(H0pkins,
L. 2004)
2.5.8 Silence
Fin?lly, silence serves ?s ? type 0f n0nverb?l c0mmunic?ti0n. H?ve y0u
ever experienced the “silent tre?tment” fr0m s0me0ne? Wh?t me?nings did y0u
t?ke fr0m th?t pers0n’s silence? Silence is p0werful bec?use the pers0n using
silence m?y be refusing t0 eng?ge in c0mmunic?ti0n with y0u. Likewise, we
c?n use silence t0 regul?te the fl0w 0f 0ur c0nvers?ti0ns. (Kn?pp, 1980) Silence
h?s ? v?riety 0f me?nings ?nd, ?s with 0ther types 0f n0nverb?l
c0mmunic?ti0n, c0ntext pl?ys ?n imp0rt?nt r0le f0r interpreting the me?ning 0f
silence. Y0u sh0uld n0w rec0gnize the infinite c0mbin?ti0n 0f verb?l ?nd
n0nverb?l mess?ges we c?n sh?re. When y0u think ?b0ut it, it re?lly is ?s
t0nn?ge in ? c0ntinu0us d?nce 0f c0mmunic?ti0n where we try t0 st?y in step
with 0ne ?n0ther. With ?n underst?nding 0f the definiti0n 0f n0nverb?l
c0mmunic?ti0n ?nd the types 0f n0nverb?l c0mmunic?ti0n, let’s c0nsider the

19

v?ri0us functi0ns n0nverb?l c0mmunic?ti0n serves in helping us c0mmunic?te.
(Miller, 1998)
2.6 Various Functions of Non-verbal C0mmunication:
O’R0urke (2004) st?ted, “N0nverb?l c0mmunic?ti0n c?n serve m?ny
imp0rt?nt functi0ns in 0ur lives, but rese?rchers h?ve identified the f0ll0wing
six m?j0r functi0ns.
Accenting: N0nverb?l c0mmunic?ti0n 0ften highlights 0r emph?sizes s0me p?rt
0f ? verb?l mess?ge. ? r?ised eyebr0w might ?cc0mp?ny ?n expressi0n 0f
surprise; ? w?gging finger might undersc0re ?n expressi0n 0f dis?ppr0v?l.
C0mplementing: N0nverb?l c0mmunic?ti0n ?ls0 reinf0rces the gener?l t0ne 0r
?attitude 0f 0ur verb?l c0mmunic?ti0n. ? d0wnc?st expressi0n ?nd slumping
p0sture might ?cc0mp?ny w0rds 0f disc0ur?gement 0r depressi0n; upright
p0sture, ? smile, ?nd ?nim?ted m0vement might reinf0rce ? verb?l st0ry ?b0ut
winning ? recent pr0m0ti0n.
Contradicting: N0nv?rb?l c0mmunic?ti0n, 0n th? 0th?r h?nd, c?n c0ntr?dict th?
v?rb?l m?ss?g?s w? s?nd, s0m?tim?s d?lib?r?t?ly, s0m?tim?s unint?nti0n?lly.
T??rs in 0ur ?y?s ?nd ? quiv?r in 0ur v0ic?s might inv0lunt?rily c0ntr?dict ?
v?rb?l m?ss?g? t?lling fri?nds ?nd f?mily th?t w?’r? d0ing ?ll right. ? wink
?nd ? n0d might d?lib?r?t?ly s?nd th? n0nv?rb?l m?ss?g? th?t wh?t w?’r?
s?ying just isn’t s0. Th? f?ct is, wh?n v?rb?l ?nd n0nv?rb?l m?ss?g?s
c0ntr?dict, w? t?nd—f0r ? numb?r 0f r??s0ns—t0 b?li?v? th? n0nv?rb?l. In th?
l?st ?n?lysis, it’s simply much ??si?r t0 li? th?n it is t0 c0ntr0l ? r?ng? 0f
n0nv?rb?l r??cti0ns: 0ur f?ci?l ?xpr?ssi0n, pupil dil?ti0n in 0ur ?y?s, ?nd t?nsi0n

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in 0ur v0c?l c0rds, puls? r?t?, sw??ting, muscl? t0n?, ?nd m?ny 0th?rs. C0ntr0l 0f
such things is, f0r m0st 0f us, w?ll b?y0nd 0ur v0lunt?ry r??ch.
Regulating: C?rt?in n0nv?rb?l m0v?m?nts ?nd g?stur?s ?r? us?d t0 r?gul?t? th?
fl0w, th? p?c?, ?nd th? b?ck-?nd-f0rth n?tur? 0f v?rb?l c0mmunic?ti0n. Wh?n I
w?nt y0u t0 sp??k t0 m?, I’ll f?c? y0u, 0p?n my ?y?s, 0p?n my ?rms with h?nds
?xt?nd?d ?nd p?lms f?cing upw?rd, ?nd l00k ?xp?ct?ntly int0 y0ur ?y?s. Wh?n
I w?nt y0u t0 st0p sp??king s0 I c?n ?ith?r t?lk 0r think 0f wh?t I’m ?b0ut t0 s?y,
I will turn slightly ?w?y fr0m y0u, f0ld my ?rms, put 0n? h?nd 0ut with p?lm
f?cing f0rw?rd, ?nd ?ith?r cl0s? my ?y?s 0r turn th?m ?w?y fr0m y0urs.
Repeating: N0nv?rb?l m?ss?g?s c?n ?ls0 r?p??t wh?t v?rb?l m?ss?g?s c0nv?y.
With c?r k?ys in h?nd, c0?t ?nd h?t 0n, I c?n ?nn0unc?: “I’m l??ving n0w,” ?s I
w?lk t0w?rd th? d00r. Y0u might h0ld up thr?? fing?rs ?s y0u ?sk: “Is th?t th?
b?st y0u c?n d0? I’v? g0t t0 buy thr?? 0f th?m”.
Substituting: N0nv?rbal c0mmunicati0n can als0 substitut? f0r, 0r tak? th? plac?
0f, v?rbal m?ssag?s, particularly if th?y’r? simpl? 0r m0n0syllabic. As a
y0ungst?r l00ks t0ward a par?nt 0n th? sid?lin?s during an athl?tic c0nt?st, a
quick “thumbs up” can substitut? f0r w0rds 0f prais? 0r ?nc0urag?m?nt that
might n0t b? h?ard fr0m a distanc? 0r in a n0isy cr0wd.” L0ck?r (2004) stat?d,
“C0mmunicati0n d0?sn’t us? w0rds—tak?s plac? all th? tim?. Smil?s, fr0wns,
wh0 sits wh?r? at a m??ting, th? siz? 0f an 0ffic?, h0w l0ng s0m?0n? k??ps a
visit0r waiting—all th?s? c0mmunicat? pl?asur? 0r ang?r, fri?ndlin?ss 0r
distanc?, p0w?r and status. M0st 0f th? tim? w? ar? n0 m0r? c0nsci0us 0f
int?rpr?ting n0nv?rbal signals than w? ar? c0nsci0us 0f br?athing. Y?t n0nv?rbal
signals can b? misint?rpr?t?d just as ?asily as can v?rbal symb0ls (w0rds). And

21

th? misund?rstandings can b? hard?r t0 cl?ar up b?caus? p?0pl? may n0t b?
awar? 0f th? n0nv?rbal cu?s that l?d th?m t0 assum? that th?y ar?n’t lik?d,
r?sp?ct?d, 0r appr0v?d. An Arab stud?nt assum?d that his US r00mmat? dislik?d
him int?ns?ly b?caus? th? US stud?nt sat ar0und th? r00m with his f??t up 0n th?
furnitur?, s0l?s t0ward th? Arab r00mmat?. Arab cultur? s??s th? f00t in g?n?ral
and th? s0l? in particular as uncl?an; sh0wing th? s0l? 0f th? f00t is an insult.
L?arning ab0ut n0nv?rbal languag? can h?lp us pr0j?ct th? imag? w? want t0
pr?s?nt and mak? us m0r? awar? 0f th? signals w? ar? int?rpr?ting. H0w?v?r,
?v?n within a singl? cultur?, a n0nv?rbal symb0l may hav? m0r? than 0n?
m?aning”

