It has been acknowledged that those who study and make the use of a language are keen on how they can get things done with language, how they can influence implications to develop and be comprehended through selections of words and linguistic properties. Bloor and Bloor assert that “when individuals make the use of language, their language acts create – develop meaning” (2004, p. 2). Kroger and Wood (2000, p. 4) believe that language is taken to be not just a device for description and a medium of association yet as a social practice, a method for getting things done. Gee (2005, p. 10) indeed, even claims that “language has a supernatural property: when we discourse or write, we outline what we need to state to fit the circumstance in which we are imparting. In any case, in the meantime, how we discourse or write makes that very circumstance.” In other words, language shapes and fortifies behaviours and believes, then, is a medium for prompting characters, exercises, qualities, and philosophies.
The investigation of language is important to the point that, as Fairclough (1989, p. 2) states, “making the use of language is the most basic type of social behaviour” and we rely upon language in our open and private connection, deciding our associations with other people and the social establishments we occupy. For Halliday (1985, xiv), “a language is described as an arrangement of implications, joined by frames through which the implications can be acknowledged and answer the inquiry, “how are these implications communicated?” This puts the types of a language in an alternate point of view: as necessary chore, rather than as an end in themselves.” It is from this point of view of language that systemic functional linguistics was produced by Halliday and his partners during the 1960s.
Fairclough claims that language “is a material type of belief system, and language is contributed by philosophy” (2001, p. 73). Social language or discourse isn’t just illustrative however mediates in social change since “discourse adds to the creation and diversion of the relations, subjects… and questions which populate the social world” (p. 73). In other words, discourses are material impacts of ideology which additionally strongly affect forming our feeling of the real world. Making a similar point, Fowler makes the connection amongst discourse and ideology significantly clearer when he characterizes discourse as “socially and institutionally starting belief system, encoded in language” (1986, p. 42). Discourse is an approach to form and show belief systems, where “philosophy” can be characterized as the ordinary underestimated aggregate arrangement of presumptions and esteem frameworks that social gatherings share (Simpson, 1993).
In addition, ideologies are the fundamental and essential social ideas that mirror the points, significances and estimations of the social gathering (Wodak, 2001). Fairclough (2003) additionally focuses on that discourse is an intense vehicle in the development of social reality, a vehicle that shapes purposes of perspectives through predominant ideologies and builds the substances of living and being. In this sense, discourse is persuasively identified with the socio-cultural and institutional settings. In the expressions of Fowler, “language gives names of classifications, thus sets limits and connections and discourse enables these names to be discourse and composed every now and again, so adding to the obvious reality and money of classifications” (1986, p. 94). Therefore, language and language ponder draw in a great deal of scholastic researchers from various orders to all the more likely comprehend contemporary society.
In view of this thought, in this paper, I will analyze the capacity of language as great social practice in the short story “The Happy Prince” distributed in 1988 by Oscar Wilde in the light of Halliday’s theoretical system on transitivity. The point is to clear up the principle character’s identity.
2. Literature Review
Transitivity analysis has been generally used to comprehend the language of speakers and journalists. It analyses the structure of sentences which are carried out by processes, the participants associated with these processes, and the conditions in which processes and participants are included. Utilizing transitivity analysis, researchers have endeavoured to uncover that language structures can deliver certain implications and philosophy which are not constantly clear for users. In other words, the errand of practical analysis, especially transitivity analysis, is to find the connection amongst meaning and wordings that records for the association of linguistic feature in a writing. Therefore, the idea of transitivity has been utilized by various linguists to reveal more insight into the utilization of language in a scholarly content.
As a pioneer and researcher in transitivity analysis, Halliday’s investigation of William Golding’s The Inheritors is a persuasive illustration. Carter and Stockwell portray it as “one of the weighty analysis in stylistics” (1971, p. 19). In this analysis, Halliday brings up how understanding language structure, particularly transitivity, can help explain the significance in a scholarly content. As indicated by Halliday’s theory, examples of transitivity, including processes, participants, and the circumstances, happen in the statements and sentences of a piece of writing. He states that “transitivity is the set of alternatives whereby the speaker encodes his experience and transitivity is extremely the foundation of the semantic association of experience” (p. 81).