2.7 Th? importanc? of non v?rbal communication in classroom.
N0nv?rbal c0mmunicati0n in class f0cusing 0n ?y? c0ntact, mimics and
g?stur?s. 67 stud?nts wh0 w?r? ?nr0ll?d int0 tw0 classr00m manag?m?nt gr0ups 0f
th? r?s?arch?r w?r? ad0pt?d as th? participants 0f th? study. Th? stud?nts w?r?
assign?d t0 writ? a “critical m0m?nt’s r?fl?cti0n’ r?p0rt 0n any 0f th? incid?nts
that th?y c0nsid?r t0 b? critical 0nc? a w??k right aft?r th?ir class?s f0r tw0
m0nths. C0nt?nt analysis was us?d t0 analyz? th? qualitativ? data gath?r?d fr0m
th? r?p0rts thr0ugh c0ding, cat?g0rizing and lab?ling th? primary
patt?rns/0ccurring th?m?s in th? data (Mil?s and Hub?rman, 1994; Patt0n,
2002). Th? r?s?arch?r f0cus?d 0n th? f0ll0wing r?s?arch qu?sti0n: “What d0 th?
stud?nts ?nr0ll?d in th? classr00m manag?m?nt c0urs? r?p0rt 0n th? m?aning 0f
?y? c0ntact, mimics and g?stur?s?” Th? findings r?v?al?d that n0n-v?rbal
c0mmunicati0n can b? an imp0rtant s0urc? 0f m0tivati0n and c0nc?ntrati0n f0r

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stud?nts’ l?arning as w?ll as a t00l f0r taking and maintaining att?nti0n.
Classr00m tim? is sp?nt with ?y?s firmly fix?d 0n th? b00k, th? b0ard, th? 0HP,
th? wind0w 0r r0aming rand0mly ar0und th? t?aching and l?arning ?nvir0nm?nt.
?rgin and Bir0l (2005) indicat? that th? r?al c0mmunicati0n b?tw??n tw0 p?rs0ns
b?gins wh?n tw0 0f th? p?rs0ns ?stablish ?y? c0ntact; s0, ?y? c0ntact has an
imp0rtant r0l? and m?aning in c0mmunicati0n. If a p?rs0n l00ks y0u in th? ?y?
(builds ?y? c0ntact with y0u), it can b? int?rpr?t?d as that p?rs0n car?s f0r y0u 0r
is int?r?st?d in y0u. H0w?v?r, a p?rs0n wh0 av0ids ?y? c0ntact might b? hiding
s0m?thing which is a sign f0r lack 0f c0nfid?nc?.
Th? us? 0f ?y?s and facial ?xpr?ssi0ns ar? c0nsid?r?d as having a
disciplinary functi0n in m0st 0f th? s0urc?s and ar? r?p0rt?d as having many
r?lat?d functi0ns which h?lp t?ach?rs in managing classr00ms. Acc0rding t0
G0w?r and Walt?rs (1983), th? main us?s 0f ?y? c0ntact in th? classr00m ar? t0
sh0w a stud?nt wh0 is talking that th? t?ach?r is taking n0tic?; t0 ch?ck that
?v?ry0n? is c0nc?ntrating; t0 indicat? t0 a stud?nt that y0u want t0 talk t0 him 0r
y0u want him t0 d0 s0m?thing; t0 ?nc0urag? c0ntributi0ns wh?n 0n? is trying t0
?licit id?as; a t?ach?r 0nly kn0ws stud?nts hav? s0m?thing t0 say by l00king at
th?m; and t0 h0ld th? att?nti0n 0f stud?nts n0t b?ing addr?ss?d and ?nc0uraging
th?m t0 list?n t0 th0s? d0ing th? talking and t0 maintain att?nti0n (Snyd?r, 1998).
Th? us? 0f ?y?s, mimics and g?stur?s ar? als0 b?li?v?d t0 h?lp ?stablish rapp0rt; a
t?ach?r wh0 n?v?r l00ks stud?nts in th? ?y? s??ms t0 lack c0nfid?nc? and giv?s
th? stud?nts a s?ns? 0f ins?curity (G0w?r and Walt?rs, 1983). Similarly, P0llitt
(2006) als0 indicat?s that ?y? c0ntact is an imp0rtant k?y in th? s?ns? that if a
t?ach?r d0?s n0t l00k th? stud?nts in th? ?y? wh?n sp?aking t0 th?m, it may sh0w
a lack 0f c0nfid?nc? in 0n?s?lf h?nc?, th? t?ach?r is lik?ly t0 hav? pr0bl?ms with

23

disciplin?. R0ssman (1989) als0 add?d that “t?ach?rs n??d t0 c00rdinat? th?ir
b0dy languag?, sp?aking v0ic?, ?y? c0ntact and wardr0b? t0 cr?at? a c0nvincing,
but n0t c0nfusing impact 0n th? l?arn?r. H?nc?, it can b? c0nclud?d that facial
?xpr?ssi0n and ?y? c0ntact can play an imp0rtant r0l? in r?fl?cting t?ach?r’s
c0nfid?nc?.
A t?ach?r n??ds t0 b? c0nvincing and trustw0rthy in 0rd?r t0 b? cr?dibl?
in th? ?y? 0f th? stud?nts. Cruickshank ?t al. (2003) stat? that r?gardl?ss 0f a
t?ach?r’s kn0wl?dg?, ?xp?ri?nc?, ?ducati0n l?v?l, 0r p0siti0n, a t?ach?r is cr?dibl?
0nly wh?n his/h?r stud?nts b?li?v? s/h? is. Sinc? ?y? c0ntact and facial
?xpr?ssi0ns ar? c0nsid?r?d as signs f0r r?fl?cting t?ach?r’s s?lf-c0nfid?nc?; th?y
hav? an impact 0n t?ach?r’s cr?dibility and trustw0rthin?ss. Th? NLP appr0ach
t0 ?y? c0ntact is als0 bas?d 0n th? pr?mis? that g00d ?y? c0ntact incr?as?s rapp0rt
(L?dbury,2004) N0nv?rbal c0mmunicati0n is als0 us?d t0 ch?ck that th? stud?nts
und?rstand; puzzl?d ?xpr?ssi0ns quickly t?ll th? t?ach?r what is t0 b? r?vis?d 0r
r?p?at?d. Similarly, L?d bury ?t al. (2004) sugg?st that t?ach?rs watch l?arn?rs
as w?ll as list?n t0 th?m, particularly whil? th?y ar? p?rf0rming tasks t0 l00k f0r
signs 0f b?ing b0r?d 0r b?ing l0st. Thus, ?y? c0ntact is n0t 0nly t0 b? c0nsid?r?d as
a t00l f0r th? t?ach?r t0 c0nv?y m?ssag?s but as a m?ans t0 int?rpr?t th? m?ssag?s
stud?nts can display n0nv?rbally via th?ir ?y?s, mimics and g?stur?s. Similarly,
L?dbury ?t al (2004) r?p0rt that ?stablishing a manag?m?nt r0l? in th? classr00m
inv0lv?s ?y? c0ntact fr0m th? 0uts?t. T?ach?rs n??d t0 b? pr?s?nt in classr00m
b?f0r? l?arn?rs and w?lc0m? th?m individually with a c0mbinati0n 0f ?y? c0ntact
and th?ir nam?s as th?y ?nt?r th? r00m. Th?y add?d that ?y?s can s?t th? t0n? 0f a
l?ss0n. As th? l?ss0n starts, th? t?ach?r can ch?ck wh?th?r th? stud?nts ar? r?ady
0r n0t 0nly thr0ugh ?y? c0ntact.