Following the strategy for transitivity analysis created by Halliday, Yaghoobi (2009) makes a foundational analysis of news structures in two chose printed media, in particular Newsweek and the Kayhan International. By distinguishing processes and the part of participants associated with those processes, Yaghoobi’s examination demonstrates that the portrayal of a similar news performers, Hizbullah and Israeli powers, by two unique and ideologically contradicted printed media, were inverse to each other.
These transitivity examinations are only a couple among many, yet they are basic cases of how language designs, especially transitivity, can pass on the importance and belief system of an abstract content. They additionally include further measurements that have demonstrated helpful in expressive analysis. The functional sentence structure analysis of English helps readers comprehend human’s associations in social settings and can be used to reveal ideological implications inside them. In the following part, the emphasis will be on clarifying the theory of transitivity.
A research base on the transitivity analysis was conducted by Asad Mehmood, Roshan Amber, Sobia Ameer and Rabia Faiz (2014). They have a primary research finding, that is inspect the capacity of language as helpful instrument in the short story “The Nightingale and the Rose” by Oscar Wilde in the light of Halliday’s theoretical structure on transitivity. The point is to introduce two perspectives of adoration by means of two noteworthy characters. They utilize a content analysis method. They presume that The transitivity analysis of Wilde’s short story The Nightingale and The Rose show how the activities are performed using material processes. We get a clearer thought from the verbal processes that portray the activities and in addition uncovering the circumstance and conditions. Furthermore this effect is strengthened by the social processes. The physical activities are featured through these processes with give an external perspective of the world depicted in the story.
Nining Suhaeni (2016) conducted a research. She has two research questions, they are: a). What sorts of transitivity components are created in the spellbinding writings? b). How do such transitivity decisions order the ideational metafunction of writings?. She takes after a research strategy Bumela (2013:49). The means of analysis in investigation of transitivity include: (1) including down the quantity of sentences; (2) including down the quantity of statements; (3) producing proviso distinguishing proof by utilizing transitivity analysis; (4) producing the degrees of recurrence for every transitivity component; and (5) portraying the connectedness of the whole statements with the end goal of; and (6) producing a sound content elucidation to related in educating and getting the hang of utilizing the enlightening writings. She reasons that the kinds of transitivity components are delivered in seven of enlightening writings that writer used to depict individuals and place proper for various circumstances and settings. Albeit some of writings are worried about a comparative subject is portraying individuals or place, they contrast regarding their open points and essential to the readers.
Wahyu Dwi S (2010) led research to discover ideational which means in childrens melodies. He takes childrens tunes Barney „Dancing furthermore, Singing? arrangement as the information. Other than the ideational implications, she too concerns the thematic improvement in the writings. The aftereffect of this research demonstrates that there are 115 provisions. The ideational significance found in the arrangement are fellowship, want, deference. The theme improvements utilized by the musician are emphasis and crisscross. There is a contrast between this research and this past examination. This past investigation is intented to locate the ideational significance and the theme improvement design. In any case, this research has the reason to locate the specific attributes of the mission statement with the goal that the reason for it very well may be figured it out.