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R?s?arch sh0ws that th?r? is a str0ng link b?tw??n th? am0unt 0f ?y?
c0ntact p?0pl? r?c?iv? and th?ir d?gr?? 0f participati0n in c0mmunicati0n. It can
b? c0nclud?d that ?y? c0ntact ?nc0urag?s stud?nts t0 tak? part in sp??ch ?asily
sinc? t?ach?rs can n0minat? and invit? r?sp0ns?s by ?y?. Lik?wis?, Park?r
(2006) indicat?s that “by maintaining ?y? c0ntact with stud?nts wh?n sp?aking
0r list?ning t0 th?m, th? t?ach?r is ass?rting that s/h? ?xp?cts c0nv?rsati0n and is
int?r?st?d in what th? stud?nt is saying”; in 0th?r w0rds, ?nc0urag?s participati0n
by stud?nts. L?dbury ?t al (2004) r?p0rt that ?y? c0ntact is, fundam?ntally, tim?
and ?ff0rt saving. R?s?arch indicat?s that t?ach?rs can sav? tim? and ?ff0rt with
sp?cific m?ssag?s d?liv?r?d by ?y? and facial ?xpr?ssi0n am0ng which ar?
prais?, ?nc0urag?m?nt and disappr0val. P?kta (1988 cit?d in ?rgin and Bir0l,
2005) r?p0rt that in c0nv?ying m?ssag?s t0 stud?nts, t?ach?rs can us? facial
?xpr?ssi0ns and ?y? c0ntact in additi0n t0 th?ir v0ic?s and int0nati0n.

2.8 N0n-v?rbal communication during t?aching
M0r? than half 0f 0ur fac? t0 fac? c0nv?rsati0ns ar? n0n-v?rbal and sign
languag?, and g?stur?s ?xpr?ss 0ur f??lings and attitud?s with0ut saying a w0rd.
Th?r? was a significant c0rr?lati0n b?tw??n th? t?ach?r’s appr0priat? and tim?ly
v?rbal and n0n-v?rbal b?havi0rs and stud?nts’ achi?v?m?nt and g00d b?havi0r
(Bab?lan, 2012). Th? r?sults 0f th? pr?s?nt study indicat?d that th?r? was a
c0rr?lati0n b?tw??n th? t?ach?rs’ v?rbal and n0n-v?rbal c0mmunicati0n skills and
stud?nts’ l?arning and m0tivati0n. Ambiguity in th? t?ach?r’s sp??ch is kn0wn
as th? main 0bstacl? in th? t?ach?rs and stud?nts’ r?lati0nship, and in t0tal,

25

acc0rding t0 th? t?ach?rs, m0st 0f th? c0mmunicati0n barri?rs in sch00ls ar?
r?lat?d t0 human.
If th? t?ach?r has an ?nc0uraging mann?r tail0r?d t0 th? stud?nts’ status,
h?/sh? can achi?v? ?ff?ctiv? r?sults with his c0mmunicati0n with stud?nts. Als0,
if th? t?ach?r us?s humiliating sp??ch, his r?lati0nship with th? stud?nts will
d?t?ri0rat? (Gh0lip0ur, 2007).
Facial ?xpr?ssi0n, ?y? c0ntact, physical app?aranc?, ?tc. … ?xpr?ss a
m?ssag?. Facial ?xpr?ssi0n is m0r? ?ff?ctiv? than 0th?r m0d?s 0f n0n-v?rbal cu?s
and giv?s us a l0t 0f inf0rmati0n ab0ut th? ?m0ti0nal status 0f 0th?rs t0 th? ?xt?nt
that s0m? th?0rists b?li?v? that facial ?xpr?ssi0n is th? m0st imp0rtant s0urc? 0f
inf0rmati0n aft?r languag?.
In th? fi?ld 0f t?aching, c?rtainly 0n? 0f th? main charact?ristics 0f g00d
t?ach?rs is g00d c0mmunicati0n skill in classr00m, and m0st 0f th? 0bs?rv?d str?ss
in th? classr00m aris?s fr0m th? lack 0f pr0p?r c0mmunicati0n (Najafi, 2013).
Th? classr00m administrati0n and c0nstructiv? c0nflict r?s0luti0n in th? classr00m
r?quir? g00d c0mmunicati0n skills, th? m0st imp0rtant 0f which is n0n-v?rbal
skills. By using this skill, t?ach?rs can play a maj0r r0l? in th? succ?ss 0f th?ir
stud?nts. Thr0ugh th? us? 0f n0n-v?rbal languag?, t?ach?rs draw th? stud?nt’s
att?nti0n t0 m0r? und?rstanding and m0tivat? th? stud?nts and ?v?n bring
?xcit?m?nt t0 th? b0r?d stud?nts. Th? stud?nts unc0nsci0usly r?c?iv? n0n-v?rbal
signals s?nt fr0m th? t?ach?r; th?y imm?diat?ly n0tic? that th? 0n? standing
b?f0r? th?m is t?aching by all his/h?r will 0r is c0nstantly waiting f0r th? class t0
b? ?nd?d. Th?r?f0r?, it sh0uld b? m?nti0n?d that n0n-v?rbal c0mmunicati0n can
suppl?m?nt 0r r?plac? v?rbal c0mmunicati0n; it is ?ith?r a r?p?titi0n 0f v?rbal

26

m?ssag?s, making v?rbal c0mmunicati0n m0r? pr0min?nt and sp?cific, 0r
c0mpl?t?s th? v?rbal c0mmunicati0n. Human b?ings us? n0n-v?rbal b?havi0r in
0rd?r t0 c0mpl?t? th?ir int?rp?rs0nal int?racti0n; th?y r?ly 0n n0n-v?rbal b?havi0r
t0 r?c0gniz? wh?n t0 sp?ak, wh?n t0 l?t 0th?rs t0 sp?ak, and h0w t0 sp?ak. N0n-
v?rbal c0mmunicati0n 0ft?n mak?s int?racti0nal c0nc?pts sinc? c0mmunicati0n
always has tw0 lit?ral and c0nc?ptual l?v?ls 0f m?aning, and this typ? 0f
c0mmunicati0n is ass0ciat?d with s?mantic l?v?l.
It r?fl?cts cultural valu?s. This claim implicitly indicat?s that m0st 0f
th? n0n-v?rbal b?havi0rs ar? acquir?d during s0cializati0n and ar? t0tally
variabl?, d?p?nding 0n cultur? and traditi0ns (B00ks c0mpilati0n
d?partm?nt, 2002). An imp0rtant p0int in n0n-v?rbal c0mmunicati0n is th? us? 0f
this r?lati0nship, ?sp?cially wh?n t?aching c0rr?ctly and tim?ly (Salimi, 2014).
T?ach?rs wh0 had us?d n0n-v?rbal c0mmunicati0n t?chniqu?s in int?racting with
stud?nts with physical and m0t0r impairm?nt in T?hran pr0vinc? had play?d an
?ff?ctiv? r0l? in incr?asing th? stud?nts’ s?lf-?st??m and r?ducing th?ir
shyn?ss (H?ydarp0ur, D0kan?ifard ; Bahari, 2008).
An appr0priat? m?th0d 0f using n0n-v?rbal c0mmunicati0n is that th?
t?ach?r giv?s pr0bl?m s0lving assignm?nt t0 th? stud?nt acc0rding t0 th?ir
int?ll?ctual ability.
H? sh0ws th?m that h? is awar? 0f th?ir abiliti?s and cr?at?s m0tivati0n in
th?m. Thus, h? is willing t0 s0lv? th? pr0bl?m; 0n th? 0th?r hand, if th? t?ach?r
indir?ctly t?lls th? stud?nts that h? d0?sn’t think h? is abl? t0 s0lv? th? pr0bl?m,
th? stud?nt will b? afraid as w?ll. Th?s? mutual r?acti0ns ar? n0t imp0rtant in
sch00l; rath?r, th?y ar? imp0rtant in all human r?lati0nships, ?sp?cially b?tw??n

27

par?nts and childr?n (M0radi, 2013). Th? t?ach?r’s tim?ly us? 0f n0n-v?rbal
c0mmunicati0n can b? d0n? thr0ugh a simpl? gr??ting with stud?nts which is th?
b?st way t0 start th? class, and is 0f c0urs? imp0ssibl? with0ut n0n-v?rbal
languag?. (M0rtazavi, 2013) An ?xp?ri?nc?d sp?ak?r b?gins his sp??ch by
talking dir?ctly t0 0n? 0f th? list?n?rs, tri?s t0 l00k at ?ach stud?nt thr0ugh0ut th?
sp??ch 0n? by 0n?, and chang?s th? t0n? 0f his v0ic? during a sp??ch s0 that th?
stud?nts d0 n0t g?t tir?d. T?ach?rs’ n0n-v?rbal languag? can b? ?ff?ctiv? if
stud?nts can s?? th? t?ach?r rath?r than th? t?ach?r was b?ing hidd?n b?hind a
d?sk 0r b0ard 0r t?aching whil? turning his back t0 stud?nts. Th? b?st plac? f0r
th? t?ach?r in class is standing n?ar his/h?r tabl? and all stud?nts s?? him. Th?
t?ach?r sh0uld n0t put his hands in his p0ck?ts, as this limits his activ?n?ss. It is
b?st f0r th? t?ach?r t0 k??p his/h?r hands fr??; this indicat?s th? r?adin?ss 0f
t?ach?rs t0 c0mmunicat? with th? stud?nts. Th? t?ach?r must s0m?tim?s chang?
his plac?, but if h?/sh? always chang?s his/h?r plac? physically in class, th?
f0cus 0f l?arn?rs will r?duc? and l?arning pr0c?ss will n0t pr0c??d. An0th?r
imp0rtant p0int is that th? t?ach?r must l00k at individual stud?nts. 0th?rwis?, th?
stud?nts will hav? th? impr?ssi0n that th? t?ach?r is ign0ring th?m, s0 th? ?ff?ct
0f l00king at th? audi?nc? is und?niabl?. Th? right way f0r addr?ssing th? stud?nt
is that th? t?ach?r sh0uld n0t p0int t0 th? stud?nt by his/h?r fing?r wh?n asking
qu?sti0n b?caus? th? stud?nt f??ls f?arful and anxi0us in this cas?. Th? b?st
m?th0d is that th? t?ach?r assum?s a spac? with th? stud?nt l00ks at him/h?r
dir?ctly and p0ints t0 him/h?r with full hand. (Farhangi, 1995) C0nsci0us us? 0f
n0n-v?rbal languag? is n0t a sh0w, but rath?r it mak?s th? ?ff?cts 0f individual
w0rds b?tt?r; th? m0r? natural th? n0n-v?rbal languag? is, th? m0r? acc?ptabl? it
is t0 th? audi?nc?. T?ach?rs wh0 us? n0n-v?rbal languag? pr0p?rly hav? a b?tt?r

28

r?lati0nship with th?ir stud?nts. 0ft?n s0m? barri?rs t0 ?ff?ctiv? c0mmunicati0n,
b0th v?rbal and n0n-v?rbal, aris? in th? classr00m. In 0rd?r t0 c0mmunicat?
pr0p?rly, ?sp?cially in th? cas? 0f n0n-v?rbal c0mmunicati0n, it is n?c?ssary that
th? ?ducat0r id?ntifi?s th? fact0rs d?trim?ntal t0 ?ff?ctiv? c0mmunicati0n and
r?s0lv? th?m.
Th? main 0bstacl?s ar? as f0ll0ws (Yahyai, 2011)
1. T?ach?rs’ lack 0f awar?n?ss 0f stud?nt’s l?v?l 0f und?rstanding: ?xp?ri?nc?
has sh0wn that if ?ducati0nal activiti?s ar? n0t in th? d0main 0f th? stud?nts’
kn0wl?dg? and l?v?l 0f und?rstanding, l?arning and achi?ving ?ducati0nal
g0als ar? littl? 0r th?y d0 n0t happ?n at all. T0 pr?v?nt th?s? pr0bl?ms, first 0f
all ?ducati0nal m?ssag? sh0uld b? pr?s?nt?d acc0rding t0 th? stud?nts’ l?v?l
0f und?rstanding and th?n diff?r?nt m?th0ds sh0uld b? us?d, ?sp?cially n0n-
v?rbal c0mmunicati0n, f0r b?tt?r und?rstanding.
2. L0ng 0ral argum?nts: Wh?n t?ach?rs t?ach just 0rally f0r a l0ng tim?,
stud?nts gradually g?t disc0urag?d fr0m pursuing th? t?ach?r’s discussi0ns.
This indicat?s that human b?ings aut0matically list?n t0 th? fav0rit? s0unds
at first, and th?n th?y bl0ck th?ir s?ns? 0f h?aring 0n inappr0priat? c0nt?nt. T0
r?s0lv? this pr0bl?m, a vari?ty 0f t?aching m?th0ds, ways 0f c0mmunicating,
?tc. can b? us?ful.
3. B0ring m?ssag?: Wh?n th? ?ducati0nal activiti?s in th? classr00m ar? n0t
int?r?sting t0 th? stud?nts, th?y pay l?ss att?nti0n t0 it, s0 g00d c0mmunicati0n
will n0t tak? plac? during l?arning. T0 g?n?rat? int?r?st and m0tivat? th?
stud?nts, t?ach?rs can us? diff?r?nt c0mmunicati0n m?th0ds.

29

4. Dr?aming: An0th?r fact0r impacting ?ff?ctiv? c0mmunicati0n is th?
stud?nt’s daydr?aming during t?aching, which mak?s th?m t?mp0rarily 0ut
0f th? classr00m and int0 th?ir p?rs0nal ?xp?ri?nc? and th?ir dr?am.
Acc0rding t0 th? principl?s 0f psych0l0gy, p?rs0nal ?xp?ri?nc?s can b? m0r?
attractiv? f0r individuals and th?y can r?plac? and s?t asid? mat?rials which
ar? l?ss attractiv? f0r stud?nts. ?xp?ri?nc?d and kn0wl?dg?abl? t?ach?rs can
id?ntify such stud?nts, and us? m0r? int?r?sting m?th0ds t0 c0mmunicat?
with th?m. 0f c0urs?, in such cas?s th? us? 0f n0n-v?rbal c0mmunicati0n
m?th0ds will b? v?ry ?ff?ctiv?.
Inappr0priat? physical fact0rs: Inappr0priat? physical c0nditi0n can disc0nn?ct
th? l?arn?rs fr0m th?ir t?ach?rs. S0, th? suitability 0f light and c0l0r in th? class
s?tting, c0mf0rtabl? s?ats, ?tc. … can b? ?ff?ctiv? t0 pr?v?nt th? 0ccurr?nc? 0f
th?s? fact0rs.
.

30

CHAPTER III
METHODS AND PROCEDURE
For any research, certain methodology and procedure are required for
collection of relevant information and data. This is done in order to arrive at
correct and reliable conclusions and results.
The researchers conducted a research entitled “Non verbal
communication and academic outcomes at university level”. This is a
descriptive research in which the researcher had made an attempt to study the
non verbal communication of teachers at university level. For this purpose the
researchers reviewed various research journals, books and web sources from
not only internet but also from various libraries. After literature review the
researchers came to know various types of non verbal communication. The
data was collected and analyzed and presented in the next chapter. In the last
chapter, the researchers concluded based on the findings. Finally, the research
winded up with suggestions and recommendation.