CITATION Léo152 l 2057 (Koussouhon, 2015) conducted a research which has shed the fundamental functional sentence structure projector’s light on how Helon Habila encodes journalistic encounter through implications to make, embrace and deal with a sexual orientation adjusted and womanist viewpoint in the novel Oil on Water. The lexico-syntactic analysis draws on the sentence structure of experiential implications to investigate the intensity of syntax (the powerhouse of dialect) at work to implant implications. Thereafter, after a short record of Womanism, a diagram of the standards controlling the above-led ideational metafunction analysis has set the phase for the handy analysis of the two concentrates under investigation. The elucidation and talk of the SFL discoveries have really come to second, with extra accentuation and a honing of center, the discoveries of sound judgment. At last, the utilization of the transitivity model to the analysis of this anecdotal content has shown that ideational importance is a valuable instrument for unwinding how a given content builds its reality, characters and activities as far as who is doing what to whom, where, when, why and with what (Halliday and Matthiessen, 2004; Eggins, 2004). Surely, Habila has picked also, connected the ideational metafunction (through experiential importance) of dialect to build and pass on the person’s involvement of the world, including the inward universe of his own awareness. With respect to Helon Habila and his novel Oil On Water, the semantic portrayal and discourse of its striking highlights – material, mental, behaviour, existential, verbal and relational processes, and the mix of extradiegetic account have filled in as a scenery for this article to think of the mind that the belief system supporting this work is arranged towards reestablishing and advocating the harmony amongst people in African culture. Besides, one can’t disregard the reality that ideational, relational and literary implications are personally between twined, therefore, the analysis of ideational which means may well be joined with contemplations about the two other sorts of importance and talk semantics while completing the phonetic complex analysis of a given content. It takes after from this to estimate (at talk semantic level) that the dominant and abundant utilization of the unmistakable article – deictic “the”- (82) and recoverable reference (Fontaine, 2013) through the pronouns “she, and her” (92) versus “he, him, his” (55) have all added to encode the womanist point of view in the anecdotal content. The thought propounded in this novel is basically highlighting social change through the trading of implications. So we can contend that the belief system managing Oil On Water is arranged towards building a redoubtable social appropriateness in a sexual orientation adjusted condition that will give roads for high-soaring womanist development. As just such a development can guarantee the re-assessment and redefinition of African ladies’ identity and personality all through the delineation of their doled out parts. By concentrating on ideational metafunction for the redefinition and re-introduction of African ladies’ identity, capacity and personality, this article has put the Nigerian new thousand years essayist in a decent position to recreate the African lady’s over a wide span of time in appropriate points of view to extend the eventual fate of her picture. In this manner, the creator moves to maintaining and propelling the abstract introduction equipped by the anecdotal development of redefinition, reshaping, reclamation, and re-introduction of African ladies’ identity, capacity and personality. In this point of view, Helon Habila’s novel has come as a phenomenal manly help to Ngozi Chuma-Udeh’s pushing position obviously communicated in her novel Echoes of a New Dawn (2007).
(Zahoor ; Janjua, 2016) state that Transitivity analysis is the most broadly utilized system under Halliday’s SFL. It has demonstrated to have a differing degree in content and talk analysis. Transitivity analysis can give an extensive phonetic confirmation to the perusers in regards to “who/what does what to whom/what?” in this way, to touch base at a superior comprehension of the characters in a scholarly content.
According to (Zahoor & Janjua, 2016)The principle character in the tune “I am Malala” is a mysterious young lady whose voice echoes Malala’s voice along these lines her character has been examined as an encapsulation of Malala. Examining the “processes” and the “participants” related with these processes, transitivity analysis of the melody uncovered that Malala is much the same as all the young ladies of her age – feeble, shy and uncouth. She isn’t sufficiently solid to change the world via completing any solid material activity all alone. The main power they can have is “the intensity of their discourse” (3a). In any case, their discourse too will be heard on the off chance that they talk in assembly, to speak alone will expect them to mask their character (7d) as “Malala” did by utilizing a nom de plume Makai in her questionable blog composing. Being “broken inside” Malala needs support and quality from others. She is just a voice, a dream, a fantasy, a desire and a motivation for others to go to bat for their rights. To make up for their young age and ladylike delicacy, she accepts also, advocates that all young ladies like her should be “more brilliant” (24), “shrewd” (29) and vocal. Malala’s otherworldly and mental patience is a positive character characteristic featured in the melody that influenced her to withstand the abuse she needs to confront. It is fundamentally this versatility on her part, being excessively for her age and sexual orientation that she has been depicted as a symbol for young ladies all around.
In the present study the researcher has also used the framework of transitivity analysis presented by Halliday to elaborate the main character in a literary discourse. The study however is typical in the sense that it aims to illuminate the description of the major character in a short story titled “The Happy Prince”. The Happy Prince and Other Tales also sometimes called The Happy Prince and Other Stories is an accumulation of stories for kids by Oscar Wilde initially distributed in May 1888. It is most celebrated for The Happy Prince, the short story of a metal statue who gets to know a transitory swallow bird. Together, they convey bliss to others, in life and in addition in death. The story passes on a admiration for generosity, sympathy, love and majesty
Theory on TransitivityHalliday described the systemic functional linguistics approach to discourse analysis which is based on the model of “language as a social semiotic”. Language has a functional role and its use depends on needs to be accomplished. According to the Halliday’s theory, language describes three basic types of meanings: ideational, interpersonal, and textual meanings (1985). The ideational meaning (the clause as representation) describes the content meanings of the language and it includes our real world experience as well as our inner world experience. Language is used often to talk about something or someone’s action. Because of that the ideational meaning can also be called as experiential meaning which can be derived from the clause as representation.
The social relations are created and maintained with the help of the interpersonal meanings of language. This aspect of language enables the individual to interrelate with other people. For this purpose the individual uses the expression of his own individuality. The interpersonal meaning of language describes the role of language user in his/her interrelations with the society and his/her attitude towards the others people. In language, a clause acts as an exchange and from this exchange comes the interpersonal meaning. We use language in order to make actions or demand something and generally the result comes in verbal or written form.
In the textual meaning of language associations between features of the text and elements in the situational context are created. This aspect of language discusses the way of text organization. In other words, the clause as message is used to obtain the textual meaning. The clause obtains its meaning or massage from its thematic construction. The message has two parts: theme and rheme. The theme of clause has been defined by Halliday and Matthiesen in the following words: “starting point of the message: it is what the clause is going to be about” (1976, p. 64). It can be said that the theme is used to elaborate the clause in its context. The second part of the message is rheme. It makes extension and elaboration of the theme within the message. In this way the combination of theme and rheme elaborates the text orientation and its facts.
According to Halliday, these three kinds of meaning are necessary for performing the speech functions in the society.
Creating the ideational meaning can be made through major system called the system of transitivity which involves grammatical choice. In transitivity system, the process types are discussed. For the following research paper the system of transitivity has been chosen and all the grammatical aspects of the text have been analysed to produce fruitful results from the text. Transitivity has been describes by Halliday in his book An Introduction to Functional Grammar, in the following words:
It is a basic aspect of language that it makes possible for the human beings to create a mental picture of reality, to make a true picture of their outer and inner world experience. …Our most powerful concept of reality is that it consists of “goings-on”: of doing, happening, feeling, being. These goings-on are arranged in the semantic system of language, and described through the clausal grammar. This system is called the TRANSITIVITY SYSTEM. Transitivity identifies the various kinds of processes that are processed in the language and the constructions by which they are explained. (1985, p. 101)
Halliday established and developed the theoretical framework of transitivity. In transitivity we study how the meanings are produced and represented through the clauses. Different incidents and events and various types of processes are represented by the clauses and transitivity patterns in the clause. The main aim of transitivity system is to make it clear how the action is done and controlled by whom and on whom/what. Halliday’s crucial and powerful semantic concept is transitivity. Ideational function of language is performed through it, therefore it is used as an important and powerful tool in the representational analysis of any literary text. In other words I can claim that different structures of transitivity will be required to produce various kinds of social, values, actions and structures.
Kress (1976) describes transitivity as the representation of meaning in language processes, and Simpson (1993) claims that the system of transitivity is used to elaborate the fact how a clause creates and represents meaning.