31

3.1 Research Design
This is descriptive survey study. In this research problem the teachers’
non verbal communication is independent variable and academic outcome is
dependent variable.
3.2 Population of Study
The population of the research comprises female students from Public
Sector University of district Jhang.
3.3 Sample of the Study
Sample comprises university level students from urban areas. The
sample included 150 female students of university level. The sample was
selected by convenient sampling.
3.4 Instrument of the Research
? Questionnaire was used by the researchers to measure the non verbal
communication of university level students from urban areas at public
sector. After literature review on non verbal communication the
instrument for measuring non verbal Communication has been
developed.
? Questionnaire was comprised of 24 items for female students.
? The answers were obtained on five likert scale.
? The researcher decoded the Likert scale for the students which was as;
Strongly Disagree = 1, Disagree = 2, Undecided = 3, Agree = 4,
Strongly Agree = 5
3.6 Validity and Reliability of Instrument
The questionnaire was validated by various faculty members. The
questionnaire was improved with the advice of supervisor as well as from the

32

opinion of experts. The questionnaire was pilot tested on 40 respondents;
reliability was determined by applying Cronbach alpha through SPSS. The
reliability of the instrument was found to be 0.879 on 24 items which was in
acceptable limit, so the questionnaire was proved to be satisfactory.
3.7 Data Collection
The data was collected personally by the researcher. The researcher
delivered questionnaires to the selected subjects. It was an uphill task to
motivate respondents to fill the questionnaire. Overall 200 questionnaires were
planned to be launched and get filled but many questionnaires were wasted so
the researcher got approximately 150 back. So the response rate was actually
75%.

3.8 Data Analysis
Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) computer software
selected for data analysis based on the research questions and demographic
variables..
The researcher decoded the Likert scale as; Strongly Disagree= 1, Disagree =
2, Undecided = 3, Agree = 4, Strongly Agree = 5
Data was analyzed through inferential statistics. The significance level
for accepting or rejecting of research questions was 0.05. Each item was
analyzed for mean of all respondents and tabulated for these frequencies. To
quantify the findings data was analyzed for the frequencies and percentages
and was tabulated for each item. Reasson product moment co-relation was
applied to the determine the relationship between non-verbal communication

33

and academic outcome. Data was analyzed and tabulated and interpreted in
detail in upcoming chapter.

CHAPTER IV
ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
The study was conducted to find out the relationship between
university level teachers’ non verbal communication and students’ academic
outcome. The questionnaire was designed for this purpose which was
consisted of 24 items in all, ranging from strongly disagrees to strongly agree.
The questionnaire was administered to the 150 students from the public sector
of University Level in Jhang. The data was analyzed using percentages, mean
and ANOVA. This chapter deals with the analysis and interpretation of the
collected data. The interpretation of the analysis has been written to make
clear about the results of this research.
Table 4.1. Frequency Distribution of Class
Responses Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative
Percent

B.S 101 67.3 67.3 67.3
M.A 49 32.7 32.7 100.0
Total 150 100.0 100.0

This table showed there were 67% B.S students and 32% were MA students.

Table 4.2 Department

34

Frequency Percent Valid
Percent
Cumulative
Percent

English 50 33.3 33.3 33.3
Mathematics 50 33.3 33.3 66.7
Computer Science 50 33.3 33.3 100.0
Total 150 100.0 100.0
There is same number of students i.e. 33% from English, Mathematics and
computer science.
Table 4.3 I mostly understand teacher’s facial expressions generated
during teaching learning Process
Responses Frequency Percent
Valid
Percent
Cumulative
Percent

Strongly Disagree 11 7.3 7.3 7.3
Disagree 12 8.0 8.0 15.3
Undecided 8 5.3 5.3 20.7
Agree 75 50.0 50.0 70.7
Strongly Agree 44 29.3 29.3 100.0
Total 150 100.0 100.0
The above table showed 50% agreed that they understand teacher’s facial
expressions generated during teaching learning process 29% strongly agreed,
5% were undecided, 8% disagree, 7% strongly disagreed.

Table 4.4 Smile on teacher’s face motivates me to take interest in the
studies.
Responses Frequency Percent
Valid
Percent
Cumulative
Percent
Strongly Disagree 5 3.3 3.3 3.3

35

Disagree 8 5.3 5.3 8.7
Undecided 27 18.0 18.0 26.7
Agree 59 39.3 39.3 66.0
Strongly Agree 51 34.0 34.0 100.0
Total 150 100.0 100.0
The above table showed 39% agreed thatsmile on teacher’s face motivates
them to take interest in the studies34% strongly agreed, 18% were undecided,
5% disagree, 3% strongly disagreed

Table 4.5 Anger on teacher’s face also motivates me to take interest in the
studies.
Responses Frequency Percent Valid
Percent
Cumulative
Percent

Strongly Disagree 26 17.3 17.3 17.3
Disagree 34 22.7 22.7 40.0
Undecided 26 17.3 17.3 57.3
Agree 43 28.7 28.7 86.0
Strongly Agree 21 14.0 14.0 100.0
Total 150 100.0 100.0

The above table showed 28% agreed that Anger on teacher’s face also
motivates me to take interest in the studies. 14% strongly agreed, 17% were
undecided, 22% disagree, 17% strongly disagreed

Table 4.6 When teacher enters in the class I notice his/her facial
expressions

36

Responses Frequency Percent Valid
Percent
Cumulative
Percent

Strongly Disagree 2 1.3 1.3 1.3
Disagree 6 4.0 4.0 5.3
Undecided 45 30.0 30.0 35.3
Agree 54 36.0 36.0 71.3
Strongly Agree 43 28.7 28.7 100.0
Total 150 100.0 100.0
The above table showed 36% agreed thatwhen teacher enters in the class they
notice his/her facial expressions30% were undecided, 28% strongly agreed, ,
4% disagree, 1% strongly disagreed.

Table 4.7 Teacher’s facial expressions positively affect the teaching
learning process in classroom

The above table showed 42% strongly agreed that Teacher’s facial expressions
positively affect the teaching learning process ,39% agreed , 8% were
undecided, 5% disagree, 5% strongly disagreed.

Responses Frequency Percent Valid
Percent
Cumulative
Percent

Strongly Disagree 8 5.3 5.3 5.3
Disagree 8 5.3 5.3 10.7
Undecided 12 8.0 8.0 18.7
Agree 59 39.3 39.3 58.0
Strongly Agree 63 42.0 42.0 100.0
Total 150 100.0 100.0

37

Table 4.8 Teacher’s eye contact makes me attentive in the class
Responses Frequency Percent Valid
Percent
Cumulative
Percent

Strongly Disagree 6 4.0 4.0 4.0
Disagree 11 7.3 7.3 11.3
Undecided 7 4.7 4.7 16.0
Agree 58 38.7 38.7 54.7
Strongly Agree 66 44.0 44.0 98.7
Total 150 100.0 100.0

The above table showed 44% strongly agreed that teacher’s eye contact makes
them attentive in the class38% agreed,7% disagree 4% were undecided, , 4%
strongly disagreed.

Table 4.9 I am always ready for a question from the teacher when
he/she makes eye contact with me in the classroom.
Responses Frequency Percent Valid
Percent
Cumulative
Percent

Strongly Disagree 10 6.7 6.7 6.7
Disagree 19 12.7 12.7 19.3
Undecided 50 33.3 33.3 52.7
Agree 53 35.3 35.3 88.0
Strongly Agree 18 12.0 12.0 100.0
Total 150 100.0 100.0

38

The above table showed 35% agreed that they were always ready for a
question from the teacher 33% were undecided, 12% strongly agreed, , 12%
disagree, 6% strongly disagreed.