In other words, transitivity is used to show the fact how speakers/writers use language to encode their mental state and the representation of the world and how they express their experience of the world which is being occurred around them.
Halliday states that transitivity is measurable and this fact will be used to examine the structure of clause whose base is the main verb of the sentence. According to Halliday’s theory, transitivity contains different processes which are differentiated on the fact that whether actions, speech, states of mind or states of being are expressed through them. According to this theory the following kinds of process are identified:
Material processes of transitivity include the processes of doing, generally physiological and material actions. Halliday entitles the clauses which contain these processes, action clauses in which it is made clear that someone or something does some material action or some entity performs some action to some other thing or entity. These processes can be investigated by asking what did x do? Material processes include usually two crucial participants: Actor and Goal. The first one is the doer of some action and the second one is the thing are person which gets affected by the action or process.
Mental processes include mental reactions such as perception, cognition, desire and affection. These processes can also be called the sensing processes. These processes can be investigated by asking the question what do we think/feel/know about x? Mental processes basically have two participants: the Senser and the Phenomenon. The senser is always a conscious being who can feel, think or see. Phenomenon is the thing or entity which is felt or perceived by the senser.
Relational processes are used to construct the relationships of being and having between two participants. Relational processes are classified into two different kinds; identifying and the attributive relational process. The relational process which is used to identify and define the entity is called identifying relational process. It includes two participants; one is the Token is the participant which is identified by the value and value is used to describe the Token. And the second type of the relational process is used to describe the entities. The participants which are related to it include the Carrier and the Attribute. It can be said that “the x (recognized by the Carrier) is a element of the group y (identified by the Attribute)”.
There are also three other additional process kinds that include the trait features of each of the three main processes. Behavioural processes exist between the Material and Mental processes that illustrate the external expression of inside working and produce physical and mental behaviours such as weep, laugh, smile, dream… Behavioural processes typically include one participant who is usually a conscious being and is labelled with the name of the Behaver. Between Mental and Relational processes lie Verbal processes, which are the representation of the act of saying and its synonyms (call, ask, tell etc). Verbal processes include usually three participants: the Sayer is a conscious being and is someone who controls the verbal process (speaks or utters something); the Receiver is the person who listens or for whom the verbal process is performed; and the Verbiage is the nominal declaration of the verbal process. And between Relational and Material processes exist the Existential processes that express state of being, existing, and happening. Existential processes usually include the verb be or its synonyms such as exist, arise, occur. Existential process includes only one participant which is called existent and it follows the “there is/are” series.
Table 1. Examples of different process types from “The Happy Prince”
Process Type Examples(Participants are underlined; Process are in bold; Circumstances are in Italics)
Material He put his head under his wing.
Behavioural The prince was weeping.
Mental The Swallow thought.
Verbal ‘Who are you?’ asked the Swallow.
Relational ‘I am the Happy Prince.’
Existential There was a high wall round the garden.
Halliday and Matthiessen (1976) give no priority to any one process kind over the other kind of process so they represent the relationship among transitivity processes in a way that allows us to interpret and create our ideational meanings of the world and helps us to understand what is happening around us. Transitivity processes also prove to be useful in discovering and revealing the participants included; how the speaker/writer establishes himself in relationship with the others, and it also reveals the fact that whether they are active or passive in the communication creating process.
After a brief introduction and theoretical background of the transitivity and its processes from Halliday’s systemic functional grammar, I will advance to analyse and examine the text. My main focus is on examining these linguistic features of the text which are used to describe the characters their status in the text and different themes and meanings of the text created by the writer.
Significance of the study.
The study will be important in emphasizing literature as a critical way through which language is subjugated to construct actions and craft characters. It is apt to emphasize the range of transitivity analysis in establishing a significant knowledge of the character sketch in literary passage, specially a short story about a statue of a prince. The study will also be important for the teachers and learners in teaching and learning literature. Both the teachers and students can find this research useful for understanding various literary writings which usually contain the implicit meanings.