Table 4.10 Teacher’s regular eye contact in the classroom provokes me to
prepare my lesson beforehand
Responses Frequency Percent Valid
Percent
Cumulative
Percent

Strongly Disagree 8 5.3 5.3 5.3
Disagree 19 12.7 12.7 18.0
Undecided 19 12.7 12.7 30.7
Agree 69 46.0 46.0 76.7
Strongly Agree 35 23.3 23.3 100.0
Total 150 100.0 100.0
The above table showed46% agreed Teacher’s regular eye contact in the
classroom provokes me to prepare my lesson beforehand, 23% strongly
agreed, 12% were undecided, 12% disagree, 5% strongly disagreed

Table 4.11 I recognize teacher’s response from his/her eye contact during
lessons.
Responses Frequency Percent Valid
Percent
Cumulative
Percent

Strongly Disagree 6 4.0 4.0 4.0
Disagree 12 8.0 8.0 12.0
Undecided 29 19.3 19.3 31.3
Agree 67 44.7 44.7 76.0
Strongly Agree 36 24.0 24.0 100.0
Total 150 100.0 100.0

39

The above table showed 44% agreed that the recognize teacher’s response
from his/her eye contact during lessons. 24% strongly agreed, 19% were
undecided, 8% disagree, , 4% strongly disagreed

Table 4.12 I recognize teacher’s appreciation for me during lesson from
his/her eye contact
Responses Frequency Percent Valid
Percent
Cumulative
Percent

Strongly Disagree 5 3.3 3.3 3.3
Disagree 10 6.7 6.7 10.0
Undecided 33 22.0 22.0 32.0
Agree 52 34.7 34.7 66.7
Strongly Agree 50 33.3 33.3 100.0
Total 150 100.0 100.0

The above table showed 34% agreed that they recognize teacher’s appreciate
during lesson from his/her eye contact 33% strongly agreed, 22% were
undecided , 6% disagree, 3% strongly disagreed.

Table 4.13 NBody movements of the teacher during teaching process help
me in understanding the lesson.
Responses Frequency Percent Valid
Percent
Cumulative
Percent

Strongly Disagree 14 9.3 9.3 9.3
Disagree 18 12.0 12.0 21.3
Undecided 22 14.7 14.7 36.0
Agree 59 39.3 39.3 75.3
Strongly Agree 37 24.7 24.7 100.0

40

Total 150 100.0 100.0
The above table showed 39% agreed that body movements of the teacher help
them in understanding the lesson. 14% were undecided, 12% disagree, 9%
strongly disagreed

Table 4.14 The teacher uses his/her hands to give us additional meaning
of the topic to make understanding better

The above table showed 40% agreed that The teacher uses his/her hands to
give us additional meaning of the topic to make understanding better 35%
strongly agree, 15% were undecided , 7% disagree, 1% strongly disagreed
Table 4.15 I feel unmotivated when my teacher sits in the chair during
teaching process.
Responses Frequency Percent Valid
Percent
Cumulative
Percent

Strongly Disagree 9 6.0 6.0 6.0
Disagree 33 22.0 22.0 28.0
Undecided 51 34.0 34.0 62.0
Agree 39 26.0 26.0 88.0
Strongly Agree 18 12.0 12.0 100.0
Total 150 100.0 100.0
Responses Frequency Percent Valid
Percent
Cumulative
Percent

Strongly Disagree 2 1.3 1.3 1.3
Disagree 11 7.3 7.3 8.7
Undecided 23 15.3 15.3 24.0
Agree 61 40.7 40.7 64.7
Strongly Agree 53 35.3 35.3 100.0
Total 150 100.0 100.0

41

The above table showed34% undecided that they feel unmotivated when their
teacher sits in the chair during teaching process 26% agreed, 22% disagree,
12% strongly agree, 6% strongly disagreed.

Table 4.16 Due to the body movements of the teacher, the Classroom
environment becomes conducive to learning.
Responses Frequency Percent Valid
Percent
Cumulative
Percent

Strongly Disagree 4 2.7 2.7 2.7
Disagree 8 5.3 5.3 8.0
Undecided 39 26.0 26.0 34.0
Agree 65 43.3 43.3 77.3
Strongly Agree 34 22.7 22.7 100.0
Total 150 100.0 100.0
The above table showed 43% agreed that Due to the body movements of the
teacher, the Classroom environment becomes conducive to learning 39% were
undecided22% strongly agree, , 5% disagree, 2% strongly disagreed

Table 4.17 Teacher’s body movements help me to understand and take
more interest in stories narrated by teacher.
Responses Frequency Percent Valid
Percent
Cumulative
Percent

Strongly Disagree 3 2.0 2.0 2.0
Disagree 7 4.7 4.7 6.7
Undecided 18 12.0 12.0 18.7
Agree 67 44.7 44.7 63.3
Strongly Agree 55 36.7 36.7 100.0
Total 150 100.0 100.0

42

The above table showed 44% agreed that Teacher’s body movements help
them to understand and take more interest in stories narrated by teacher 36%
strongly agree, 12% were undecided , 4% disagree, 2% strongly disagreed

Table 4.18 Very high pitch of teacher’s voice creates problems in
understanding the lesson.
Responses Frequency Percent Valid
Percent
Cumulative
Percent

Strongly Disagree 10 6.7 6.7 6.7
Disagree 21 14.0 14.0 20.7
Undecided 16 10.7 10.7 31.3
Agree 65 43.3 43.3 74.7
Strongly Agree 38 25.3 25.3 100.0
Total 150 100.0 100.0

The above table showed 43% agreed that very high pitch of teacher’s voice
creates problems in understanding the lesson, 25% strongly agree, 14%
disagree ,10% were undecided, 6% strongly disagreed .

Table 4.19 Very low pitch and tone of teacher’s voice create difficulty in
understanding the lesson.
Responses Frequency Percent Valid
Percent
Cumulative
Percent

Strongly Disagree 5 3.3 3.3 3.3
Disagree 8 5.3 5.3 8.7
Undecided 24 16.0 16.0 24.7
Agree 53 35.3 35.3 60.0
Strongly Agree 60 40.0 40.0 100.0

43

Total 150 100.0 100.0
The above table showed 40% strongly agree that Very low pitch and tone of
teacher’s voice create difficulty in understanding the lesson, 35% agreed, 16%
were undecided , 5% disagree, 3% strongly disagreed

Table 4.20 Soft pitch of teacher’s voice attracts my attention toward
teaching learning process
Responses Frequency Percent Valid
Percent
Cumulative
Percent

Strongly Disagree 5 3.3 3.3 3.3
Disagree 6 4.0 4.0 7.3
Undecided 19 12.7 12.7 20.0
Agree 69 46.0 46.0 66.0
Strongly Agree 51 34.0 34.0 100.0
Total 150 100.0 100.0
The above table showed 46% agreed that Soft pitch of teacher’s voice attracts
them attention toward teaching learning process 34% strongly agree, 12%
were undecided 4% disagree, 3% strongly disagreed

Table 4.21 Rise and fall in teacher’s voice provide a better
understanding of the lessons related to poems.
Responses Frequency Percent Valid
Percent
Cumulative
Percent
Strongly Disagree 8 5.3 5.3 5.3
Disagree 8 5.3 5.3 10.7
Undecided 22 14.7 14.7 25.3
Agree 53 35.3 35.3 60.7

44

Strongly Agree 59 39.3 39.3 100.0
Total 150 100.0 100.0
The above table showed 35% agreed that Rise and fall in teacher’s voice
provide a better understanding of the lessons related to poems,39% strongly
agree, 14% were undecided , 5% disagree, 5% strongly disagreed .

Table 4.22 I find difficult to understand the teaching when teacher speaks
very fast and quick
Responses Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative
Percent

Strongly Disagree 2 1.3 1.3 1.3
Disagree 11 7.3 7.3 8.7
Undecided 23 15.3 15.3 24.0
Agree 61 40.7 40.7 64.7
Strongly Agree 53 35.3 35.3 100.0
Total 150 100.0 100.0
The above table showed 40% agreed that they find difficult to understand the
teaching when teacher speaks very fast and quick,35% strongly agreed, 15%
were undecided, 7% disagree, 1% strongly disagreed.

Table 4.23 Personal distance between teacher and student makes the
classroom environment more conducive to and comfortable for learning.
Responses Frequency Percent Valid
Percent
Cumulative
Percent

Strongly Disagree 18 12.0 12.0 12.0
Disagree 21 14.0 14.0 26.0
Undecided 27 18.0 18.0 44.0

45

The above table showed 41% agreed that Personal distance between teacher
and student makes the classroom environment more conducive to and
comfortable for learning 18% were undecided ,14% strongly agree, 14%
disagree, 12% strongly disagreed .

Table 4.24 Teachers normally keep a fair distance with the students.
Responses Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative
Percent

Disagree 25 16.7 16.7 16.7
Undecided 24 16.0 16.0 32.7
Agree 61 40.7 40.7 73.3
Strongly Agree 40 26.7 26.7 100.0
Total 150 100.0 100.0
The above table showed 40% agreed that Teachers normally keep a fair
distance with the students 26% strongly agree, 16% were undecided , 16%
disagree, % strongly disagreed

Table 4.25 I feel at ease in learning the lesson when my teacher keeps
proper distance from me in the classroom.
Responses Frequency Percent Valid
Percent
Cumulative
Percent

Strongly Disagree 8 5.3 5.3 5.3
Disagree 22 14.7 14.7 20.0
Undecided 43 28.7 28.7 48.7
Agree 51 34.0 34.0 82.7
Agree 62 41.3 41.3 85.3
Strongly Agree 22 14.7 14.7 100.0
Total 150 100.0 100.0

46

Strongly Agree 26 17.3 17.3 100.0
Total 150 100.0 100.0
Interpretation
The above table showed 34% agreed that they feel at ease in learning the
lesson when their teacher keeps proper distance from them in the classroom
28% were undecided,17% strongly agree,14% disagree, 5% strongly
disagreed.

Table 4.26 I feel uncomfortable and face difficulty in understanding the
teaching when a teacher does not keep proper distance from me in the
classroom.
Responses Frequency Percent
Valid
Percent
Cumulative
Percent

Strongly
Disagree
3 2.0 2.0 2.0
Disagree 31 20.7 20.7 22.7
Undecided 33 22.0 22.0 44.7
Agree 53 35.3 35.3 80.0
Strongly Agree 30 20.0 20.0 100.0
Total 150 100.0 100.0
The above table showed 35% agreed that they feel uncomfortable and face
difficulty in understanding the teaching when a teacher does not keep proper
distance from them in the classroom. 22% were undecided,20% strongly
agree, , 20% disagree, 2% strongly disagreed

Table 4.27 Corelation between facial expression and academic outcome
Variables N ? Sig.
Facial Expression and Academic outcome 150 .179* .028
*. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).

47

The correlation was applied on facial expression and academic outcome at
significance level .05. The result showed that r= .179* which indicated
significant of correlation between facial expression and academic outcome.
Thus it is concluded that facial expression has impact on the academic
outcome of the students.

Table 4.28 Corelation between eye contact and academic outcome
Variables N ? Sig.
Eye contact and Academic outcome 150 .299* .029
*. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).
The correlation was applied on eye contact and academic outcome at
significance level .05. The result showed that r= .299* which indicated
significant of correlation between eye contact and academic outcome. Thus it
is concluded that eye contact has impact on the academic outcome of the
students.

Table 4.29 Corelation between body movement and academic outcome
Variables N ? Sig.
Body Movement and Academic outcome 150 .184* .024
Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).*

The correlation was applied on body movement and academic outcome at
significance level .05. The result showed that r= .184*which indicated
significant correlation between body movement and academic outcome. Thus
it is concluded that body movement has an impact on the academic outcome
of the students.

48

Table 4.30 Corelation between pitch of voice and academic outcome
Variables N ? Sig.
Pitch of voice and Academic outcome 150 236** .004
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

The correlation was applied on pitch of voice and academic outcome at
significance level .01. The result showed that r= .236** which indicated
significant correlation between pitch of voice and academic outcome. Thus it
is concluded that pitch of voice has an impact on the academic outcome of the
students.

Table 4.31 Corelation between spatial distance and academic outcome
Variables N ? Sig.
Spatial distance and Academic
outcome
150 .080 .331
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
The correlation was applied on spatial distance and academic outcome at
significance level .01. The result showed that r= .080* which indicated no
significant correlation between spatial distance and academic outcome. Thus it
is concluded that spatial distance has no impact on the academic outcome of
the students.

Table 4.32 Corelation between non-verbal communication and academic
outcome
Variables N ? Sig.
Non Verbal Communication and Academic
outcome
150 .311** .010

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

The correlation was applied on nonverbal communication and academic
outcome at significance level .01. The result showed that r= .311** which

49

indicated moderate level of correlation between non verbal communication
and academic outcome. Thus it is concluded that non verbal communication
has impact on the academic outcome of the students.
CHAPTER V
SUMMARY, FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND
RECOMMENDATIONS
This chapter deals with the summary of findings drawn from the
analysis of data and conclusion which have been drawn from these findings.
On the basis of these findings some recommendations have also been given.
5.1 Summary
This study was conducted to discover the relationship between non
verbal communication and students’ academic outcomes at university level.
The present research study was descriptive in nature; and the researcher used
descriptive and inferential statistics. Questionnaire was used as a tool of
research for data collection. Too contain 24 items and each statement was
different from other and there was no repetition of the statement. Selected
population was the student from university level in District Jhang. Sample of
the study was 150 students at university level. To the study of the relationship
between communication style and academic success at university level, the
review of the related literature enables researcher to develop questionnaire.
Data analysis was done on SPSS. Data analysis was resulted in tabular form in
chapter 4 interpretation of data was presented below each table. Findings,
conclusion recommendations on the basis of data analysis were presented in
chapter 5

50

5.2 Findings
Followings are findings of the current research
1. Table 1 showed that 67% of the students were B.S and 32% were M.A
students.
2. Table 2 showed 33% from English, mathematics and computer science.
3. Table 3 showed 50% agreed that they understand teacher’s facial
expressions generated during teaching learning process
4. Table 4 showed 39% agreed that smile on teacher’s face motivates them
to take interest in the studies
5. Table 5 showed 28% agreed that anger on teacher’s face also motivates
me to take interest in the studies.
6. Table 6 showed 36% agreed that when teacher enters in the class they
notice his/her facial expressions
7. Table 7 showed 42% strongly agreed that teacher’s facial expressions
positively affect the teaching learning process ,
8. Table 8 showed 44% strongly agreed that teacher’s eye contact makes
them attentive in the class
9. Table 9 showed 35% agreed that they were always ready for a question
from the teacher33% were undecided,
10. Table 10 showed46% agreed teacher’s regular eye contact in the
classroom provokes me to prepare my lesson beforehand.
11. Table 11 showed 44% agreed that they recognize teacher’s response
from his/her eye contact during lessons.
12. Table 12 showed 34% agreed that they recognize teacher’s appreciate
during lesson from his/her eye contact

51

13. Table 13 showed 39% agreed that body movements of the teacher help
them in understanding the lesson.
14. Table 14 showed 40% agreed that the teacher uses his/her hands to give
us additional meaning of the topic to make understanding
15. Table 15 showed34% undecided that they feel unmotivated when their
teacher sits in the chair during teaching process
16. Table 16 showed 43% agreed that due to the body movements of the
teacher, the classroom environment becomes conducive to learning
17. Table 17 showed 44% agreed that teacher’s body movements help them
to understand and take more interest in stories narrated by teacher
18. Table 18 showed 43% agreed that very high pitch of teacher’s voice
creates problems in understanding the lesson.
19. Table 19 showed 40% strongly agree that very low pitch and tone of
teacher’s voice create difficulty in understanding the lesson,
20. Table 20 showed 46% agreed that soft pitch of teacher’s voice attracts
their attention toward teaching learning process
21. Table 21 showed35% agreed that Rise and fall in teacher’s voice provide
a better understanding of the lessons related to poems
22. Table 22 showed 40% agreed that they find difficult to understand the
teaching when teacher speaks very fast and quick
23. Table 23 showed 41% agreed that personal distance between teacher and
student makes the classroom environment more conducive to and
comfortable for learning
24. Table 24 showed 40% agreed that teachers normally keep a fair distance
with the students