How transitivity analysis helps in interpreting the character construction in the short story “The Happy Prince”?
In this study the portrayal of the central character has been created through a close textual analysis of the selected text which is the popular short story “The Happy Prince” produced by a famous writer Oscar Wilde. Transitivity analysis was used as the tool in the study which makes up the expreriantial metafunction under M.A.K Halliday’s Systemic Functional Grammar (SFG). In the first step of the analysis, the researcher divided the text of the short story into clauses; because the basic unit of analysis in SFG is a clause. In the second step the clauses were numbered in the order they were in the story. In the next step, each clause wass devided into “Participants”, “Processes” and circumstances. Labels have been conferred to the different types of processes. Data has been described and discussed qualitatively.
Introduction to the Writer
Born on October 16, 1854 in Dublin, creator, writer and artist Oscar Wilde was a well known scholarly figure in late Victorian England, known for his splendid mind, flashy style and scandalous detainment for homosexuality. Subsequent to moving on from Oxford University, he addressed as a writer, craftsmanship commentator and a main defender of the standards of aestheticism. In 1891, he distributed The Picture of Dorian Gray, his solitary novel which was panned as indecent by Victorian pundits, however is currently viewed as one of his most striking works. As a screenwriter, a significant number of Wilde’s plays were generally welcomed including his ironical comedies Lady Windermere’s Fan (1892), A Woman of No Importance (1893), An Ideal Husband (1895) and The Importance of Being Earnest (1895), his most well known play. Flighty in his written work and life, Wilde’s undertaking with a young fellow prompted his capture on charges of “net profanity” in 1895. He was detained for a long time and passed on in destitution three years after his discharge at 46 years old.
Starting in 1888, while he was all the while filling in as proofreader of Lady’s World, Wilde entered a seven-year time of irate innovativeness, amid which he delivered almost the greater part of his extraordinary abstract works. In 1888, seven years after he composed Poems, Wilde distributed The Happy Prince and Other Tales, an accumulation of youngsters’ accounts. In 1891, he distributed Intentions, an article accumulation contending the precepts of aestheticism, and that same year, he distributed his sole novel, The Picture of Dorian Gray. The novel is a wake up call about a wonderful young fellow, Dorian Gray, who wishes (and gets his desire) that his picture ages while he stays energetic and carries on with an existence of wrongdoing and joy.
In spite of the fact that the novel is presently loved as an incredible and great work, at the time pundits were insulted by the book’s evident absence of ethical quality. Wilde passionately guarded himself in an introduction to the novel, considered one of the immense demonstrations of aestheticism, in which he stated, “a moral sensitivity in a craftsman is an unforgivable idiosyncrasy of style” and “bad habit and excellence are to the craftsman materials for a workmanship.”
A Brief Introduction to The Happy Prince
The Happy Prince is a short story written by Oscar Wilde, which was published in 1888. This story is about a prince who had lived a happy and luxury life. His palace was very large and was at an isolated place. When he died, he was changed into a statue which was fixed at the top of a hill in a town. He was here to see the sufferings, troubles, sorrows and heartbreaks of the people of the town. A little bird, swallow sought shelter in the feet of the statue when he was on his way to Egypt with his friends. He became the messenger of the statue of the prince and helped the suffering people of the town. On the request of the prince, he brings the people the jewels from his waist and his eyes and the gold strips which decorated his body. The swallow began to love the statue and decided to live with him forever because the prince was blind now. Heavy rain started and was followed by snow. It became cold and the swallow caught cold and died in the feet of statue. The statue now being blind and had been deprived of its gold and jewels lost its lustre and brightness. His heart was broken and his statue along with the dead body of swallow was thrown on the heap of dust. God pleased on his kindness and they entered into the paradise. The swallow would fly in the bliss garden and the statue of prince would be placed on the hill top in the Heaven.