52

25. Table 25 showed 34% agreed that they feel at ease in learning the lesson
when their teacher keeps proper distance from them in the classroom
26. Table 26 showed 35% agreed that they feel uncomfortable and face
difficulty in understanding the teaching when a teacher does not keep
proper distance from them in the classroom.
27. Table 27 showed that Pearson correlation was applied to discover any
relationship between facial expression and academic outcome. The result
showed that r= .179* which indicated significant of correlation between
facial expression and academic outcome
28. Table 28 showed that Pearson correlation was applied to discover any
relationship between eye contact and academic outcome. The result
showed that r= .299* which indicated significant of correlation between
eye contact and academic outcome.
29. Table 29showed that Pearson correlation was applied to discover any
relationship between body movement and academic outcome. The result
showed that r= .184*which indicated significant correlation between
body movement and academic outcome.
30. Table 30 showed that Pearson correlation was applied to discover any
relationship between pitch of voice and academic outcome. The result
showed that r= .236** which indicated significant correlation between
pitch of voice and academic outcome.
31. Table 31 showed that Pearson correlation was applied to discover any
relationship between spatial distance and academic outcome. The result
showed that r= .080 which indicated no significant correlation between
spatial distance and academic outcome.

53

32. Table 32 showed that Pearson correlation was applied to discover any
relationship between non-verbal communication and academic outcome.
The result showed that r= .311** which indicated moderate level of
correlation between non-verbal communication and academic outcome.
5.3 Conclusion
Majority of the respondents strongly agreed that they understand
teacher’s facial expressions generated during teaching learning process .They
agreed that smile on teacher’s face motivates them to take interest in the
studies. Anger on teacher’s face also motivates them to take interest in the
studies. When teacher enters in the class they notice his / her facial
expressions .Majority strongly agreed that teacher’s facial expressions
positively affect the teaching learning process.
Most of them strongly agreed that teacher’s eye contact makes them
attentive in the class .Most of them agreed that they were always ready for a
question from the teacher. Majority agreed that teacher’s regular eye contact in
the classroom provokes them to prepare their lesson beforehand. .They also
agreed that they recognize teacher’s response from his/her eye contact during
lessons. They recognize teacher’s appreciation during lesson from his/her eye
contact .Majority agreed that body movements of the teacher help them in
understanding the lesson. They agreed that the teacher uses his/her hands to
give us additional meaning of the topic to make understanding .They agreed
that due to the body movements of the teacher, the classroom environment
becomes conducive to learning . Teacher’s body movements help them to
understand and take more interest in stories narrated by teacher. Teacher uses

54

his/her hands to give us additional meaning of the topic to make understanding
better.
Majority strongly agreethat very low pitch and tone of teacher’s voice
create difficulty in understanding the lesson. They agreed that soft pitch of
teacher’s voice attracts attention toward teaching learning process. They
agreed that rise and fall in teacher’s voice provide a better understanding of
the lessons related to poems. Majority agreed that personal distance between
teacher and student makes the classroom environment more conducive to and
comfortable for learning. Mostly agreed that teachers normally keep a fair
distance with their students. They agreed that they feel at ease in learning the
lesson when their teacher keeps proper distance from them in the
classroom.They feel uncomfortable and face difficulty in understanding the
teaching when a teacher does not keep proper distance from them.
It was concluded that there exist significant relationship between facial
expression, eye contact, body movement, pitch of voice and academic
outcome. While, there was no significant relationship between spatial distance
and students’ academic outcome. Overall relationship of non-verbal
communication and academic outcome showed that there was significant
relationship between non-verbal communication and students’ academic
outcome. So, non-verbal communication is positively co-related with
academic outcome.
5.3 Recommendations
1. Teacher should use facial expression, eye contact, body movements
and pitch of voice during teaching learning process.

55

2. Teachers should use nonverbal expression most frequently.
3. Teachers should communicate through positive gestures with the
students most often.
4. Teachers should use non-verbal communication in such a way that
students become attentive and develops confidence level of learners.
5. Teachers should enhance non-verbal communication skills and use
activities to communicate with the students.
6. Teachers should expert in the non-verbal part of language he/she
communicate. Teacher should understand that silence has its own
meaning.
7. Teachers should always remain soft and low pitch of voice in the
classroom.
8. Teachers should have an understanding of their own non-verbal
communication, and its worth and use it for better communication with
their students in order to create a healthy classroom environment.
9. Teachers should be trained to use non-verbal communication more
frequently during teaching –learning process.
10. The research should be replicated on larger scale to make it
generalizable.
11. The researcher could not use other tools like interview and checklists
however due to time constraints the researcher used questionnaire as an
only tool. The researcher might use interviews of students to make the
research more authentic.

56

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62

APPENDIX-A
QUESTIONNAIRE FOR STUDENTS
Topic: Relationship between non-verbal communication and students’
academic Outcome.
Note:
This questionnaire is floated in order to elicit information leading to
completion of an important academic study. Your co-operation and support
would go a long way to complete this research, which would be highly
appreciated. The information would be kept confidential and use only for this
research. Please answer the questions to the best of your knowledge.
Part-I
Personal Information
Please provide the following information by having a tick ?.
1. Name (Optional)
2. Class:
a. BS
b. M.A
3. Department

63

a. English
b. Math
c. Computer Science
4. GPA ( Last semester)
Part II
Opinion towards Non-Verbal Communication
Following are the 05 sections of items that relate to
(i) Facial expression (ii) eye contact (iii) body movements (iv) spatial distance
(v) Pitch of voice.
Below is the
5-point scale. Please indicate the degree to which you agree or disagree to the
given statements, as per following abbreviation.
1) Strongly Agree (SA) 2) Agree (A)
3) Un-Decided (UD) 4) Disagree (D)
5) Strongly Disagree (SD)
Sr. No. Statements
Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Neutral

Agree

Strongly Agree

Facial Expressions
1 I mostly understand teacher’s facial
expressions generated during teaching
learning process

2 Smile on teacher’s face motivates me to
take interest in the studies.

3 Anger on teacher’s face also motivates me
to take interest in the studies.

4 When teacher enters in the class I notice
his/her facial expressions

5 Teacher’s facial expressions positively
affect the teaching learning process in
classroom.

Eye Contact
6 Teacher’s eye contact makes me attentive

64

in the class.
7 I am always ready for a question from the
teacher when he/she makes eye contact
with me in the classroom.

8 Teacher’s regular eye contact in the
classroom provokes me to prepare my
lesson before hand.

9 I recognize teacher’s response from his/her
eye contact during lessons.

10 I recognize teacher’s appreciation for me
during lesson from his/her eye contact

Body Movements
11 Body movements of the teacher during
teaching process help me in understanding
the lesson.

12 The teacher uses his/her hands to give us
additional meaning of the topic to make
understanding better.

13 I feel unmotivated when my teacher sits in
the chair during teaching process.

14 Due to the body movements of the teacher,
the Classroom environment becomes
conducive to learning.

15 Teacher’s body movements help me to
understand and take more interest in stories
narrated by teacher.

Pitch of Voice.
16 Very high pitch of teacher’s voice creates
problems in understanding the lesson.

17 Very low pitch and tone of teacher’s voice
create difficulty in understanding the
lesson.

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18 Soft pitch of teacher’s voice attracts my
attention toward teaching learning process.

19 Rise and fall in teacher’s voice provide a
better understanding of the lessons related to
poems.

20 I find difficult to understand the teaching
when teacher speaks very fast and quick.

Spatial Distance
21 Personal distance between teacher and
student makes the classroom environment
more conducive to and comfortable for
learning.

22 Teachers normally keep a fair distance with
the students.

23 I feel at ease in learning the lesson when
my teacher keeps proper distance from me
in the classroom.

24 I feel uncomfortable and face difficulty in
understanding the teaching when a teacher
does not keep proper distance from me in
the classroom.